Ex situe conservation presntation at Hashemite University 2012
The Royal Botanic
Garden of Jordan
Ex-Situ Conservation of Native
Plants: Climate change
Oraib S. Nawash
PhD, Plant Ecology and Vegetation Science
University of Hohenheim
In this presentation:
Bio-regions in Jordan
- What is a native plant?
Methods of preserving
• Re-creation of five plant
habitats in Jordan at Tell
• Water harvesting
What is a native plant? •
"A native plant species is
one that occurs naturally
, ecosystem, and habitat
without direct or indirect
Bio-geographical regions of •
• The Mediterranean Region
• Irano-Turanian Region
• The Mediterranean region
• Restricted to the highlands of Jordan
extending from Irbid in the north to Ras EnNaqab in the south
• Altitude ranges from 700-1750 m above sea
• Rainfall ranges from 300-600 mm.
• Comprises the most fertile part of Jordan
and presents the best climate for the forest
• Irano-Turanian Region
• Narrow strip of variable width which
surrounds the entire Mediterranean region
except in the north
• Mainly small shrubs and bushes
• Altitudes usually range from 500-700 m,
• Rainfall ranges from 150 to 300 mm.
The Saharo-Arabian region •
• Almost 80% of the of total area.
• Altitude ranges from 50 to 200 mm.
• Vegetation is dominated by small
shrubs and small annuals located in
The Sudanian region •
• - This region started at al-Karamah in the
north and continues to the south through
the Dead Sea depression and Wadi Araba,
which end at the tip of Gulf of Aqaba.
• - Altitude is the main feature, considered
the lowest point on earth (-400m below sea
level). In some points it reaches 120 m
above sea level
• - Annual rainfall ranges from 50 to 100 mm.
• - Is characterized by the presence of tropical
• Is a change in the statistical properties of the
climate system when considered over long
periods of time, regardless of cause.
What is BIODIVERSITY!???
What is it’s value!!!!
What are Climate Change effects on
According to Earth watch Institute (Europe) Climate
change has already produced significant and
measurable impacts on almost all ecosystems, taxa
and ecological processes, including changes in
species distribution, timing of biological behaviours,
, ecological interactions and community dynamics.
Species have evolved over millions of years to adapt
to specific climatic conditions as well as to variations
in climate, but the current increase in temperature
and differing weather patterns has occurred over an
extremely short period of time which evolutionary
processes are not able to match. Therefore, many
species of plants and animals are not able to adapt
to changing temperature and weather.
Global climate change creates conditions that may be
suitable for some invasive species to become
established in new areas.
Shifting seasons and phenology
Changes in seasons are •
already being noticed in
many temperate regions
Plants and pollinator
What do you expect to happen??
Example: Colorado Rocky
Mountains, United States,
Research on pollination ecology in the Colorado Rocky
Mountains, United States, found that flowering time
for plants is determined by the snow melt, which is
likely to change in response to climate change.
“The difference in timing between seasonal events at
low and high altitudes has negatively influenced
migratory pollinators such as hummingbirds, which
hibernate at lower altitudes and latitudes.
If climate change disturbs the timing of flowering and
the behavior of pollinators such as butterflies and
bumblebees, then the intimate relationships
between plants and pollinators that have co-evolved
over thousands of years will be irrevocably altered”.
Changing patterns of
precipitation and evaporation
• It is widely expected that rainfall variability
and dry season severity will increase.
Protect our Natural Resources and
Conserve our Biodiversity