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BEHAVIORAL AND OPERATIONAL WASTE:
AN ANALYSIS OF PROGRAM OPPORTUNITIES
Presented at the International Energy Program
Evalu...
Overview
2
 Purpose and objectives
 Approach
 Summary of results
 Applying the results
What were we looking for?
3
 ComEd commissioned study to address two primary
research objectives
 Provide real primary d...
What did we find?
4
End Use Profile
Percentage of Total Annual
GWh
Waste Profile
Percentage of Annual
Lighting GWh
Lightin...
How are these results being used?
 Assess the efficacy of technology and behavioral program
options to optimize DSM inves...
End-Use Approach
 Comprehensive assessment of electricity usage and waste
for six C&I end uses:
 Extensive primary data ...
What is Waste?
 Current usage: Incorporates actual customer behaviors and
the efficiency level of currently-installed equ...
Conceptualizing Usage and Waste
8
Run Time or Hours
Watts
Efficient Use
Behavioral Waste =
B+C
A
C
B
Technological
Waste =...
C&I Primary Data Collection
9
Telephone Interviews: 1,519
Onsite Audits: 347
Metering Sites: 70
July – November 2012
Targeted Commercial & Industrial Customers
10
 Office Buildings
 Health Services
 Retail
 Food Service
 Warehouse
 G...
C&I End-Use Profile: Current Usage
11
Lighting
28%
Cooling
15%
Motors
16% Office
Equipment
9%
Ventilation
8%
Refrigeration...
Overall C&I Usage and Waste Summary
12
Efficient
Usage
61% 6%
12%
21%
Energy Use Classified in Baseline Study
Technology W...
C&I Lighting Usage & Waste Results
Efficient
Usage
42%
23%
12%
23%
28%
Technology Waste: 23-35%
 Upgrade to high-efficien...
Commercial Lighting Approach
14
• Adjusted customer-reported HOU
based on light logger findings
• Lighting waste when spac...
C&I Lighting Highlights: Technology
15
 T12s are common
 Penetration of T12s is
higher than T8s
 Saturation of T8s slig...
C&I Lighting Highlights: Behavior
16
 High penetration of
manual controls
 Behavioral waste highest
for industrial and l...
Approach is Flexible
17
 Variations are possible depending on research
objectives and existing data:
 Target a small num...
Benefits to Comprehensive Program Planning
 Identify pockets of energy-savings opportunities within
segments or end-uses
...
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IEPEC_Behavioral and Operational Waste an Analysis of Program Opportunities_Burke

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IEPEC_Behavioral and Operational Waste an Analysis of Program Opportunities_Burke

  1. 1. BEHAVIORAL AND OPERATIONAL WASTE: AN ANALYSIS OF PROGRAM OPPORTUNITIES Presented at the International Energy Program Evaluation Conference – Chicago 2013 August 15, 2013 Adam Burke, Opinion Dynamics Corporation Roger Baker, Commonwealth Edison
  2. 2. Overview 2  Purpose and objectives  Approach  Summary of results  Applying the results
  3. 3. What were we looking for? 3  ComEd commissioned study to address two primary research objectives  Provide real primary data to inform program planning - identify gaps in current program offerings and opportunities to acquire deeper savings  Examine technological and behavioral waste together
  4. 4. What did we find? 4 End Use Profile Percentage of Total Annual GWh Waste Profile Percentage of Annual Lighting GWh Lighting Efficient Usage: How little  lighting energy could be used if  all customers installed efficient  lighting and turned lights off  when  not needed? Efficient Usage: How little  lighting energy could be used if  all customers installed efficient  lighting and turned lights off  when  not needed? Waste: How much of the  remaining usage is due  to inefficient equipment  vs. wasteful behavior? Waste: How much of the  remaining usage is due  to inefficient equipment  vs. wasteful behavior? Current Usage: How  much electricity  actually goes to each  end use? Current Usage: How  much electricity  actually goes to each  end use?
  5. 5. How are these results being used?  Assess the efficacy of technology and behavioral program options to optimize DSM investment  Rebates vs. information/messaging  Identify and prioritize among “opportunity pockets”  Customer segments or end use types where significant savings can be realized through behavioral program elements  Determine if gaps exist in current program offerings 5
  6. 6. End-Use Approach  Comprehensive assessment of electricity usage and waste for six C&I end uses:  Extensive primary data collection and metering  Defined efficient technologies and behaviors  Enhanced engineering analysis to assess energy usage and waste 6  Lighting  Cooling  Ventilation  Refrigeration  Motors  Office Equipment
  7. 7. What is Waste?  Current usage: Incorporates actual customer behaviors and the efficiency level of currently-installed equipment  Technological waste: Savings opportunities associated with upgrading to more efficient equipment – e.g., ENERGY STAR, CEE Tier 3, or program guidelines  Behavioral Waste: Savings opportunities associated with using optimal settings and using equipment only when needed  Efficient Usage: The remainder – only “efficient” given the waste categories that we included in our analysis 7
  8. 8. Conceptualizing Usage and Waste 8 Run Time or Hours Watts Efficient Use Behavioral Waste = B+C A C B Technological Waste = A+B Shared Waste = B
  9. 9. C&I Primary Data Collection 9 Telephone Interviews: 1,519 Onsite Audits: 347 Metering Sites: 70 July – November 2012
  10. 10. Targeted Commercial & Industrial Customers 10  Office Buildings  Health Services  Retail  Food Service  Warehouse  Grocery/Convenience  Non-Public Education  Lodging/Hospitality  All Other Commercial  Less than 100 kW  100 – 400 kW  Greater than 400 kW Commercial Industrial
  11. 11. C&I End-Use Profile: Current Usage 11 Lighting 28% Cooling 15% Motors 16% Office Equipment 9% Ventilation 8% Refrigeration 6%All Other 19% All C&I Comm. Total Industrial Total Lighting 28% 31% 17% Motors 16% 7% 38% Cooling 15% 15% 11% Office Equipment 9% 10% 3% Ventilation 8% 9% 7% Refrigeration 6% 6% 1% All Other 19% 22% 23% TOTAL 100% 100% 100% Percentage of Annual Commercial & Industrial GWh
  12. 12. Overall C&I Usage and Waste Summary 12 Efficient Usage 61% 6% 12% 21% Energy Use Classified in Baseline Study Technology Waste 21-27% Behavioral Waste 12-18% Shared Waste* * Either technology or behavioral waste, depending on which is addressed first
  13. 13. C&I Lighting Usage & Waste Results Efficient Usage 42% 23% 12% 23% 28% Technology Waste: 23-35%  Upgrade to high-efficiency lamps, including LEDs  Assume current lighting design 13  Turn off lights when space not occupied  Implement multiple methods of lighting controls Behavioral Waste: 23-35% Shared Waste* Penetration: 100% 10,926 GWh Current Usage 6,356 GWh Current Waste * Either technology or behavioral waste, depending on which is addressed first
  14. 14. Commercial Lighting Approach 14 • Adjusted customer-reported HOU based on light logger findings • Lighting waste when space unoccupied for 15+ minutes Technology Behavior • Standardized lighting upgrades • Savings varies by space type Existing Lighting Type Efficient Lighting Type CFLs < 25 W LEDs CFLs >= 25 W Leave as is Halogens <= 50 W LEDs Halogens > 50 W CFLs Metal Halide <= 100 W Leave as is Metal Halide > 100 W HPT8, 32 W Example Upgrades
  15. 15. C&I Lighting Highlights: Technology 15  T12s are common  Penetration of T12s is higher than T8s  Saturation of T8s slightly higher than T12s  Technological waste highest in industrial and lodging segments  Industrial: Driven by metal halides and T12s  Lodging: Driven by incandescents and T12s Percentage of Linear Fluorescent Fixtures 41% 45% 47% 51% 12% 4% 0% 50% 100% Commercial Industrial T5 T8 T12
  16. 16. C&I Lighting Highlights: Behavior 16  High penetration of manual controls  Behavioral waste highest for industrial and lodging segments  Light logger study found 30% waste associated with leaving lights on when space not occupied (with 15 minute time-out) Percentage of Light Fixtures with Control Types 1% 5% 4% 10% 2% Dimmer or Dual Level Switches Timers Occupancy Sensors Energy Management System No controls Manual Controls 78% Other 22%
  17. 17. Approach is Flexible 17  Variations are possible depending on research objectives and existing data:  Target a small number of end uses for deeper analysis  Dive deeply into key C&I segments of interest  Waste can be calculated using different thresholds or definitions  Combine usage and waste analysis with targeting or segmentation studies to identify new opportunities
  18. 18. Benefits to Comprehensive Program Planning  Identify pockets of energy-savings opportunities within segments or end-uses  Identify gaps in program offerings  Generate more focused targeting and effective marketing of programs 18  Identify potential behavior-based components to incorporate into existing programs  Inform decisions on how to best apportion resources between behavioral and technology-based

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