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THE LACRIMAL APPARATUS <ul><li>Lacrimal gland secrets tears into the upper fornix of the conjunctival sac which are spread...
The lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal sac Lacrimal gland Excretory ducts of lacrimal gland Lacrimal punctum Lacrimal canaliculus...
 
Lacrimal Apparatus <ul><li>lacrimal glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces and drains tears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Figure 16.7b
 
 
 
THE EYE (GLOBE) <ul><li>Two spheres with different radii: </li></ul><ul><li>- Cornea, window of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li...
 
The coats of the eye <ul><li>***  Three layers: </li></ul><ul><li>The outer: inelastic coat, transparent  cornea and opaqu...
 
 
The Chambers of The Eye <ul><li>*** Three optically clear spaces: </li></ul><ul><li>The anterior chamber, in front of the ...
 
 
The Lens <ul><li>The crystalline lens is the only structure continuously growing throughout the life. </li></ul><ul><li>Ch...
 
 
 
Retina and Vitreous <ul><li>Vitreous attachment. </li></ul><ul><li>Optic nerve head, macula, fovea, retinal background, Or...
 
 
 
 
 
 
Focusing for distant and close vision (a) Lens is flattened for distant vision (b) Lens bulges for close vision (c) Anteri...
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LACRIMAL APPRATUS

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The lacrimal appratus

  1. 1. THE LACRIMAL APPARATUS <ul><li>Lacrimal gland secrets tears into the upper fornix of the conjunctival sac which are spread over the surface of the cornea as a tear film by blinking of the lids. </li></ul><ul><li>Tears accumulate at the inner canthus and drain into the lacrimal sac via the puncta & canaliculi. </li></ul><ul><li>The sac is continuous inferiorly with the nasolacrimal duct which opens into the nasal cavity just beneath the inferior turbinate. </li></ul>
  2. 2. The lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal sac Lacrimal gland Excretory ducts of lacrimal gland Lacrimal punctum Lacrimal canaliculus Nasolacrimal duct Inferior meatus of nasal cavity Nostril <ul><li>Tears: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convey social information, hydrate the eye, contain an antimicrobial agent, drain into mucous membrane of nose </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Lacrimal Apparatus <ul><li>lacrimal glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces and drains tears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lacrimal fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>watery solution containing salts, some mucus, and lysozyme </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protects, cleans, lubricates and moistens the eyeball </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spreads from lateral to medial by blinking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>about 1mL of lacrimal fluid per day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Figure 16.7b
  5. 9. THE EYE (GLOBE) <ul><li>Two spheres with different radii: </li></ul><ul><li>- Cornea, window of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>- Sclera, opaque shell. </li></ul><ul><li>*** The eye measures approximately 24 mm in all its main diameters. </li></ul>
  6. 11. The coats of the eye <ul><li>*** Three layers: </li></ul><ul><li>The outer: inelastic coat, transparent cornea and opaque sclera. </li></ul><ul><li>The middle, vascular coat, The Uvea: </li></ul><ul><li>choroid, ciliary body and iris. </li></ul><ul><li>The inner: The Retina, extends forwards to within 6 mm of the limbus. </li></ul>
  7. 14. The Chambers of The Eye <ul><li>*** Three optically clear spaces: </li></ul><ul><li>The anterior chamber, in front of the iris </li></ul><ul><li>The posterior chamber, immediately behind the iris. These two chambers which communicate through the pupil are filled with clear aqueous humour. </li></ul><ul><li>The vitreous cavity: filled by gel-like structure, The Vitreous. </li></ul>
  8. 17. The Lens <ul><li>The crystalline lens is the only structure continuously growing throughout the life. </li></ul><ul><li>Changeable refractive media. </li></ul><ul><li>Capsule, epithelium and lens fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital anomalies and effect of systemic diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Cataract. </li></ul>
  9. 21. Retina and Vitreous <ul><li>Vitreous attachment. </li></ul><ul><li>Optic nerve head, macula, fovea, retinal background, Ora serrata, and retinal vasculature. </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of systemic diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Retinal detachment. </li></ul>
  10. 28. Focusing for distant and close vision (a) Lens is flattened for distant vision (b) Lens bulges for close vision (c) Anterior segment viewed from behind Lens Inverted image Ciliary zonule Ciliary muscle Nearly parallel rays from distant object Sympathetic + Divergent rays from close object Inverted image Parasympathetic + Ciliary muscle Lens Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligaments)
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LACRIMAL APPRATUS

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