Submitted To: Mam Fozia
Mehmood ur Rehman 15-CE-19
Muhammad Owais 15-CE-63
Muhammad Umar 15-CE-47
Osama Siddiqui 15-CE-43
Ghulam Gilani 15-CE-07
University of Engineering and technology
The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities needed
for the operation of a society or enterprise.
The economy of Pakistan is the 25th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power
parity (PPP), and 38th largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product. Pakistan has a
population of over 190 million (the world's 6th-largest), giving it a nominal GDP per
capita of $1,550, which ranks 132nd in the world.
FROM 1947-TILL NOW:
Pakistan was a very poor and predominantly agricultural country when it
gained independence in 1947. Pakistan's average economic growth rate in the first five
decades (1947–1997) has been higher than the growth rate of the world economy during
the same period. Average annual real GDP growth rates were 6.8% in the 1960s, 4.8% in
the 1970s, and 6.5% in the 1980s. Average annual growth fell to 4.6% in the 1990s with
significantly lower growth in the second half of that decade.
In spite of rapid population growth during this period, per capita incomes doubled,
inflation remained low and poverty declined from 46% down to 18% by late 1980s,
according to eminent Pakistani economist Dr. Ishrat Husain. This healthy economic
performance was maintained through several wars and successive civilian and
military governments in 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s until the decade of 1990s, now
appropriately remembered as the lost decade.
Year Gross Domestic Product US Dollar Exchange
Per Capita Income
(as % of US)
1960 20,058 4.76 Pakistani Rupees 3.37
1965 31,740 4.76 Pakistani Rupees 3.40
1970 51,355 4.76 Pakistani Rupees 3.26
This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Pakistan at market prices estimated
by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Pakistani Rupees.
A brief introduction about the major/large scale industries of Pakistan is given along the following lines:
1. Textile Industry:
The textile industry is the largest industry of Pakistan. At the time of partition, Pakistan received only 17
textile units in its share.
Now the Textile industry in Pakistan is the largest manufacturing industry in Pakistan. Pakistan is the
8th largest exporter of textile products in Asia. This sector contributes 8.5% to the GDP. In addition, the
sector employs about 45% of the total labor force in the country (and 38% of the manufacturing
workers). Pakistan is the 4th largest producer of cotton with the third largest spinning capacity in Asia
after China and India and contributes 5% to the global spinning capacity. At present, there are 1,221
ginning units, 442 spinning units, 124 large spinning units and 425 small units which produce textile.
2. Vegetable Ghee and Cooking Oil Industry
At the time of independence oil industry was very poor. Now there are 150 vegetable ghee and
cooking oil factories in Pakistan. According to data released by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics
(PBS), about 721,527 tonnes of vegetable ghee was produced during the period from July-January,
2015-16 as compared to 687,759 metric tonnes produced during the same period of last year.
3. Sugar Industry
In 1947, there were only 2 sugar factories in Pakistan, but at present there are 77 sugar
factories in the industry. During the year 2001-02 total production of sugar was 3247 thousand
4. Fertilizer Industry
There are 10 fertilizer units (6 in the public sector and 4 in the private sector) in the country,
having an installed capacity of 42,98,000 N. Tonnes. Total production of fertilizers in 2001-
02 was 5012 thousand tonnes. The low production was caused, by operational difficulties,
decline in working hours and power failure/load shedding. A number of concessions are
provided for the growth of this industry.
5. Cement Industry
At present 24 cement factories are operating in the country, out of these 4 factories are in
public sector and 20 are in private sector. The installed capacity of cement is 16,300
thousand tonnes out of which 9935 thousand tonnes of cement was produced in 2001-02.
6. Chemical Industry
There are 12 chemical factories in the country producing, soda ash, sulphuric acid,
caustic soda, chlorine gas and other chemicals. The contribution of the chemical
industry towards GNP is only 3%. This industry is not fulfilling domestic
requirements, so a large amount of foreign exchange is spent on the import of
different chemicals every year.
7. Jute Industry
At the time of independence there was not a single jute factory in Pakistan. By the
cooperation of PIDC, 32 factories were setup in East Pakistan and one in West Pakistan by
the time of separation of East Pakistan in 1971. At present there are 12 Jute mills in the
8. Engineering Goods Industry
The engineering goods and capital goods produced domestically are very helpful for economic
development of a country. This industry was given importance in the 3rd five year plan. Now we
have 4 heavy engineering industries. There are
(1) Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
(2) Heavy Foundry Project, Taxila
(3) Pakistan Machine Tools Factory, Landhi
(4) Pakistan Steel Mills, Karachi.
9. Ship Building Industry
Ships are constructed at Karachi. A number of small and large ships are made by Karachi yard
and Engineering works. This factory was established by PIDC. Now Pakistan is selling ships
and boats abroad. In all the five year plans, this industry is given much importance.
10. Woolen and Worsted Textile Industry
There are 16 woolen mills in Pakistan. These are located at Karachi, Nowshera, Lawrencepur,
Quaidabad and Hamai.
11. Cigarette Industry
At present 22 factories are producing cigarettes and Biri. Our country is self sufficient in the
production of cigarettes. The raw tobacco used in the manufacturing of cigarettes is
produced domestically. During the year 2001-02, 55,318 million cigarettes were produced in
12. Pakistan defence history
At the time of Independence, there was hardly any industrial base in Pakistan, as all
Ordnance factories were located in the areas which constitute India.
Defense Production activities in Pakistan started in 1951 with the establishment of
Pakistan Ordnance Factory (POF) at WAH.
. Resultantly, after Pakistan Ordnance Factories, Heavy Industries Taxila, Pakistan
Aeronautical Complex Kamra and Directorate General of Munitions Production along
with its R&D organizations were established under the umbrella of MoDP which are
successfully producing defence oriented entities.
Ministry of Defence Production, created in 1972 as a Division of Ministry of Defence, is
responsible for the policy, formulation of plans and coordination between procurement
and development in the field of Defence Production.
• Electricity is considered to be life line of any economy and most vital instrument
of socioeconomic development of a country
• There has been an enormous increase in the demand of energy as a result of industrial
development and population growth, in comparison to enhancement in
• Supply of energy is, therefore, far less than the actual demand,
resultantly crisis has emerged
• At the time of independence, Pakistan inherited 60MW of power generation
capability for a population of 31.5 million, yielding 4.5 units per capita
consumption. Twelve years later, when WAPDA was created in 1959, the
generation capacity had increased to 119 MW
• In 1964-65, the electricity generation capability rose to 636 MW from 119 in
1959, and power generation to about 2,500 MKWH from 781 MKWH.
• The task of accelerating the pace of power development picked up speed and by 1970, in
another five years the generating capability rose from 636 MW to 1331 MW with
installation of a number of thermal and hydel power units.
• In the year 1980 the system capacity touched 3000 MW which rapidly rose to over 7000MW
• In 2000s, annual consumption of electricity in the residential sector has increased per
customer, while annual consumption by each industrial customer has also reached at peak
and widened the demand-supply gap.
• In 2006, the Asian Development Bank has estimated that 45 percent of Pakistan’s population
lacked access to electricity.
• Electricity crisis worsens in Pakistan in 2008 as shortage of Electricity has
increased up to 4000MV. Pakistan's industrial consumers were facing an electric
power deficit due to low water levels at hydroelectric dams
• The Power sector was restructured in 1998 with the creation of PEPCO. Prior to 1998, there
were two vertically integrated utilities, i.e., KESC, which served the Karachi area and
WAPDA which served the rest of the country. Later on, WAPDA’s power wing has been
distinct corporate entities comprising of 4 GENCOs, 10 DISCOs and one
In March 2010-11, the electricity generation from hydro has increased by
14.4 percent while thermal decreased by 2.4 percent as compared to the
same period last year, Furthermore, the share in total energy generation
by hydro generation remained at 36 percent while thermal generation
stood at 64 percent during the period under review.
KESC thermal power capacity:
Thermal Power Station Korangi 316MW, Gas Turbine Power Station
Korangi 80MW, Gas Turbine Power Station SITE 100MW, Thermal Power
Station Bin Qasim 1260MW. KESC’s total installed capacity: 1,756MW.
• There are four major power producers in the country, which include:
a) Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA)
b) Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC)
c) Independent power producers (IPPs)
d) Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)
• c) IPPs thermal power capacity:
Hub Power Project 1,292 MW, AES Lalpir Ltd Mahmood Kot Muzaffargarh 362 MW, AES Pak
Gen Mahmood Kot Muzaffargarh 365 MW, Altern Energy Ltd Attock 29 MW, Fauji KabirWala
Power Company Khanewal 157 MW, Gul Ahmad Energy Ltd Korangi 136 MW, Habibullah
Coastal Power Ltd 140 MW, Japan Power Generation Lahore 120 MW, Kohinoor Energy Ltd
Lahore 131 MW, Liberty Power Limited Ghotki 232 MW, Rousch Power Khanewal 412 MW,
Saba Power Company Sheikhupura 114 MW, Southern Electric Power Company Ltd Raiwind 135
MW, Tapal Energy Limited Karachi 126 MW, Uch Power Ltd Dera Murad Jamali
Nasirabad 586 MW, Attock Gen Ltd Morgah Rawalpindi165 MW, Atlas Power Sheikhupura 225
MW, Engro Energy Ltd Karachi 217 MW, Kot Addu Power Company Limited 1,638 MW. IPPs’
total installed capacity 6,365MW.
• PAEC’s nuclear power capacity:
KANUPP 137 MW, CHASNUPP-1 325 MW. PAEC’s total capacity: 462 MW.
1.5. Electricity Consumption:
• Annual Electricity Consumption:
During the period 2001-02 to 2009-10, the consumption of electricity has
increased at an average of 4.9 percent per annum while in July-March 2010-11,
electricity consumption has increased by 2.8 percent.
• The most important sector of infrastructure.
• NHA is playing an important role.
• Current Network of NHA is 12131 km.
• Govt of Pakistan (R.S 50.7 billion ) NHA development project in 2012-2013.
NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY:
• 6 interchanges on Inner Ring Road Multan
• 4 lane underpass at Wahh Gate , Taxila
• Multan-Muzaffargarh ( N-70 ABD Assisted )
• Sarkand-Banazerabad carriageway
• Hyderabad-Badin Road to Mir Wahh Sanjar Change Road
• Lahore Metro Bus Project
• Rawalpindi Metro Bus project
• Roads, road traffic, and motor vehicles all have increased substantially since the early 1990s.
According to government statistics, from 1994 to 2003 total road length increased from
196,877 to 251,845 kilometers, and highways increased, from 104,001 to 151,028 kilometers.
• The total number of registered motor vehicles also increased from 3.5 million to 5.2 million,
including 2.5 million motorcycles, 1.3 million automobiles, and 178,000 trucks. In the early
1990s, the government announced plans to shift passenger and freight traffic from roads to
rail, but by 2004 the declining quality and quantity of rail service continued to prompt
increases in private and commercial use of roads.
• At the time of independence Pakistan got 8,122 km track.
• It was on 13 may that the first railway line was opened for public traffic between
Karachi and kotri aa distance of 105 miles (169 km).
At present Pakistan railway comprises of 8163 km route and 1,212 stations .
• Karachi–Peshawar Railway Line
• Kotri–Attock Railway Line
• Rohri– Chaman Railway Line
• Quetta- Taftan Railway Line
PROBLEMS IN RAILWAYS:
• Shortage of locomotives
• Eroding market share
• Soaring Budget Deficit