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Leadership styleapproachv1.0


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Leadership styleapproachv1.0

  1. 1. Leadership  Lecture  on  Chapter  4  :  Style  Approach   Ajarn  Orapak  Suwanapakdee   KMUTT  
  2. 2. Summary  :  Leadership  Styles  l  Styles  are  NOT  the  same  as  traits  and  skills.    l  Traits  :  PersonaliCes  and/or  Characters  l  Skills:    ExperCse   l  Styles  à  The  combinaCon  of  behaviors  directed  and  arranged  towards  the  compleCon  of  tasks   in  a  specific  environment.  l  Leadership  style  influenced  the  outcome  although  there  is  no  direct  evidence  in  details  to  confirm.    l  In  different  Cme  and  different  situaCons,  leaders  need  different  styles.  Leader  can  have  various  styles   in  various  situaCons.    l  It  is  important  for  leader  to  understand  styles  to  use  in  different  situaCons.  It  is  good  if  the  leader  can   uClize  their  nature  of  their  own  style  to  cope  up  with  different  situaCons.    
  3. 3. Leadership  Style  :  AutocraCc        1.  Autocra+c  leadership  l  AutocraCc  leadership  is  an  extreme  form  of  transacConal  leadership,  where  leaders  have   absolute  power  over  their  workers  or  team.  Staff  and  team  members  have  liQle   opportunity  to  make  suggesCons,  even  if  these  would  be  in  the  teams  or  the   organizaCons  best  interest.  l  Most  people  tend  to  resent  being  treated  like  this.  Therefore,  autocraCc  leadership  oSen   leads  to  high  levels  of  absenteeism  and  staff  turnover.  However,  for  some  rouCne  and   unskilled  jobs,  the  style  can  remain  effecCve  because  the  advantages  of  control  may   outweigh  the  disadvantages. l  Example  :  Steve  Jobs    (  I  need  to  further  explore  on  this).    
  4. 4. Example  of  AutocraCc  Leadership  Style    l  Adolf  Hitler,  Joseph  Stalin  and  Fidel  Castro  are  examples  of  the  autocraCc   leadership  style.    l  Source  :  Read  more:  DefiniCon  of  AutocraCc  Leadership  Style  |   hQp://­‐autocraCc-­‐leadership-­‐ style.html#ixzz1iZQIoYg4    
  5. 5. Leadership  Style  :  BureaucraCc    l  2.  Bureaucra+c  leadership  l  BureaucraCc  leaders  work  "by  the  book."  They  follow  rules  rigorously,  and   ensure  that  their  staff  follows  procedures  precisely.  This  is  a  very   appropriate  style  for  work  involving  serious  safety  risks  (such  as  working   with  machinery,  with  toxic  substances,  or  at  dangerous  heights)  or  where   large  sums  of  money  are  involved  (such  as  handling  cash).  l  Example:  Thai  Government  Body’s  Leadership  Style    
  6. 6. Leadership  Style  :  CharismaCc    l  3.  Charisma+c  leadership  l  A  charismaCc  leadership  style  can  seem  similar  to  transformaConal  leadership,  because   these  leaders  inspire  lots  of  enthusiasm  in  their  teams  and  are  very  energeCc  in  driving   others  forward.  However,  charismaCc  leaders  can  tend  to  believe  more  in  themselves   than  in  their  teams,  and  this  creates  a  risk  that  a  project,  or  even  an  enCre  organizaCon,   might  collapse  if  the  leader  leaves.  In  the  eyes  of  the  followers,  success  is  directly   connected  to  the  presence  of  the  charismaCc  leader.  As  such,  charismaCc  leadership   carries  great  responsibility,  and  it  needs  a  long-­‐term  commitment  from  the  leader.  l  Example:  Barack  Obama,  Winston  Churchill,  Bill  Clinton,  Mother  Teresa  and  Adolph  Hitler.    l  (  Adapted  from  :  hQp://  )    
  7. 7. Leadership  Style:  DemocraCc  /  ParcipaCve    l  4.  Democra+c  leadership  or  par+cipa+ve  leadership  l  Although  democraCc  leaders  make  the  final  decisions,  they  invite  other  members  of  the  team  to  contribute  to  the   decision-­‐making  process.  This  not  only  increases  job  saCsfacCon  by  involving  team  members,  but  it  also  helps  to   develop  peoples  skills.  Team  members  feel  in  control  of  their  own  desCny,  so  theyre  moCvated  to  work  hard  by   more  than  just  a  financial  reward.  l  Because  parCcipaCon  takes  Cme,  this  approach  can  take  longer,  but  oSen  the  end  result  is  beQer.  The  approach  can   be  most  suitable  when  working  as  a  team  is  essenCal,  and  when  quality  is  more  important  than  speed  to  market,  or   producCvity.  l  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  (a  Republican  no  less!).    As  a  military  leader,  Eisenhower  was  faced  with  the  difficult  task  of   geqng  the  Alliance  forces  to  agree  on  a  common  strategy.    Eisenhower  labored  hard  to  make  sure  everyone  worked   together  to  come  to  a  common  understanding.    This  was  one  of  his  greatest  achievements.    It  was  here  that  the   democraCc  leadership  style,  and  collaboraCve  efforts,  of  Eisenhower  shone  through.    The  subsequent  victory  of  the   Alliance  forces  back  up  the  correctness  of  the  approach  in  that  parCcular  situaCon.  l  A  famous  example  of  a  parCcipaCve  leader  is  Donald  Trump.    
  8. 8. Leadership  Style  :  :Laissez-­‐  Faire  Leadership    l  5.  Laissez-­‐faire  leadership  l  This  French  phrase  means  "leave  it  be,"  and  its  used  to  describe  leaders  who   leave  their  team  members  to  work  on  their  own.  It  can  be  effecCve  if  the  leader   monitors  whats  being  achieved  and  communicates  this  back  to  the  team   regularly.  Most  oSen,  laissez-­‐faire  leadership  is  effecCve  when  individual  team   members  are  very  experienced  and  skilled  self-­‐starters.  Unfortunately,  this  type   of  leadership  can  also  occur  when  managers  dont  apply  sufficient  control.  and   the  group  oSen  lacks  direcCon  because  the  leader  does  not  help  in  making   decisions.  Working  for  a  laissez  faire  leader  gives  the  followers  many   opportuniCes  to  make  decisions.    However  the  lack  of  direcCon  can  lead  to   anarchy  if  it  is  allowed  to  remain  in  place  for  an  extended  period  of  Cme.  The   quesCon  is  whether  staffs  have  sufficient  capabiliCes  to  work  or  to  decide   without  control  or  not.    
  9. 9. Leadership  Style:  People-­‐Oriented    l  6.  People-­‐oriented  leadership  or  rela+ons-­‐oriented  leadership  l  This  is  the  opposite  of  task-­‐oriented  leadership.  With  people-­‐oriented   leadership,  leaders  are  totally  focused  on  organizing,  supporCng,  and   developing  the  people  in  their  teams.  Its  a  parCcipaCve  style,  and  it  tends   to  encourage  good  teamwork  and  creaCve  collaboraCon.  l  In  pracCce,  most  leaders  use  both  task-­‐oriented  and  people-­‐oriented  styles   of  leadership.    
  10. 10. Leadership  Style:  Servant  l  7.  Servant  leadership  l  This  term,  created  by  Robert  Greenleaf  in  the  1970s,  describes  a  leader  who  is  oSen  not   formally  recognized  as  such.  When  someone,  at  any  level  within  an  organizaCon,  leads  simply   by  meeCng  the  needs  of  the  team,  he  or  she  is  described  as  a  "servant  leader."  l  In  many  ways,  servant  leadership  is  a  form  of  democraCc  leadership,  because  the  whole  team   tends  to  be  involved  in  decision  making.  l  Supporters  of  the  servant  leadership  model  suggest  that  its  an  important  way  to  move  ahead   in  a  world  where  values  are  increasingly  important,  and  where  servant  leaders  achieve  power   on  the  basis  of  their  values  and  ideals.  Others  believe  that  in  compeCCve  leadership  situaCons,   people  who  pracCce  servant  leadership  can  find  themselves  leS  behind  by  leaders  using  other   leadership  styles.  l  Example:  George  Washington,  Ghandi    
  11. 11. Leadership  Style:  Task-­‐  Oriented    l  8.  Task-­‐Oriented  leadership  l  Highly  task-­‐oriented  leaders  focus  only  on  geqng  the  job  done,  and  they   can  be  quite  autocraCc.  They  acCvely  define  the  work  and  the  roles   required,  put  structures  in  place,  plan,  organize,  and  monitor.  However,   because  task-­‐oriented  leaders  dont  tend  to  think  much  about  the  well-­‐ being  of  their  teams,  this  approach  can  suffer  many  of  the  flaws  of   autocraCc  leadership,  with  difficulCes  in  moCvaCng  and  retaining  staff.  
  12. 12. Leadership  Style:  TransacConal    l  9.  Transac+onal  leadership  l  This  style  of  leadership  starts  with  the  idea  that  team  members  agree  to  obey  their  leader   totally  when  they  accept  a  job.  The  "transacCon"  is  usually  the  organizaCon  paying  the  team   members  in  return  for  their  effort  and  compliance.  The  leader  has  a  right  to  "punish"  team   members  if  their  work  doesnt  meet  the  pre-­‐determined  standard.  l  Team  members  can  do  liQle  to  improve  their  job  saCsfacCon  under  transacConal  leadership.   The  leader  could  give  team  members  some  control  of  their  income/reward  by  using  incenCves   that  encourage  even  higher  standards  or  greater  producCvity.  AlternaCvely,  a  transacConal   leader  could  pracCce  "management  by  excepCon"  –  rather  than  rewarding  beQer  work,  the   leader  could  take  correcCve  acCon  if  the  required  standards  are  not  met.  l  TransacConal  leadership  is  really  a  type  of  management,  not  a  true  leadership  style,  because   the  focus  is  on  short-­‐term  tasks.  It  has  serious  limitaCons  for  knowledge-­‐based  or  creaCve   work,  however  it  can  be  effecCve  in  other  situaCons.  
  13. 13. Leadership  Style:  TransformaConal    10.  Transforma+onal  leadership  l  As  we  discussed  earlier,  people  with  this  leadership  style  are  true  leaders   who  inspire  their  teams  constantly  with  a  shared  vision  of  the  future.  While   this  leaders  enthusiasm  is  oSen  passed  onto  the  team,  he  or  she  can  need   to  be  supported  by  "detail  people."  Thats  why,  in  many  organizaCons,  both   transacConal  and  transformaConal  leadership  are  needed.  The  transacConal   leaders  (or  managers)  ensure  that  rouCne  work  is  done  reliably,  while  the   transformaConal  leaders  look  aSer  iniCaCves  that  add  new  value.  
  14. 14. Gandhi’s  Leadership  Style  :  TransformaConal  Leadership      l  hQp:// %E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%95%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B2_ %E0%B8%84%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%98%E0%B8%B5  l  Ghandi  was  able  to  transform  the  country  by  using  his  peaceful  protest  *   not  eaCng  food  for  3  days.    
  15. 15. Leadership  Style:  Ethical  Leadership    l  Doing  the  right  thing  
  16. 16. Daniel  Goleman’s  Leadership  Style    l  In  the  book  “Primal  Leadership,”  Daniel  Goleman,  who  popularized  the   noCon  of  “EmoConal  Intelligence,”  describes  six  different  styles  of   leadership.    
  17. 17. l  Visionary.  This  style  is  most  appropriate  when  an  organizaCon  needs  a  new  direcCon.  Its  goal  is  to  move   people  towards  a  new  set  of  shared  dreams.  “Visionary  leaders  arCculate  where  a  group  is  going,  but  not   how  it  will  get  there  –  seqng  people  free  to  innovate,  experiment,  take  calculated  risks,”  write  Mr.  Goleman   and  his  coauthors.  l  Coaching.  This  one-­‐on-­‐one  style  focuses  on  developing  individuals,  showing  them  how  to  improve  their   performance,  and  helping  to  connect  their  goals  to  the  goals  of  the  organizaCon.  Coaching  works  best,  Mr.   Goleman  writes,  “with  employees  who  show  iniCaCve  and  want  more  professional  development.”  But  it  can   backfire  if  it’s  perceived  as  “micromanaging”  an  employee,  and  undermines  his  or  her  self-­‐confidence.  l  Affilia+ve.  This  style  emphasizes  the  importance  of  team  work,  and  creates  harmony  in  a  group  by   connecCng  people  to  each  other.  Mr.  Goleman  argues  this  approach  is  parCcularly  valuable  “when  trying  to   heighten  team  harmony,  increase  morale,  improve  communicaCon  or  repair  broken  trust  in  an  organizaCon.”   But  he  warns  against  using  it  alone,  since  its  emphasis  on  group  praise  can  allow  poor  performance  to  go   uncorrected.  “Employees  may  perceive,”  he  writes,  “that  mediocrity  is  tolerated.”  
  18. 18. l  Democra+c.  This  style  draws  on  people’s  knowledge  and  skills,  and  creates  a  group  commitment  to  the   resulCng  goals.  It  works  best  when  the  direcCon  the  organizaCon  should  take  is  unclear,  and  the  leader   needs  to  tap  the  collecCve  wisdom  of  the  group.  Mr.  Goleman  warns  that  this  consensus-­‐building  approach   can  be  disastrous  in  Cmes  of  crisis,  when  urgent  events  demand  quick  decisions.  l  PaceseOng.  In  this  style,  the  leader  sets  high  standards  for  performance.  He  or  she  is  “obsessive  about  doing   things  beQer  and  faster,  and  asks  the  same  of  everyone.”  But  Mr.  Goleman  warns  this  style  should  be  used   sparingly,  because  it  can  undercut  morale  and  make  people  feel  as  if  they  are  failing.  “Our  data  shows  that,   more  oSen  than  not,  paceseqng  poisons  the  climate,”  he  writes.  l  Commanding.  This  is  classic  model  of  “military”  style  leadership  –  probably  the  most  oSen  used,  but  the   least  oSen  effecCve.  Because  it  rarely  involves  praise  and  frequently  employs  criCcism,  it  undercuts  morale   and  job  saCsfacCon.  Mr.  Goleman  argues  it  is  only  effecCve  in  a  crisis,  when  an  urgent  turnaround  is  needed.   Even  the  modern  military  has  come  to  recognize  its  limited  usefulness.  
  19. 19. Visionary  Leader    l  The  Visionary  Leader  l  The  Visionary  Leader  moves  people  towards  a  shared  vision,  telling  them   where  to  go  but  not  how  to  get  there  -­‐  thus  moCvaCng  them  to  struggle   forwards.  They  openly  share  informaCon,  hence  giving  knowledge  power  to   others.  l  They  can  fail  when  trying  to  moCvate  more  experienced  experts  or  peers.  l  This  style  is  best  when  a  new  direcCon  is  needed.  l  Overall,  it  has  a  very  strong  impact  on  the  climate.  
  20. 20. Coaching  Leader    l  The  Coaching  Leader  l  The  Coaching  Leader  connects  wants  to  organizaConal  goals,  holding  long   conversaCons  that  reach  beyond  the  workplace,  helping  people  find  strengths   and  weaknesses  and  tying  these  to  career  aspiraCons  and  acCons.  They  are   good  at  delegaCng  challenging  assignments,  demonstraCng  faith  that  demands   jusCficaCon  and  which  leads  to  high  levels  of  loyalty.  l  Done  badly,  this  style  looks  like  micromanaging.  l  It  is  best  used  when  individuals  need  to  build  long-­‐term  capabiliCes.  l  It  has  a  highly  posiCve  impact  on  the  climate.  
  21. 21. AffiliaCve  Leader    l  The  Affilia+ve  Leader  l  The  AffiliaCve  Leader  creates  people  connecCons  and  thus  harmony  within   the  organizaCon.  It  is  a  very  collaboraCve  style  which  focuses  on  emoConal   needs  over  work  needs.  l  When  done  badly,  it  avoids  emoConally  distressing  situaCons  such  as   negaCve  feedback.  Done  well,  it  is  oSen  used  alongside  visionary  leadership.  l  It  is  best  used  for  healing  riSs  and  geqng  through  stressful  situaCons.  l  It  has  a  posiCve  impact  on  climate.  
  22. 22. DemocraCc  Leader    l  The  Democra+c  Leader  l  The  DemocraCc  Leader  acts  to  value  inputs  and  commitment  via   parCcipaCon,  listening  to  both  the  bad  and  the  good  news.  l  When  done  badly,  it  looks  like  lots  of  listening  but  very  liQle  effecCve  acCon.  l  It  is  best  used  to  gain  buy-­‐in  or  when  simple  inputs  are  needed  (  when  you   are  uncertain).  l  It  has  a  posiCve  impact  on  climate.  
  23. 23. The  Pace-­‐seOng  Leader    l  The  Pace-­‐seqng  Leader  builds  challenge  and  exciCng  goals  for  people,  expecCng   excellence  and  oSen  exemplifying  it  themselves.  They  idenCfy  poor  performers  and   demand  more  of  them.  If  necessary,  they  will  roll  up  their  sleeves  and  rescue  the  situaCon   themselves.  l  They  tend  to  be  low  on  guidance,  expecCng  people  to  know  what  to  do.  They  get  short   term  results  but  over  the  long  term  this  style  can  lead  to  exhausCon  and  decline.  l  Done  badly,  it  lacks  EmoConal  Intelligence,  especially  self-­‐management.  A  classic  problem   happens  when  the  star  techie  gets  promoted.  l  It  is  best  used  for  results  from  a  moCvated  and  competent  team.  l  It  oSen  has  a  very  negaCve  effect  on  climate  (because  it  is  oSen  poorly  done).  
  24. 24. The  Commanding  Leader    The  Commanding  Leader  l  The  Commanding  Leader  soothes  fears  and  gives  clear  direcCons  by  his  or   her  powerful  stance,  commanding  and  expecCng  full  compliance   (agreement  is  not  needed).  They  need  emoConal  self-­‐control  for  success   and  can  seem  cold  and  distant.  l  This  approach  is  best  in  Cmes  of  crisis  when  you  need  unquesConed  rapid   acCon  and  with  problem  employees  who  do  not  respond  to  other  methods.  
  25. 25. Key  Points    l  While  the  transformaConal  leadership  approach  is  oSen  highly  effecCve,  theres  no  one  "right"   way  to  lead  or  manage  that  fits  all  situaCons.  To  choose  the  most  effecCve  approach  for   yourself,  consider  the  following:  l  The  skill  levels  and  experience  of  your  team.  l  The  work  involved  (rouCne,  or  new  and  creaCve).  l  The  organizaConal  environment  (stable  or  radically  changing,  conservaCve  or  adventurous).  l  You  own  preferred  or  natural  style.  l  Good  leaders  oSen  switch  insCncCvely  between  styles,  according  to  the  people  they  lead  and   the  work  that  needs  to  be  done.  Establish  trust  –  thats  key  to  this  process  –  and  remember  to   balance  the  needs  of  the  organizaCon  against  the  needs  of  your  team.  
  26. 26. Source:    l  hQp://  l  hQp://­‐­‐Development/Leadership-­‐Skill/ DemocraCc-­‐Leadership/  l  hQp://­‐apprenCce/about/hosts/donald-­‐trump/  l  hQp://  l  hQp://  l  Leadership  Theory  and  PracCce  Textbook  by  Northouse