Impact AssessmentPart One: Participant ExperiencesAugust 2012Operation Groundswellweb. www.operationgroundswell.com • tel....
Table of ContentsIntroduction ...............................................................................................
IntroductionHungry for learning, but unsatisfied by the confines of the classroom, David Berkal andJonah Brotman decided t...
next summer (2013). The evaluation will be completed anonymously to truly uncover howour local partners perceive our work ...
Sampling ProcedureAlison Roadburg, Operation Groundswell’s summer intern, completed the data collectionand report compilat...
Relief   Peru Amazon           12                     1                   0   Adventure   SEA Discovery         11        ...
Life Trajectoriesa. Personal GrowthTraveling to a foreign country, especially for the first time, has lasting effects on o...
Do you think your team/ leadership skills have                                             increased since your OG trip?  ...
•                       “Especially in ITT, I did completely solo traveling. Just being a woman and being a               ...
These figures represent the impact Operation Groundswell trips have on their alumni interms of personal growth and develop...
Has anything changed (career/school) since your OG trip?                                 7	                               ...
like I couldn’t do anything, but now I feel like ok, back to the plan.” (Southeast            Asia)       •    “Before the...
Do you think your communication skills have                                   increased ina professional setting since you...
Do you think your leadership skills have increased in a                                          professional setting sinc...
This next figure represents a summary of the above findings. The majority reported thattheir trip experience was highly im...
Do you think your OG trip helped you find a job?                                7	                                6	      ...
world. I went for myself, to open my eyes. It’s about promoting local       initiatives and that’s where my opinion and pe...
How much of an impact did traveling in a foreign country have                                                             ...
How much of an impact did "roughing it" have on you?                           14	                           12	          ...
How much of an impact did meeting people from diverse                                                 cultural backgrounds...
How much of an impact did the volunteer project have on                                                                   ...
Debriefs/Discussions                                12	                                10	       Number of Participants   ...
another dimension - how we can make change as a group…or if we can even       make change? Is it for our own benefit? Inte...
•   “We met the prime minister, wish we talked more about the political       climate...touched on it but would have liked...
TrendsWater UsageWhen asked about a change in perspective, or daily routine, a noticeable number ofrespondents mentioned t...
trying to pick up on the Hakuna Matatta attitude, I really like that.” (East Africa)       •    “When I went to SEA I went...
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2012 Impact Assessment: Part 1

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Part 1 of Operation Groundswell's Impact Assessment measures our program model and perceived effectiveness from the perspective of past volunteers. The goals of this assessment are to look at what works, what doesn’t, and what volunteers are getting out of their OG experience.

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2012 Impact Assessment: Part 1

  1. 1. Impact AssessmentPart One: Participant ExperiencesAugust 2012Operation Groundswellweb. www.operationgroundswell.com • tel. 1-866-422-0164687A Bloor Street • Toronto, Canada • M6G 1L3
  2. 2. Table of ContentsIntroduction ............................................................................................................ 3  Our Purpose: Global Citizenship ........................................................................................ 4  Sampling Procedure .............................................................................................. 5  Findings .................................................................................................................. 6  Life Trajectories .................................................................................................................. 7   a. Personal Growth.......................................................................................................... 7   b. Professional Development ........................................................................................ 10  Project Model .................................................................................................................... 17   a. What Works? ............................................................................................................. 17   b. What Doesn’t Work? ................................................................................................. 23  Reflection.............................................................................................................. 24  Trends .............................................................................................................................. 25   Water Usage ................................................................................................................. 25  Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 2
  3. 3. IntroductionHungry for learning, but unsatisfied by the confines of the classroom, David Berkal andJonah Brotman decided to go out into the world and try volunteering abroad. The problemwas that they couldn’t find a single organization that they could afford. Most were big boxcompanies charging exorbitant amounts of money to “do good” across the oceans. In2006, after being heavily disappointed with the options available, they set out to do itthemselves. They spent months meeting and connecting with amazing locals in Ghana,finding incredible partners and setting up a program to be proud of. Since then, OperationGroundswell has grown immensely and demand for trips has been overwhelming. We’veexpanded to nine regions and now run over twenty trips a year!We bring cool, caring people together who want to explore the world while activelyshaping it. We are not just trying to be a travel company. We’re trying to spark amovement of globally active and socially conscious backpackers, what we like to call,backpacktivists. We have had much verbal praise from our local community partners, aswell as from volunteer alumnus, but thus far, it has stopped there…until now.We have decided to undertake an impact assessment to strategically measure ourprogram model and perceived effectiveness from both our local partners’ perspective andfrom alumni. The complete assessment is thus compiled into two parts.The first part presents feedback from OG alumni after they have been home for one year.All trip participants complete an evaluation at the end of their trip while they are overseaswith us. That evaluation seeks feedback from the application process, fundraisingcomponent, trip leaders, etc. These conclusions produce a short-term understanding oftrip impact, but to allow for an understanding of longer-term impacts, we had to wait untilour participants returned home.The second part is founded on feedback from our local community partners. Anevaluation has been created, which will be distributed to our community project managersOperation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 3
  4. 4. next summer (2013). The evaluation will be completed anonymously to truly uncover howour local partners perceive our work on the ground. This collected data, along with theassessment from OG alumni in the pages that follow, will allow for an all-encompassingpicture of our work from multiple perspectives.Our Purpose: Global CitizenshipWe strive to ignite personal growth and global citizenship through our programs. We oftenhypothesize potential trip impacts but how does this actually manifest?The idea of global citizenship is at the forefront of our project model. As this concept willoften be referred to throughout this report, it is necessary to understand its meaning.According to Oxfam (2007), “global citizenship is about understanding the need to tackleinjustice and inequality, and having the desire and ability to work actively to do so. It isabout valuing the Earth as precious and unique, and safeguarding the future for thosecoming after us. Global citizenship is a way of thinking and behaving. It is an outlook onlife, a belief that we can make a difference.”Furthermore, a global citizen is someone who:• is aware of the wider world and has a sense of their own role as a world citizen;• respects and values diversity;• has an understanding of how the world works economically, politically, socially, culturally, technologically and environmentally;• is outraged by social injustice;• participates in and contributes to the community at a range of levels from local to global;• is willing to act to make the world a more sustainable place;• takes responsibility for their actions.Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 4
  5. 5. Sampling ProcedureAlison Roadburg, Operation Groundswell’s summer intern, completed the data collectionand report compilation for this project. As she has not participated in an OG trip herself,the framework for the design and execution of both the interview questions and reportwere done from a non-biased standpoint. In the spirit of full disclosure, she prefaced eachinterview with this fact.Alison was asked to interview 25 Operation Groundswell alumni from the 2011 trips. Hergoal was to speak with at least one male and one female participant from all summer2011 trips, both early summer and late summer programs. She made contact with 65 OGalumni, and successfully interviewed 21. Although this number fell short of the goal, witha 32% response rate, enough data was collected to draw the necessary conclusions.The interviews were conducted via telephone and/or Skype. There were a total of 25questions, which generally took an average of 30-45 minutes to complete. The interviewsbegan on July 4th, 2012, and ended on August 14, 2012.The following chart represents the number and gender of those interviewed coincidingwith trip location. No. of trip Trip Location Participants Males Females East Africa 11 2 1 Discovery East Africa 10 1 1 Political Middle East 8 2 0 Peru Disaster 11 0 1Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 5
  6. 6. Relief Peru Amazon 12 1 0 Adventure SEA Discovery 11 1 2 SEA Eco. 11 0 2 West Africa 9 1 1 Discovery West Africa Global 9 1 1 Health Colombia 9 0 1 Guatemala 9 0 2*NOTE: Due to logistical reasoning, no participants were interviewed from the Guyana orIndia trip.FindingsThe following data presents the major findings. The data is represented in bar graphfigures and direct quotes from participants have been included to elaborate on lifechanges and experiences.The findings are divided into two categories: 1) Life Trajectories a. Personal Growth (Figure 1-5) b. Professional Development (Figure 6-11) 2) Project Model a. What works (Figure 12-16) b. What doesn’t work?Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 6
  7. 7. Life Trajectoriesa. Personal GrowthTraveling to a foreign country, especially for the first time, has lasting effects on one’spersonality and affects one’s relationship with themselves and others. Leaving yourcomfort zone and support system forces you to adapt, and as such, grow as anindividual.With this in mind, we probed to see if trip participants noticed such change, and to whatdegree this continued once back home. Do you think your confidence has increased since your OG trip? 12   10   Number of Parricipants 8   6   4   2   0   Absolutely Somewhat No, not really Not at allFigure 1: Do you think your confidence has increased since your OG trip?Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 7
  8. 8. Do you think your team/ leadership skills have increased since your OG trip? 12   10   Number of Participants 8   6   4   2   0   Absolutely Somewhat No, not really Not at allFigure 2: Do you think your team/leadership skills have increased since your OGtrip? Do you think your independence has increased since your OG trip? 16   14   Number of Participants 12   10   8   6   4   2   0   Absolutely Somewhat No, not really Not at allFigure 3: Do you think your independence has increased since your OG trip?Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 8
  9. 9. • “Especially in ITT, I did completely solo traveling. Just being a woman and being a woman in a country like that was scary, but also empowering. Showing myself that I could make it through, was special for me.” (East Africa) Do you think your education has increased since your OG trip? 20   18   Number of Participants 16   14   12   10   8   6   4   2   0   Absolutely Somewhat No, not really Not at allFigure 4: Do you think your education has increased since your OG trip? Do you think your confidence as a traveler has increased? 20 18 Number of Participants 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Absolutely Somewhat No, not really Not at allFigure 5: Do you think your confidence as a traveler has increased?Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 9
  10. 10. These figures represent the impact Operation Groundswell trips have on their alumni interms of personal growth and development. As these traits are difficult to objectivelymeasure, it is important to keep this in mind when drawing conclusions. Nevertheless, itis worth noting that OG alumni repeatedly reported on the learning and development ofnew skills. • “I had never been to Asia, so just having that new sense and awareness and understanding how small the world is and how similar people are even worlds apart. A better understanding of the world and communities. And also, being more confident knowing that I can live with very little. And the only way I could find that out is being thrown into a situation, and I could do that...and I came out ok. I feel less high maintenance, and think more resourcefully.” (Southeast Asia)b. Professional DevelopmentAs Operation Groundswell’s trips generally appeal to and attract university students, thepotential for a shift in studies, career goals or professional outlook is high. The figuresthat follow gauge the level of professional development that resulted from participating inan OG program.Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 0
  11. 11. Has anything changed (career/school) since your OG trip? 7 6 Number of Participants 5 4 3 2 1 0 Highly Agree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Disagree Highlly Agree agree disagree DisagreeFigure 6: Has anything changed (career/school) since your OG trip?There is an overwhelming response of alumni reporting that their OG trip did indeedchange their current professional path. Alumni reported a reaffirmation of professionalgoals, a shift in current/future studies, and repositioning career priorities. • “I decided to go for my dream and become a pilot…why wait? Seeing how people live for the moment and the sense of culture and community, I loved that. That was my favorite part. Experiencing their lifestyle, trying to pick up on the Hakuna Matatta attitude, I really like that.” (East Africa) • “When I went to SEA I went to a lot of archeological sites and historical sights. I gained a real interest in the history of that region, and I think that is where I want to do my research…for field work” (Southeast Asia) • “Brought back my plan. I had a plan, got lazy and disillusioned and feltOperation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 1
  12. 12. like I couldn’t do anything, but now I feel like ok, back to the plan.” (Southeast Asia) • “Before the trip I wasn’t sure what I was going to be pursuing when I first started school. The initial goal was to be an engineer...but I didn’t like that so much. After the Ghana trip, I got really interested in health care and I’m now pursuing medicine.” (West Africa) • “I study political science. I was always interested in African politics and the trip solidified that, changed my perspective on a lot of things, changed school direction. Now I’m at Carleton [University], for the African studies program.” (East Africa)These results, unlike many of the others presented in this report are tangible. Thesechanges were not only perceived, but they were actualized.Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 2
  13. 13. Do you think your communication skills have increased ina professional setting since your OG trip? 16 14 Number of Participants 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Absolutely Somewhat No, not really Not at allFigure 7: Do you think your communication skills have increased in a professionalsetting since your OG trip? Do you think your confidence has increased in a professional setting since your OG trip? 10 9 Number of Participants 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Absolutely Somewhat No, not really Not at allFigure 8: Do you think your confidence has increased in a professional settingsince your OG trip?*NOTE: this response rate was 20 participants; one did not answer this question.Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 3
  14. 14. Do you think your leadership skills have increased in a professional setting since your OG trip? 9 8 7 Number of Participants 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Absolutely Somewhat No, not really Not at allFigure 9: Do you think your leadership skills have increased in a professionalsetting since your OG trip?*NOTE: Response rate was 19 participants; two did not answer this question.An increase of workplace/school communication skills, confidence and leadership sincean OG trip is not overwhelmingly high, but a change pattern can still be observed.Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 4
  15. 15. This next figure represents a summary of the above findings. The majority reported thattheir trip experience was highly important and influential in terms of professionaldevelopment, employability, and focus of studies. How would you rate the importance of your OG experience for professional development, employability and focus of studies 14   12   Number of Participants 10   8   6   4   2   0   Highly Important Neutral Not very No impact, no important and importat importance influential whatsoeverFigure 10: How would you rate the importance of your OG experience forprofessional development, employability, and focus of studies?Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 5
  16. 16. Do you think your OG trip helped you find a job? 7 6 5 Number of Participants 4 3 2 1 0 Highly Agree Somewhat Neutral Somehwat Disagree Highly Agree Agree Disagree DisagreeFigure 11: Do you think your OG trip helped you find a job?Many participants elaborated in great detail the impact of their OG trip on professionaland personal development. Though this data is difficult to quantify and represent in agraph, it is still of great value. Here is a small selection of what our alumni had to say: • “I try to live more in the moment. I read the news everyday, that’s my job… just got to be more in the moment”. (Middle East) • “Really socially conscious before, but it matured your opinions...before I wanted to “save the world”. Now that I look back, that seems ignorant. At one point, in Tzibal, all we did was shovel gravel up a hill for a week and sorted bottles. I remembered we had discussions at night talking about how this isn’t helping, and realizing that I didn’t go on the trip to save theOperation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 6
  17. 17. world. I went for myself, to open my eyes. It’s about promoting local initiatives and that’s where my opinion and perspective changed.” (Guatemala) • “Being in Kenya, I want to be connected and aware of what’s going on now. Other people on his trip have gone back. I’m now much more aware about global issues and about conflicts. Read more news than I did before and I now try to change perspectives of people. And let them know that the situation is not as crazy as the news says, not all Africa is at war.” (East Africa) • “Yes – but it’s hard to pinpoint specifics. I’m now open to, and unafraid of any conversation and situation. I generally lost a lot of the fear that comes when in a new situation or outside of my comfort zone. It all of a sudden becomes a comfort. Able to float now, which is pretty cool.” (Middle East) • “Yes, my whole view of Africa has changed…coming into it was not it at all. I had way more culture shock going to Africa, I felt that our culture is very ignorant.” (West Africa)Project Modela. What Works?In order to understand what part of our programs worked and didn’t work for participantsin terms of personal development, we broke down defining aspects of our programs andasked participants the impact each had on them. • Traveling in a foreign country (Figure 12) • Roughing it (Figure 13) • Meeting people from diverse cultural backgrounds (Figure 14) • Debriefs/Discussions (Figure 15) • The volunteer project (Figure 16)Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 7
  18. 18. How much of an impact did traveling in a foreign country have on you? 18 16 14 Number of Participants 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Highly Agree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Disagree Highlly Agree agree disagree DisagreeFigure 12: How much of an impact did traveling in a foreign country have on you?76% of the respondents indicated that they ‘highly agree’ that traveling to a foreigncountry had a significant impact on their personal growth and development.Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 8
  19. 19. How much of an impact did "roughing it" have on you? 14 12 10 Number of Participants 8 6 4 2 0 Highly Agree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Disagree Highlly Agree agree disagree DisagreeFigure 13: How much of an impact did ‘roughing it’ (sleeping anywhere, taking longbus rides, eating rice and beans for 3 weeks straight) have on you?Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 1 9
  20. 20. How much of an impact did meeting people from diverse cultural backgrounds have on you? 14 12 Number of Participants 10 8 6 4 2 0 Highly Agree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Disagree Highlly Agree agree disagree DisagreeFigure 14: How much of an impact did meeting people from diverse culturalbackgrounds have on you?Guided by the ideals of global citizenship, Operation Groundswell trips strive to createlasting connections with host communities. Participants are urged to connect with locals,and this data represents just how much this impacted their experience.Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 2 0
  21. 21. How much of an impact did the volunteer project have on you? 12 10 Number of Participants 8 6 4 2 0 Highly Agree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Disagree Highlly Agree agree disagree DisagreeFigure 15: How much of an impact did the volunteer project have on you?This figure displays personal impact with regards to the volunteer project. It is importantto keep in mind the great variation of these projects – both country and communityspecific. Despite this, most participants felt that their volunteering had an impact on theirlives.Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 2 1
  22. 22. Debriefs/Discussions 12 10 Number of Participants 8 6 4 2 0 Highly Agree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Disagree Highlly Agree agree disagree DisagreeFigure 16: How much of an impact did debriefs and discussions have on you?Just like above, this next figure is also very trip-specific. Trip leaders encourage dailydebriefs and discussions, but the execution of this is very much dependent on the groupdynamics, community landscape, and trip leader’s knowledge, understanding, andfacilitation techniques.Participant feedback: • “I think that is one of the biggest parts of the trip that resonated with me. So impressed with the 3 trip leaders – the level of intellect and the level of questions asked. I felt like I was talking to 3 professors. They knew how to get us thinking. I think that fostered how I thought about the whole trip analytically, and how to make the trip more…kept a journal, I never do that, but because of our discussions I just had so many thoughts in my head that I wanted to write down. Put things onOperation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 2 2
  23. 23. another dimension - how we can make change as a group…or if we can even make change? Is it for our own benefit? International development studies kind of thing” (Middle East) • “Having the idea to travel with people and run by people my age. They did things right.” (Guatemala) • “Sometimes OG comes across as loosely organized, horizontal organization…which is why I was so attracted to it – it was not tons and tons of forms to fill out, and did not have to give references, etc. In that sense I enjoyed that there was less bureaucracy, I also enjoyed the fact that it is a group trip, but still an individual trip – sometimes as a group you may not agree…frustrating but it also makes the trip what it is...it was not so planned in advance, just move on the fly, one person’s passport was stolen and had to break off..and that’s what I enjoy...the unexpected and being able to deal with it. Maybe if this happened on another program, or with other organizations, that person would have to call home, etc…not like on OG.” (East Africa)b. What Doesn’t Work?The primary idea behind an impact assessment is to uncover the good, the bad, and theugly. Participants were asked what did not work for them and what they would changeabout the program given the chance. Unfortunately we were not able to make anysignificant conclusions in this category. Below is this feedback. • “The only thing I would have changed is when we were living in Sandema. There was me and this other girl, whose family was outside of town – was not great, could not meet up with everyone…especially at night. So I would suggest to not have people stay so far, or at least get them bikes or something.” (West Africa)Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 2 3
  24. 24. • “We met the prime minister, wish we talked more about the political climate...touched on it but would have liked to go more into it…especially after meeting people, and the elections were coming up.” (East Africa) • “Maybe go a bit deeper…I know it depends on the group dynamics, but there’s definitely the possibility to go deeper. Hard to keep a balance between a more pedagogical discussion and just general. Sometimes you can tell leaders would bring things up in a more casual way…but it’s hard because the topics are more out there.” (Guatemala) • “We did a lot more of the discussions at the start and then it dwindled towards the end” (East Africa) • “For the most part I was satisfied. Maybe I would have liked a little bit more all- group discussion. We did have a couple, but generally they were informal over meals.”(West Africa)ReflectionThis assessment explored ways in which Operation Groundswell trip alumni experiencedchange in their personal and professional lives. It was also a way to gain insightsurrounding the execution of our programs from the perspective of our alumni.Much of what we found has been quantified in the graphs above, but there is also a lot ofquantitative data worth noting. We documented those findings below.Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 2 4
  25. 25. TrendsWater UsageWhen asked about a change in perspective, or daily routine, a noticeable number ofrespondents mentioned that they were much more aware of their use (and in many casesoveruse), of water once they returned home. • “Water in Maragoli was always an issue, in Rome (layover on way home) water fountains just kept going. I still think about it now. Still conserve water. I was conscious before, but not nearly as much as post trip.” • “For the first month I would always laugh when I walked into a bathroom, oh my gosh.”News engagement7 respondents indicated an increase of their personal engagement with both local andinternational news. Whether paying more attention to global issues, an awareness of thedaily happenings in the country of their trip, or more attention to local news, this wassurely a trend throughout the interviews.As the development of global citizenship is at the forefront of our organization and projectmodel, an increase of attention to and awareness of global and local issues isoverwhelmingly relevant.Reconfirmed direction – An overwhelming number of respondents indicated that theirtrip reconfirmed their current life course/long term goal. • “I decided to go for my dream and become a pilot…why wait? Seeing how people live for the moment and the sense of culture and community, I loved that. That was my favorite part. Experiencing their lifestyle,Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 2 5
  26. 26. trying to pick up on the Hakuna Matatta attitude, I really like that.” (East Africa) • “When I went to SEA I went to a lot of archeological sites and historical sights. I gained a real interest in the history of that region, and I think that is where I want to do my research…for field work” (Southeast Asia) • “Brought back my plan. I had a plan, got lazy and disillusioned and felt like I couldn’t do anything, but now I feel like ok, back to the plan.” (Southeast Asia) • “Before the trip I wasn’t sure what I was going to be pursuing when I first started school. The initial goal was to be an engineer...but I didn’t like that so much. After the Ghana trip, I got really interested in health care and I’m now pursuing medicine.” (West Africa) • “I study political science. I was always interested in African politics and the trip solidified that, changed my perspective on a lot of things, changed school direction. Now I’m at Carleton [University], for the African studies program.” (East Africa) • “The door to which I see the world I always try to keep open, but this trip kicked that door to the ground and tore it apart - now I have a double bay door to see the world” • “Shifted no, specified yes. I’ve been infected by the travel bug. I have more clarity, now that I have done it, I want to see the word and change it –now it’s not even a question. If you asked me before OG, that would be different. Now it’s real. It made my 5-year plan realistic”Operation Groundswell www.operationgroundswell.com IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PART ONE 2 6

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