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University of Pannonia
Multilingualism Doctoral School
Candidate: Askarbek Mambetaliev
Supervisor: Prof. István Csernicskó
Chair: Prof. Judit Navracsics
Opponents: Dr. Sándor Czeglédi, Dr. Erzsébet Bárány
Committee members: Dr. Viktòria Ferenc, Dr. Szilvia Bátyi, Dr. Andrea Parapatics
Secretary: Dr. Szilárd Szentgyörgyi
PhD defense, May 8, 2023
Title: Language Policies, Attitudes, and Beliefs in Kyrgyzstan
1
Dissertation Structure
Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 4. Results
Chapter 2. Literature Chapter 5. Discussion
Chapter 3. Methodology Chapter 6. Conclusion
2
Significance and Rationale
The rationale for the study also stems from the following issues:
1. No study on LP among university students in Kyrgyzstan
2. The study of LP is understudied in the region (Stavans & Jessner-Schmid, 2022)
3. The field needs knowledge from local researchers (Ehlert, 2008)
Significance:
1. The LP is a cause or pretext for conflicts or wars in many countries.
2. Discussing the pitfalls of LP is better than letting a violence to occur.
3
Aims and Questions
Research Aims:
1. The LP models and methods implemented in Kyrgyzstan.
2. The impact of the LP on the post-Soviet generation.
3. The interaction of the LP’s demographic and sociopsychological components.
Research Questions:
RQ1. What LP has been implemented in Kyrgyzstan?
RQ2. How has the LP affected the post-Soviet undergraduate students?
RQ3. What language attitudes and beliefs currently prevail among the students?
4
Top-Down
Overt
Covert
Language Behavior
Attitudes & Beliefs
Linguistic Identity
Bottom-Up
Demographic
Factors
Conceptual Framework
Methodology
Written,
De
Jure
Non-written,
De
Facto
5
Recorded interviews.
Collection of relevant
texts and artifacts.
Results of
statistical
analyses.
Discussion,
Conclusion
Data Analysis
Data Collection
Pilot Phase
Quantitative
Qualitative
Instrument
Products Products Products
Dataset
of cross-sectional
survey
(N = 758)
Ideas,
opinions
Dataset
of online
survey
(N = 82)
Coded
transcript,
themes.
Research Design
Methodology
Data Cleaning
Updated
Data
Products
6
Top-Down Component: Analysis of Overt and Covert Aspects
Overt
Official,
Written
Covert
Actions,
Outcomes
Languages in newspapers
Laws and Regulations of the USSR
1926-1990
Languages on websites Interviews
Languages on banknotes Languages of theses
Laws and Regulations of Kyrgyzstan
1929-2021
7
Bottom-Up Component: IDs, Practices, Attitudes and Beliefs
Demographic factors (DF), LinID and code-switching Crosstab, Pearson's 2
Language discrimination (LD) Mean (SD)
Language attitudes and beliefs (LAB) Mean (SD)
The effect of DF on LD and LAB Pearson’s 2 and 
The effect of DF on the beliefs MANOVA, PERMANOVA
DF, Language use, HEIs and LinID GLM
Association btw DF and LAB MLR
Difference btw students and others Visualization
Significance p-value, max, min
Reliability of key items in the tool Cronbach Alpha
Methodology
8
Reliability & Validity
“Triangulation enhances the internal validity" (Meijer et al., 2002).
Responses in the pilot and main studies to identical questions in the
questionnaires were closely related, confirming the reliability of the instrument.
Data collection procedures were standardized, and the same research
instrument was used across groups.
After creating the database, a basic exploratory factor analysis was performed to
eliminate unreliable variables.
The internal consistency of the tool was checked using cronbach.alpha.
Variables that reduced the Alpha from 0.7 were removed.
Methodology
9
In
Declarations
In
Practice
Discussion of Findings: The LP of the USSR
1. No mention of status planning in the
constitutions of the USSR.
2. Equality of all citizens, freedom to
use their native language in private and
public, and education and court.
1. Introduction of the Cyrillic script
in the 1930s.
2. Strengthening the Russian language
in the education domain in the 1930s
and 1950s.
RQ1:
What
LP
has
been
implemented?
10
Discussion of Findings: An illustration of LP
Free Mountains, 1924
The Red Kirgizstan, 1927
Soviet Kyrgyzstan, 1956
Kyrgyz Flag, 1993
RQ1:
What
LP
has
been
implemented?
11
Discussion of Findings: L. use in HEI and scholars
 Most top universities (16 out of 20) did not have information in the Kyrgyz
language on the landing page to the same extent as in Russian.
 The number of dissertations in Russian was 5-6 times greater than the
number of dissertations in Kyrgyz.
RQ1:
What
LP
has
been
implemented?
12
Discussion of Findings: LP Models enacted in Kyrgyzstan
2010-2021 – Vague LP
1993-2010 – Overt BiP
1978-1993 – Revitalization Policy
1936-1978 – Covert LP
1929-1936 – Overt BiP
A vague distinction between the roles and
statuses of the Kyrgyz and Russian languages
U-turn to bilingualism: Elevation of the
functions of the Russian language
Attempts to maintain the status and functions
of the Kyrgyz language through legislation
Removal of any mentions of status planning
from official documents
Overt assignment of the state language status
to the Kyrgyz and Russian languages
RQ1:
What
LP
has
been
implemented?
13
LP
of
USSR
LP
in
Kyrgyzstan Summary of findings for RQ1
Overt or De jure LP Covert and De facto LP
1993-2010 – Overt BiP
1978-1993 – Revitalization Policy
1929 – 1936 – Overt BiP
2010-2021 – Vague LP
1936-1978 – Covert LP
14
~ 50 years
~ 30 years
RQ2: How the LP affected the target group?
15
Discussion of Results: Perception of LinID
2 (1, 503) = 2.8, p = 0.099 2(2, 460) = 66, p = 5e-15
2(4, 419) = 66, p = 1.4e-13
Kyrgyz Speaker
Russian Speaker Other L. Speaker
2(2, 737)=129, p = 1e-28
Sex
HEI
RegID
EthID
RQ2:
How
the
LP
affected
the
TG?
16
Discussion of Results: Students' Language Behavior
FamL PubL = Kyrgyz PubL = Russian df 2 p N
Kyrgyz L .68 .33
1 81 *** 464
Russian L .10 .90
RQ2:
How
the
LP
affected
the
TG?
17
Discussion of Results: Language Discrimination
L. based discrimination: 2(2, 503) = 42, p = 7e-10
Sex & Discrimination (among students): 2(2, 503) = 1.4, p = .48
Nationality & Discrimination (students and others: 2(6,593)=9, p =.16.
Dialect based discrimination : 2(4, 334) = 20, p = 0.0006
RQ2:
How
the
LP
affected
the
TG?
18
Factors that influence LinID (GLM Test Results)
Note. N = 355; ***p < .001; **p < .01; *p < .05; Ref. category of DV: LinID = Russian.
Category Est. (Kyrgyz) SE z p Ref. Cat.
Sex Male -.14 .39 -.35 .73 Female
FamL Kyrgyz 1.75 .46 3.83 *** Russian
PubL Kyrgyz 2.20 .37 5.93 *** Russian
Region
Rural (North) .66 .40 1.66 .09
Bishkek
Rural (South) .96 .48 2.01 *
HEI
Arabaev Univ. .34 .63 .53 .59
National
University
Medical Academy -1.72 .49 -3.5 ***
Humanitarian Univ. -1.47 .57 -2.6 **
Technical University -.55 .63 -.87 .39
RQ2:
How
the
LP
affected
the
TG?
19
Discussion of Results: Language Attitudes and Beliefs (LAB)
RQ3.
What
LAB
prevail
among
students?
LinID M (SD) n df 2 p
Kyrgyz Speaker 2.74 (.45) 367
2 6.3 .04
Russian Speaker 2.58 (.56) 136
Students’ beliefs in the importance
of the SL for children
Students’ attitudes toward
minority languages
LinID M (SD) n df 2 p
Kyrgyz Speaker 1.92 (.92) 367
2 19 .00
Russian Speaker 2.32 (.88) 81
ID En Ru Ky Cn De Tk Ar
Ky Speaker .27 .26 .21 .11 .09 .04 .02
Ru Speaker .27 .22 .14 .18 .10 .03 .05
Bishkek .29 .24 .14 .14 .10 .04 .05
North .35 .35 .31 .16 .10 .05 .02
South .27 .26 .22 .03 .09 .04 .01
Hierarchy of languages
in students’ beliefs
Pearson’s correlation test results:
LinID on LB: (503)=.57, p = .43
RegID on LB: (340) = .73, p = .27
SexID on LB: (2, 511) = .99, p = .008 20
Discussion of Results: Differences of Students from Other Groups
RQ3.
What
LAB
prevail
among
students?
Language hierarchy
En Ru Ky Cn
Students (Ky, Mus) .27 .24 .18 .14
Turkic Groups .29 .26 .17 .14
Non-Turkic Gr. .28 .25 .16 .21*
Kyrgyz (Christian) .24 .24 .21* .11
Public Policy SL and Patriotism
EP LP No Yes
Students .57 .40 .42 .46
Others .69 .28 .72 .21
LP and sociolinguistic preferences
Beliefs in the importance of passing on the State Language to children
21
Factors that influence language beliefs (MLR test results)
RQ3.
What
LAB
prevail
among
students?
DV1: English DV2: Kyrgyz p Ref. Cat.
Male Student .39 (.34) .44 (.36) * Female Student
Russian Speaker 1.7 (.37) .11 (.52) Kyrgyz Speaker
Rural Student (North) .95 (.40) 3.9 (.48)
*
Urban Student
(Bishkek)
Rural Student (South) 1.1 (.46) 3.0 (.53)
Humanitarian University 7.3 (.71) 0 *
National
University
Medical Academy 1.9 (.47) 2.4 (.48) *
Arabaev University 1.2 (.50) 1.1 (.48) *
Technical University .71 (.57) .94 (.55) *
Note. N=478; *p < .05; McFadden=.22; DV3: Russian. 22
Suggestions for Implications
Conclusion
 The MLR test results showed encouraging students to use Kyrgyz on
campus, admitting more enrollees from peripheral regions
(especially from the South) rather than from Bishkek, and improving
LP in some universities would help the government increase the
number of Kyrgyz speakers.
 A focus on language behavior on campus would help reduce
language discrimination.
 Primary efforts in promoting the SL should be directed at ethnic
Kyrgyz. Other minorities should have broad rights to preserve their
native languages while not restricting their access to learning the SL.
23
Direction for Further Research
Conclusion
 More research is needed to determine why some groups do not see the need to learn the
SL. Some reasons may include (1) poor campus-level LP; (2) the need for qualified
teachers; (4) Culture or religion being imposed in schools and textbooks under the notion
of teaching the state language.
 Studying the linguistic landscape of universities can provide additional data on the LP of
universities.
 Besides Russian soft power policies, it would be an asset to investigate any evidence of
similar Anglo-American, Arab, and Chinese efforts to influence language attitudes.
24
25
The full text of the dissertation can be downloaded:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/360778986_Attitudes_Toward_Language_Policy_Models
https://www.academia.edu/101285154/Language_Policies_Attitudes_and_Beliefs_in_Kyrgyzstan
Thanks!

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Language Policies, Attitudes, and Beliefs.pptx

  • 1. University of Pannonia Multilingualism Doctoral School Candidate: Askarbek Mambetaliev Supervisor: Prof. István Csernicskó Chair: Prof. Judit Navracsics Opponents: Dr. Sándor Czeglédi, Dr. Erzsébet Bárány Committee members: Dr. Viktòria Ferenc, Dr. Szilvia Bátyi, Dr. Andrea Parapatics Secretary: Dr. Szilárd Szentgyörgyi PhD defense, May 8, 2023 Title: Language Policies, Attitudes, and Beliefs in Kyrgyzstan 1
  • 2. Dissertation Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 4. Results Chapter 2. Literature Chapter 5. Discussion Chapter 3. Methodology Chapter 6. Conclusion 2
  • 3. Significance and Rationale The rationale for the study also stems from the following issues: 1. No study on LP among university students in Kyrgyzstan 2. The study of LP is understudied in the region (Stavans & Jessner-Schmid, 2022) 3. The field needs knowledge from local researchers (Ehlert, 2008) Significance: 1. The LP is a cause or pretext for conflicts or wars in many countries. 2. Discussing the pitfalls of LP is better than letting a violence to occur. 3
  • 4. Aims and Questions Research Aims: 1. The LP models and methods implemented in Kyrgyzstan. 2. The impact of the LP on the post-Soviet generation. 3. The interaction of the LP’s demographic and sociopsychological components. Research Questions: RQ1. What LP has been implemented in Kyrgyzstan? RQ2. How has the LP affected the post-Soviet undergraduate students? RQ3. What language attitudes and beliefs currently prevail among the students? 4
  • 5. Top-Down Overt Covert Language Behavior Attitudes & Beliefs Linguistic Identity Bottom-Up Demographic Factors Conceptual Framework Methodology Written, De Jure Non-written, De Facto 5
  • 6. Recorded interviews. Collection of relevant texts and artifacts. Results of statistical analyses. Discussion, Conclusion Data Analysis Data Collection Pilot Phase Quantitative Qualitative Instrument Products Products Products Dataset of cross-sectional survey (N = 758) Ideas, opinions Dataset of online survey (N = 82) Coded transcript, themes. Research Design Methodology Data Cleaning Updated Data Products 6
  • 7. Top-Down Component: Analysis of Overt and Covert Aspects Overt Official, Written Covert Actions, Outcomes Languages in newspapers Laws and Regulations of the USSR 1926-1990 Languages on websites Interviews Languages on banknotes Languages of theses Laws and Regulations of Kyrgyzstan 1929-2021 7
  • 8. Bottom-Up Component: IDs, Practices, Attitudes and Beliefs Demographic factors (DF), LinID and code-switching Crosstab, Pearson's 2 Language discrimination (LD) Mean (SD) Language attitudes and beliefs (LAB) Mean (SD) The effect of DF on LD and LAB Pearson’s 2 and  The effect of DF on the beliefs MANOVA, PERMANOVA DF, Language use, HEIs and LinID GLM Association btw DF and LAB MLR Difference btw students and others Visualization Significance p-value, max, min Reliability of key items in the tool Cronbach Alpha Methodology 8
  • 9. Reliability & Validity “Triangulation enhances the internal validity" (Meijer et al., 2002). Responses in the pilot and main studies to identical questions in the questionnaires were closely related, confirming the reliability of the instrument. Data collection procedures were standardized, and the same research instrument was used across groups. After creating the database, a basic exploratory factor analysis was performed to eliminate unreliable variables. The internal consistency of the tool was checked using cronbach.alpha. Variables that reduced the Alpha from 0.7 were removed. Methodology 9
  • 10. In Declarations In Practice Discussion of Findings: The LP of the USSR 1. No mention of status planning in the constitutions of the USSR. 2. Equality of all citizens, freedom to use their native language in private and public, and education and court. 1. Introduction of the Cyrillic script in the 1930s. 2. Strengthening the Russian language in the education domain in the 1930s and 1950s. RQ1: What LP has been implemented? 10
  • 11. Discussion of Findings: An illustration of LP Free Mountains, 1924 The Red Kirgizstan, 1927 Soviet Kyrgyzstan, 1956 Kyrgyz Flag, 1993 RQ1: What LP has been implemented? 11
  • 12. Discussion of Findings: L. use in HEI and scholars  Most top universities (16 out of 20) did not have information in the Kyrgyz language on the landing page to the same extent as in Russian.  The number of dissertations in Russian was 5-6 times greater than the number of dissertations in Kyrgyz. RQ1: What LP has been implemented? 12
  • 13. Discussion of Findings: LP Models enacted in Kyrgyzstan 2010-2021 – Vague LP 1993-2010 – Overt BiP 1978-1993 – Revitalization Policy 1936-1978 – Covert LP 1929-1936 – Overt BiP A vague distinction between the roles and statuses of the Kyrgyz and Russian languages U-turn to bilingualism: Elevation of the functions of the Russian language Attempts to maintain the status and functions of the Kyrgyz language through legislation Removal of any mentions of status planning from official documents Overt assignment of the state language status to the Kyrgyz and Russian languages RQ1: What LP has been implemented? 13
  • 14. LP of USSR LP in Kyrgyzstan Summary of findings for RQ1 Overt or De jure LP Covert and De facto LP 1993-2010 – Overt BiP 1978-1993 – Revitalization Policy 1929 – 1936 – Overt BiP 2010-2021 – Vague LP 1936-1978 – Covert LP 14 ~ 50 years ~ 30 years
  • 15. RQ2: How the LP affected the target group? 15
  • 16. Discussion of Results: Perception of LinID 2 (1, 503) = 2.8, p = 0.099 2(2, 460) = 66, p = 5e-15 2(4, 419) = 66, p = 1.4e-13 Kyrgyz Speaker Russian Speaker Other L. Speaker 2(2, 737)=129, p = 1e-28 Sex HEI RegID EthID RQ2: How the LP affected the TG? 16
  • 17. Discussion of Results: Students' Language Behavior FamL PubL = Kyrgyz PubL = Russian df 2 p N Kyrgyz L .68 .33 1 81 *** 464 Russian L .10 .90 RQ2: How the LP affected the TG? 17
  • 18. Discussion of Results: Language Discrimination L. based discrimination: 2(2, 503) = 42, p = 7e-10 Sex & Discrimination (among students): 2(2, 503) = 1.4, p = .48 Nationality & Discrimination (students and others: 2(6,593)=9, p =.16. Dialect based discrimination : 2(4, 334) = 20, p = 0.0006 RQ2: How the LP affected the TG? 18
  • 19. Factors that influence LinID (GLM Test Results) Note. N = 355; ***p < .001; **p < .01; *p < .05; Ref. category of DV: LinID = Russian. Category Est. (Kyrgyz) SE z p Ref. Cat. Sex Male -.14 .39 -.35 .73 Female FamL Kyrgyz 1.75 .46 3.83 *** Russian PubL Kyrgyz 2.20 .37 5.93 *** Russian Region Rural (North) .66 .40 1.66 .09 Bishkek Rural (South) .96 .48 2.01 * HEI Arabaev Univ. .34 .63 .53 .59 National University Medical Academy -1.72 .49 -3.5 *** Humanitarian Univ. -1.47 .57 -2.6 ** Technical University -.55 .63 -.87 .39 RQ2: How the LP affected the TG? 19
  • 20. Discussion of Results: Language Attitudes and Beliefs (LAB) RQ3. What LAB prevail among students? LinID M (SD) n df 2 p Kyrgyz Speaker 2.74 (.45) 367 2 6.3 .04 Russian Speaker 2.58 (.56) 136 Students’ beliefs in the importance of the SL for children Students’ attitudes toward minority languages LinID M (SD) n df 2 p Kyrgyz Speaker 1.92 (.92) 367 2 19 .00 Russian Speaker 2.32 (.88) 81 ID En Ru Ky Cn De Tk Ar Ky Speaker .27 .26 .21 .11 .09 .04 .02 Ru Speaker .27 .22 .14 .18 .10 .03 .05 Bishkek .29 .24 .14 .14 .10 .04 .05 North .35 .35 .31 .16 .10 .05 .02 South .27 .26 .22 .03 .09 .04 .01 Hierarchy of languages in students’ beliefs Pearson’s correlation test results: LinID on LB: (503)=.57, p = .43 RegID on LB: (340) = .73, p = .27 SexID on LB: (2, 511) = .99, p = .008 20
  • 21. Discussion of Results: Differences of Students from Other Groups RQ3. What LAB prevail among students? Language hierarchy En Ru Ky Cn Students (Ky, Mus) .27 .24 .18 .14 Turkic Groups .29 .26 .17 .14 Non-Turkic Gr. .28 .25 .16 .21* Kyrgyz (Christian) .24 .24 .21* .11 Public Policy SL and Patriotism EP LP No Yes Students .57 .40 .42 .46 Others .69 .28 .72 .21 LP and sociolinguistic preferences Beliefs in the importance of passing on the State Language to children 21
  • 22. Factors that influence language beliefs (MLR test results) RQ3. What LAB prevail among students? DV1: English DV2: Kyrgyz p Ref. Cat. Male Student .39 (.34) .44 (.36) * Female Student Russian Speaker 1.7 (.37) .11 (.52) Kyrgyz Speaker Rural Student (North) .95 (.40) 3.9 (.48) * Urban Student (Bishkek) Rural Student (South) 1.1 (.46) 3.0 (.53) Humanitarian University 7.3 (.71) 0 * National University Medical Academy 1.9 (.47) 2.4 (.48) * Arabaev University 1.2 (.50) 1.1 (.48) * Technical University .71 (.57) .94 (.55) * Note. N=478; *p < .05; McFadden=.22; DV3: Russian. 22
  • 23. Suggestions for Implications Conclusion  The MLR test results showed encouraging students to use Kyrgyz on campus, admitting more enrollees from peripheral regions (especially from the South) rather than from Bishkek, and improving LP in some universities would help the government increase the number of Kyrgyz speakers.  A focus on language behavior on campus would help reduce language discrimination.  Primary efforts in promoting the SL should be directed at ethnic Kyrgyz. Other minorities should have broad rights to preserve their native languages while not restricting their access to learning the SL. 23
  • 24. Direction for Further Research Conclusion  More research is needed to determine why some groups do not see the need to learn the SL. Some reasons may include (1) poor campus-level LP; (2) the need for qualified teachers; (4) Culture or religion being imposed in schools and textbooks under the notion of teaching the state language.  Studying the linguistic landscape of universities can provide additional data on the LP of universities.  Besides Russian soft power policies, it would be an asset to investigate any evidence of similar Anglo-American, Arab, and Chinese efforts to influence language attitudes. 24
  • 25. 25 The full text of the dissertation can be downloaded: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/360778986_Attitudes_Toward_Language_Policy_Models https://www.academia.edu/101285154/Language_Policies_Attitudes_and_Beliefs_in_Kyrgyzstan Thanks!