Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

infrastrucure of pakistan


Published on


Published in: Economy & Finance
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

infrastrucure of pakistan

  1. 1. Submitted To: Mam Fozia Submitted By: Mehmood ur Rehman 15-CE-19 Muhammad Owais 15-CE-63 Muhammad Umar 15-CE-47 Osama Siddiqui 15-CE-43 Ghulam Gilani 15-CE-07 University of Engineering and technology Taxila
  2. 2. Infrastructure of Pakistan
  3. 3.  Infrastructure: The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. Infrastructure includes:  ECONOMY  INDUSTRY  POWER SECTOR  TRANSPORTATION
  4. 4. The economy of Pakistan is the 25th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), and 38th largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product. Pakistan has a population of over 190 million (the world's 6th-largest), giving it a nominal GDP per capita of $1,550, which ranks 132nd in the world. ECONOMY FROM 1947-TILL NOW: Pakistan was a very poor and predominantly agricultural country when it gained independence in 1947. Pakistan's average economic growth rate in the first five decades (1947–1997) has been higher than the growth rate of the world economy during the same period. Average annual real GDP growth rates were 6.8% in the 1960s, 4.8% in the 1970s, and 6.5% in the 1980s. Average annual growth fell to 4.6% in the 1990s with significantly lower growth in the second half of that decade.
  5. 5. In spite of rapid population growth during this period, per capita incomes doubled, inflation remained low and poverty declined from 46% down to 18% by late 1980s, according to eminent Pakistani economist Dr. Ishrat Husain. This healthy economic performance was maintained through several wars and successive civilian and military governments in 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s until the decade of 1990s, now appropriately remembered as the lost decade. Year Gross Domestic Product US Dollar Exchange Inflation Index (2000=100) Per Capita Income (as % of US) 1960 20,058 4.76 Pakistani Rupees 3.37 1965 31,740 4.76 Pakistani Rupees 3.40 1970 51,355 4.76 Pakistani Rupees 3.26 This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Pakistan at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Pakistani Rupees.
  6. 6. 1975 131,330 9.91 Pakistani Rupees 2.36 1978 283,460 9.97 Pakistani Rupees 21 2.83 1985 569,114 16.28 Pakistani Rupees 30 2.07 1990 1,029,093 21.41 Pakistani Rupees 41 1.92 1995 2,268,461 30.62 Pakistani Rupees 68 2.16 2000 3,826,111 51.64 Pakistani Rupees 100 1.54 2005 6,581,103 59.86 Pakistani Rupees 126 1.71 2014 22,032,565 105.95 Pakistani Rupees 260 2016 45,680,351 104.55 Pakistani Rupees 370
  7. 7. INDUSTRY
  8. 8. INDUSTRY A brief introduction about the major/large scale industries of Pakistan is given along the following lines: 1. Textile Industry: The textile industry is the largest industry of Pakistan. At the time of partition, Pakistan received only 17 textile units in its share. Now the Textile industry in Pakistan is the largest manufacturing industry in Pakistan. Pakistan is the 8th largest exporter of textile products in Asia. This sector contributes 8.5% to the GDP. In addition, the sector employs about 45% of the total labor force in the country (and 38% of the manufacturing workers). Pakistan is the 4th largest producer of cotton with the third largest spinning capacity in Asia after China and India and contributes 5% to the global spinning capacity. At present, there are 1,221 ginning units, 442 spinning units, 124 large spinning units and 425 small units which produce textile. 2. Vegetable Ghee and Cooking Oil Industry At the time of independence oil industry was very poor. Now there are 150 vegetable ghee and cooking oil factories in Pakistan. According to data released by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS), about 721,527 tonnes of vegetable ghee was produced during the period from July-January, 2015-16 as compared to 687,759 metric tonnes produced during the same period of last year.
  9. 9. 3. Sugar Industry In 1947, there were only 2 sugar factories in Pakistan, but at present there are 77 sugar factories in the industry. During the year 2001-02 total production of sugar was 3247 thousand tonnes. 4. Fertilizer Industry There are 10 fertilizer units (6 in the public sector and 4 in the private sector) in the country, having an installed capacity of 42,98,000 N. Tonnes. Total production of fertilizers in 2001- 02 was 5012 thousand tonnes. The low production was caused, by operational difficulties, decline in working hours and power failure/load shedding. A number of concessions are provided for the growth of this industry.
  10. 10. 5. Cement Industry At present 24 cement factories are operating in the country, out of these 4 factories are in public sector and 20 are in private sector. The installed capacity of cement is 16,300 thousand tonnes out of which 9935 thousand tonnes of cement was produced in 2001-02. 6. Chemical Industry There are 12 chemical factories in the country producing, soda ash, sulphuric acid, caustic soda, chlorine gas and other chemicals. The contribution of the chemical industry towards GNP is only 3%. This industry is not fulfilling domestic requirements, so a large amount of foreign exchange is spent on the import of different chemicals every year.
  11. 11. 7. Jute Industry At the time of independence there was not a single jute factory in Pakistan. By the cooperation of PIDC, 32 factories were setup in East Pakistan and one in West Pakistan by the time of separation of East Pakistan in 1971. At present there are 12 Jute mills in the country. 8. Engineering Goods Industry The engineering goods and capital goods produced domestically are very helpful for economic development of a country. This industry was given importance in the 3rd five year plan. Now we have 4 heavy engineering industries. There are (1) Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila (2) Heavy Foundry Project, Taxila (3) Pakistan Machine Tools Factory, Landhi (4) Pakistan Steel Mills, Karachi.
  12. 12. 9. Ship Building Industry Ships are constructed at Karachi. A number of small and large ships are made by Karachi yard and Engineering works. This factory was established by PIDC. Now Pakistan is selling ships and boats abroad. In all the five year plans, this industry is given much importance. 10. Woolen and Worsted Textile Industry There are 16 woolen mills in Pakistan. These are located at Karachi, Nowshera, Lawrencepur, Quaidabad and Hamai. 11. Cigarette Industry At present 22 factories are producing cigarettes and Biri. Our country is self sufficient in the production of cigarettes. The raw tobacco used in the manufacturing of cigarettes is produced domestically. During the year 2001-02, 55,318 million cigarettes were produced in the country.
  13. 13. 12. Pakistan defence history At the time of Independence, there was hardly any industrial base in Pakistan, as all Ordnance factories were located in the areas which constitute India. Defense Production activities in Pakistan started in 1951 with the establishment of Pakistan Ordnance Factory (POF) at WAH. . Resultantly, after Pakistan Ordnance Factories, Heavy Industries Taxila, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex Kamra and Directorate General of Munitions Production along with its R&D organizations were established under the umbrella of MoDP which are successfully producing defence oriented entities. Ministry of Defence Production, created in 1972 as a Division of Ministry of Defence, is responsible for the policy, formulation of plans and coordination between procurement and development in the field of Defence Production.
  14. 14. POWER SECTOR
  15. 15. Power Sector • Electricity is considered to be life line of any economy and most vital instrument of socioeconomic development of a country • There has been an enormous increase in the demand of energy as a result of industrial development and population growth, in comparison to enhancement in energy production • Supply of energy is, therefore, far less than the actual demand, resultantly crisis has emerged
  16. 16. • At the time of independence, Pakistan inherited 60MW of power generation capability for a population of 31.5 million, yielding 4.5 units per capita consumption. Twelve years later, when WAPDA was created in 1959, the generation capacity had increased to 119 MW • In 1964-65, the electricity generation capability rose to 636 MW from 119 in 1959, and power generation to about 2,500 MKWH from 781 MKWH. • The task of accelerating the pace of power development picked up speed and by 1970, in another five years the generating capability rose from 636 MW to 1331 MW with installation of a number of thermal and hydel power units.
  17. 17. • In the year 1980 the system capacity touched 3000 MW which rapidly rose to over 7000MW in 1990-91. • In 2000s, annual consumption of electricity in the residential sector has increased per customer, while annual consumption by each industrial customer has also reached at peak and widened the demand-supply gap. • In 2006, the Asian Development Bank has estimated that 45 percent of Pakistan’s population lacked access to electricity. • Electricity crisis worsens in Pakistan in 2008 as shortage of Electricity has increased up to 4000MV. Pakistan's industrial consumers were facing an electric power deficit due to low water levels at hydroelectric dams
  18. 18. • The Power sector was restructured in 1998 with the creation of PEPCO. Prior to 1998, there were two vertically integrated utilities, i.e., KESC, which served the Karachi area and WAPDA which served the rest of the country. Later on, WAPDA’s power wing has been structured into distinct corporate entities comprising of 4 GENCOs, 10 DISCOs and one Transco (NTDC). • WAPDA: In March 2010-11, the electricity generation from hydro has increased by 14.4 percent while thermal decreased by 2.4 percent as compared to the same period last year, Furthermore, the share in total energy generation by hydro generation remained at 36 percent while thermal generation stood at 64 percent during the period under review. KESC thermal power capacity: Thermal Power Station Korangi 316MW, Gas Turbine Power Station Korangi 80MW, Gas Turbine Power Station SITE 100MW, Thermal Power Station Bin Qasim 1260MW. KESC’s total installed capacity: 1,756MW.
  19. 19. Table 1.1: Electricity Generation by WAPDA (GWh) Year Hydro Share (%) Thermal Share (%) Total 2001-02 19,056 31.3 41,804 68.7 60,860 2002-03 22,350 34.9 41,690 65.1 64,040 2003-04 27,477 39.8 41,617 60.2 69,094 2004-05 25,671 34.9 47,849 65 73,520 2005-06 30,855 37.5 51,370 62.5 82,225 2006-07 31,942 36.4 55,895 63.6 87,837 2007-08 28,667 33.23 57,602 66.77 86,269 2008-09 27,763 32.90 56,614 67.10 84,377 2009-10 28,492 31.90 60,746 68.10 89,238 July-March 2009-10 21,072 32.45 43,862 67.55 64,935 2010-11 24,105 36.02 42,823 63.90 66,928 Total generation includes purchase from IPPs and imports Source PEPCO, NTDC
  20. 20. • There are four major power producers in the country, which include: a) Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) b) Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC) c) Independent power producers (IPPs) d) Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) • c) IPPs thermal power capacity: Hub Power Project 1,292 MW, AES Lalpir Ltd Mahmood Kot Muzaffargarh 362 MW, AES Pak Gen Mahmood Kot Muzaffargarh 365 MW, Altern Energy Ltd Attock 29 MW, Fauji KabirWala Power Company Khanewal 157 MW, Gul Ahmad Energy Ltd Korangi 136 MW, Habibullah Coastal Power Ltd 140 MW, Japan Power Generation Lahore 120 MW, Kohinoor Energy Ltd Lahore 131 MW, Liberty Power Limited Ghotki 232 MW, Rousch Power Khanewal 412 MW, Saba Power Company Sheikhupura 114 MW, Southern Electric Power Company Ltd Raiwind 135 MW, Tapal Energy Limited Karachi 126 MW, Uch Power Ltd Dera Murad Jamali Nasirabad 586 MW, Attock Gen Ltd Morgah Rawalpindi165 MW, Atlas Power Sheikhupura 225 MW, Engro Energy Ltd Karachi 217 MW, Kot Addu Power Company Limited 1,638 MW. IPPs’ total installed capacity 6,365MW.
  21. 21. • PAEC’s nuclear power capacity: KANUPP 137 MW, CHASNUPP-1 325 MW. PAEC’s total capacity: 462 MW. 1.5. Electricity Consumption: • Annual Electricity Consumption: During the period 2001-02 to 2009-10, the consumption of electricity has increased at an average of 4.9 percent per annum while in July-March 2010-11, electricity consumption has increased by 2.8 percent.
  22. 22. Table 1.2: Annual Electricity Consumption Fiscal Year Consumption (GWH) Change (%) 2001-02 50,622 4.2 2002-03 52,656 4.0 2003-04 57,491 9.2 2004-05 61,327 6.7 2005-06 67,603 10.2 2006-07 72,712 7.6 2007-08 73,400 0.9 2008-09 70,371 -4.1 2009-10 74,348 5.65 Avg.9 years 4.9 July-March 2009-10 54,653 - 2010-11 56,194 2.8
  23. 23. TRANSPORTATION: Road Transportation: • The most important sector of infrastructure. • NHA is playing an important role. • Current Network of NHA is 12131 km. • Govt of Pakistan (R.S 50.7 billion ) NHA development project in 2012-2013.
  24. 24. NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY: COMPLETED PROJECTS: • 6 interchanges on Inner Ring Road Multan • 4 lane underpass at Wahh Gate , Taxila • Multan-Muzaffargarh ( N-70 ABD Assisted ) • Sarkand-Banazerabad carriageway • Hyderabad-Badin Road to Mir Wahh Sanjar Change Road • Lahore Metro Bus Project • Rawalpindi Metro Bus project
  25. 25. • Roads, road traffic, and motor vehicles all have increased substantially since the early 1990s. According to government statistics, from 1994 to 2003 total road length increased from 196,877 to 251,845 kilometers, and highways increased, from 104,001 to 151,028 kilometers. • The total number of registered motor vehicles also increased from 3.5 million to 5.2 million, including 2.5 million motorcycles, 1.3 million automobiles, and 178,000 trucks. In the early 1990s, the government announced plans to shift passenger and freight traffic from roads to rail, but by 2004 the declining quality and quantity of rail service continued to prompt increases in private and commercial use of roads.
  26. 26. RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION: • At the time of independence Pakistan got 8,122 km track. • It was on 13 may that the first railway line was opened for public traffic between Karachi and kotri aa distance of 105 miles (169 km). AT PRESENT: At present Pakistan railway comprises of 8163 km route and 1,212 stations . Main Lines: • Karachi–Peshawar Railway Line • • Kotri–Attock Railway Line • • Rohri– Chaman Railway Line • • Quetta- Taftan Railway Line
  27. 27. PROBLEMS IN RAILWAYS: • Shortage of locomotives • Eroding market share • Soaring Budget Deficit