• Revival or rebirth of art
• Rediscovery of classical ideas
• In architecture – symmetry , proportion, order, measurements , etc.
• In the end of 14th century – 1600, Italian renaissance was best known
Literature works – Petrarch, Eastiglione, machiavelli
Artist – Michelangelo, Leonardo – Da – Vinci
Architecture – Dumo in Florence, St.Peters basilica in Rome
• Axial planning
• Extension of its boundaries
• Outward focused, expansive, more worldly garden
• Gardens dignified man
• Climate and topography were indifferent.
• North – flat plains of Lombardy , chilled by the Alps.
• Centre – river valleys and plains which were mild in winter and hot in
• South – tropical climate
• Landscape developed in three areas ; Tuscan , Rome, and across the
north from Genoa to Venice.
• Composed of small hills and valleys enriched with farm buildings and
textured irregular patterns of olive and vine plantations punctured
with hardwood trees such as Ilex and Cypress – a domestic scene of
green and grey foliage penetrated by the yellow Arno.
Wide flat plain of poor farm and marsh lands crossed by the remains of
ancient and adequate roads.
Expansive, outwardly directed more worldly garden
A reflection of changing cosmological belief
• Gardens were geometrical
• Main axis which ends with the main building was balanced through
one or more cross axes.
• Artificial terraces were created to emphasize more
• Visitors were given a theatre seat
• Proportions were maintained
• Form was crucial
• Interior of the house thrust itself
• Sites were usually on hillsides
because of views and climate
• Descending terraces were carved
out of the garden and harmonious
• Box parterre
• Clipped hedges
• Dark Cypress and grooves of Ilex
• Sculpture, stairways, pergolas, arbor
• Huge grand giant fountains
• Terraces were designed with
supporting walls, staircases,
balustrades and vases
• Staircases were combined with pools
and fountains linked the terraces
• Amphitheatre and water facilities
played a major role in renaissance
• Cypress trees
• Pal trees
• Bosco – comprised of thick groove of evergreen trees used for
relaxing or walking beneath ( main purpose for shades)
• Parterre : A low clipped box with coloured flowers designed in a
• Sculpture : classical, water, sitting relationships with surroundings
Phase : I - 1450 to 1503 (philosophical character) , gardens a place of
intimate context with nature (Giardino secret garden or segreto )
Phase : II – 1503 to 1573 (architect’s garden), gardens for intellectual
discussions and pleasure – unity, harmony , use of water.
Phase : III – 1573 to 1775 – The realization of Baroque ideas , forms of
nature had always been appreciated and now the artist aimed to suggest
these forms in conventional design.
• A secret garden, a secluded and enclosed garden room, a place for
intimate contact with nature with in the larger renaissance garden.
VILLA MEDICI @ FEISOLE :
• It was designed by Michelozzo di Bartlommeo (1458 – 1461)
(Cosimo for his son Giovanni)
• Aesthetically pleasing and ideological values are represented in
PLANNING AND LANDSCAPE :
• Scenic potential of the site was enhanced , from the garden a
beautiful panoramic view of the Arno valley is the city of
Florence was emphasized.
• A gate leads from this garden to a
terrace , beyond which a long
Pergola overlooks the lower terrace
garden with its clipped , cone –
shaped Magnolia trees surrounded
by lawn is hedges of box.
• The upper terrace are decorated with
Lemon trees in Terra – cota pots.
• The grade change between the pergola is lower terrace garden is
connected with ornamental stairs which is a part of Italian
• Upper terrace had the panoramic view of the entire city.
• Garden was treated as museum
• Statues were used extensively in the garden
• White marbles were used
• Role of water played its part
• Fountains and water elements like cascades were created
Since the site is located in hill side the natural stream was
• In 1516, Pope Clement VII commissioned Raphael to design Villa
Madama on Monto Mario on the banks of Tiber
• This Villa was designed for supper parties attended by popes and
cardinals , philosophical nobleman , etc
• Entrance was placed on the southern side which passes to an entry
court beyond through the entry , large central court has been placed.
• Axial orientation
•Water in these gardens was a means of providing mesmerizing,
reflectivity, movement and excitement.
•People were able to find the way and water played a great role in
finding the directions.
VILLA D’ ESTE :
• It was built for Ippolito d’ este II @ Trivoli
• Garden is based on rigid and complex principle of axial planning
• Garden is rigid and principle of axial planning is incorporated
• Original entry was from a gate in the outer wall set in the hill side
• Garden directly enter into the first terrace where there is beautiful
panorama of the surrounding hill became a great viewing point from
• Italian word “Belvedese – beautiful view “. During Renaissance ,
Belvedese became an important means of enjoying the view of
gardens and the surrounding landscape.
• The main axis can be viewed from a small terrace
• Box wood hedges (bosco was created)
• The avenue of 100 fountains makes up the second major cross axis
oriented towards the view.
• The avenue consist of 300 fountains which are fed by 3 overlaying
canals symbolizing the 3 tributaries of the river - The Albuneo, The
Anlene and The Erculano
• At the north east of the 100 fountain, the fountain of Tivoli , (oval
fountain) is located
• The oval fountain with a water theatre creates an environment for
theatrical events and parties
• The third transverse axis, the avenue of S.Pietro which consists of
series of fish ponds, which were originally fed from the water that
passed through water organ.
• The axis is terminated on one side by the massive water theatre,
the fountain of Neptune is the fountain of organ (which plays
music through its pipes, using water pressure) and the other side
by a terrace overlooking the country side.
• The avenue of 100 fountains and the avenue of S.Pietro is
connected by the fountain of dragons located on the central axis
with two curved staircases surrounding it
• Continuing the central axis, comes the lowest area of the garden –
the rotunda of the Cypress, surrounded by sectioned water gardens
called the fountain of the ESTE eagle.
• By the second half of 16th century axial gardens had developed
into a form of mannerist art
• Materials are used in a way contrary to their nature
• Stone was twisted into extravagant, sinuous shapes
• Art became popular – the public was not often excluded from the
earlier gardens, but in the later gardens, hospitality itself became a
COLLODI, VILLA GOARZONI (1652)
• Shape of the site was different
• The way from the house leads,
through the dark over hanging
• The great vista lies in front – the
water splashing down the steps
glimpse of parterre, the pools
with their gigantic sprays, the
dancing hedges and ends up with
the view of the rich open country
• Little garden theatre is found to
one side of the upper terrace.
• AVENUE : a tree lined approach to a mansion or other important structure
that is sufficiently wide to accommodate changes.
• BAROQUE : a term signifying art and architecture that is robust and grandly
ornamental and full of movement and the play of light and shade.
• BELVEDERE : a structure usually elevated, designed for observing the
• BOSCHETTO : a small compartment of trees, usually found near the herm
ouses and often planted according to a regular plan
• BOSCO : Italian term for a wooden grove within a garden
• GIARDINO SEGRETO : Italian term for a secret garden, a secluded and
enclosed garden room
• HEDGE : compactly planned shrubs or low growing trees with a dense
foliage that is clipped as to form a solid wall of greenery that arts as a
boundary or screen.
• LOGGIA : an open sided covered arcade or gallery, usually attached to a
building at ground and upper storey level
• PARTERRE : a French term for a ground plane composed of pattern garden