Desrtificatiom presentation_oraib


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A brief presentation about the desertification in the Mediterranean

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Desrtificatiom presentation_oraib

  1. 1. Prepared by: Oraib Nawash; PhD in Plant Ecology and vegetation Science , University Hohenheim-Germany Currently: Focal Point Activity Officer/EU project at HCST
  2. 2. <ul><li>Define desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of desertification. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification in the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification in Jordan </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to combat desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Is desertification reversible? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Process of land degradation in arid, semi arid and dry sub humid areas that is the results of several factors; including human activities and climate variation . </li></ul><ul><li>(UNCCD, 1999) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Desertification as a term was first used 1949 by the French geographer Andre Aubreville to describe the change in North and equatorial Africa from productive savanna forest, grasslands, and shrub lands into unproductive desert. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1977; desertification concept became a worldwide term through the UNCOD conference held in Nairobi which released the first world desertification map in order to announce for this problem in World wide scale. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Any factor that leads to the following is considered a desertification factor: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Removal of vegetation” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Removal of top fertile soil and reduction in biological productivity of soil” </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Depletion of surface and ground water resources” </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Unsustainable land use mainly represented by: </li></ul><ul><li>Over cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Overgrazing </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Poor irrigation practices </li></ul><ul><li>Disasters e.g. war </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><li>International economic forces </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Drought </li></ul><ul><li>Climatic fluctuations </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The severity of the climatic conditions in the period considered (particularly in terms of the annual rainfall); </li></ul><ul><li>Population pressure and the standard of living of the people involved; </li></ul><ul><li>The level of the country's development, and the quality of the preventive measures established there. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Economic Impacts </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Loss of ecological stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in carbon sink capability and their effects on climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Floods, drought and related losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Damages to watershed </li></ul><ul><li>Soil erosion. </li></ul><ul><li>Silting up of reservoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification and Drought. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in hydrological regime. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Loss of employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of food and Livelihood security. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul>
  12. 12. Desertification Drought Land degradation Biodiversity Change in land use Crop production Poverty Migrations Abandonment Unsustainability
  13. 14. <ul><li>Desertification in the Mediterranean </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Affects 40 M KM 2 (1/3 of the Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>and 1 billion people in over 110 countries (1/5 of the human population of the world </li></ul>
  15. 16. World desertification map
  16. 19. Source: DesertNet International
  17. 21. <ul><li>-To be secure: is to feel free from threats, anxiety or danger. </li></ul><ul><li>-A state of the mind in which an individual feels safe from harm by others. </li></ul><ul><li>- To acquire amore and more power to escape the impact of power of other’ </li></ul>
  18. 22. Label Reference object Value at risk Sources of threats National security The state Sovereignty Territorial Integrity Other state (sub-state actors) Societal security Nations Social groups National Unity Identity States, nations, migrants, alien culture, Human security Individuals Mankind Survival Quality of life State; nature, globalization Environmental security Ecosystems Sustainability Mankind
  19. 23. <ul><li>Desertification exacerbates poverty and political instability. It contributes significantly to water scarcity, famine, the internal displacement of people, migration, and social breakdown. This is a recipe for political instability, for tensions between neighboring countries, and even for armed conflict. </li></ul>
  20. 25. Physiographic zones of Jordan: 1- The Jordan valley 2- Semiarid and semi humid zones of highlands 3- The steppe zone 4- The arid zone
  21. 26. <ul><li>1- Mismanagement of land through: </li></ul><ul><li>- Irrational plowing </li></ul><ul><li>- The cultivation of land for barley </li></ul><ul><li>- Mismanagement of plant residues </li></ul><ul><li>- Overgrazing of natural vegetation and uncontrolled herd movement </li></ul><ul><li>- Forest cutting inappropriate land use in the high land and steppes </li></ul><ul><li>- Urbanization at the expense of arable land. </li></ul><ul><li>- Shrinkage of land ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>- Over-pumping of groundwater beyond their renewable safe yield </li></ul><ul><li>- Mismanagement of irrigated lands, particularly in the middle and southern parts of Jordan Valley e.g. mining industry and cultivation of cash crops. </li></ul><ul><li>-Lack in the know-how of soil water management in the arid land. </li></ul><ul><li>-Switching to new cash crops in irrigated agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>-Monoculture crops </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>2- High rainfall fluctuation </li></ul><ul><li>3- wind and water erosion in the desert region. </li></ul><ul><li>4-High population growth </li></ul><ul><li>5- Poor socio-economic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>6- Abolishing agriculture to other professions </li></ul><ul><li>7- Lack of awareness and the weak sense of social responsibility and religious feeling of preserving natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>8- weak institutional arrangements need to be considered in comprehensive </li></ul><ul><li>9- discouraging environment of investment in the agricultural sector </li></ul>
  23. 29. Grazing in the Mediterranean ecosystem-Jordan
  24. 30. Monoculture at the expense of natural vegetation/ Wadi Araba Jordan
  25. 31. Burning of natural vegetation by tourists in Wadi RUm
  26. 34. <ul><li>The National Action Plan (NAP) to combat desertification (2006) proposed programms: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Desertification Information System (DIS), </li></ul><ul><li>2. Drought prediction and Desertification control, </li></ul><ul><li>3. Capacity building and institutional development, </li></ul><ul><li>4. Restoration of degraded ecosystems of rangelands and forests, </li></ul><ul><li>5. Watershed management, </li></ul><ul><li>6. Human, social and economic development initiatives. </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>Is desertification reversible?! </li></ul>
  28. 36. <ul><li>1- Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue: Proceedings of the NATO Mediterranean Dialogue Workshop, held in Valencia, Spain, 2-5 December ... Science Series C: Environmental Security. </li></ul><ul><li>2- National strategy and action plan to combat desertification , The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Ministry of Environment 2006. </li></ul>
  29. 37. <ul><li>Oraib Nawash , PhD. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Ecology and vegetation diversity </li></ul><ul><li>PO Box 487 </li></ul><ul><li>11941 Amman-Jordan </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul>