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Styles of intervention for government policy-making

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We have been investigating ways to help policy makers, whether in government or other organisations, to explore the range of styles of intervention available to them. Our styles of intervention do not attempt to be exhaustive, but can act as prompts for policy teams and partners. The styles of intervention can be used in a similar way that an artist might explore the range of colours or textures available to them. Here are a draft set of cards, constantly under development. Please give us feedback at policylab@cabinetoffice.gov.uk

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Styles of intervention for government policy-making

  1. 1. Styles of intervention We have been investigating ways to help policy makers, whether in government or other organisations, to explore the range of styles of intervention available to them. Our styles of intervention do not attempt to be exhaustive, but can act as prompts for policy teams and partners. The styles of intervention can be used in a similar way that an artist might explore the range of colours or textures available to them. Here are a draft set of cards, constantly under development. Please give us feedback at policylab@cabinetoffice.gov.uk
  2. 2. Steward Steering a sector through influence and information Regulator Regulating a sector and coordinating enforcement Funder Stimulating or leading investment Provider Designing, providing and modifying public services Customer Buying goods and commision services Legislator Making laws and amending legislation Framing, piloting and market forming Moving in mature markets and policy ecosystems Early stage intervention Scaling, mainstreaming and market building Strategy and skills planning Prepare for changing workforce demands and consequences of change. Fiscal incentives Direct finance to stimulate new thinking that can drive future opportunities. Governance Ensure regulation supports the conditions for change and delivers the policy intent. Service redesign Establish legitimacy for more human- centred services, harnessing political will for change. Educating and informing Ensure regulation is sufficiently understood and citizens know what’s available to them. Grants and subsidies Incentivise behaviour change through grants or other incentives. Building a regulatory environment Ensure regulation enables the intended policy outcomes. Service provider Provide services directly or indirectly through funding and target setting. Agenda setting Build awareness and confidence in new opportunities by providing thought leadership. Innovator Create test beds, sandboxes and trials in real world settings. Encourage voluntary codes Self-regulation, without legislation, allowing for greater flexibility. Early adopter Invest in the exploration of new opportunities with strategic value. Giving a voice Creating platforms for citizens and stakeholders to protect vested rights and interests. Platform provision Scale up proven ideas through existing infrastructure and public services. Compliance Support enforcement and harmonise regulatory compliance environment. Choice architect ‘Nudging’ behaviour so that the default is both attractive and easy. Convening power Draw together expertise from across system. Connecting networks Encourage government, experts and citizens to co-create change. Champion Build a case for change and retain alliances for action. Co-producing Co-deliver by steering different actors from across the system to deliver outcomes. Standard setting Develop standards for data collection and presentation. User centred commissioner Understanding citizen needs and contracting services that deliver best impact. Catalyst Review, identify and invest in key opportunities with strategic value. Leverage buying power Utilise public procurement to encourage investment, innovation, and protect consumer rights. White papers & draft bills Publish proposals for consultation and pre-legislative scrutiny. Primary and Secondary Legislation Support a bill through parliament and enact legislation. Green papers Publish proposals for discussion with stakeholders and the public. Amend rules Statutory Instruments: rules, orders, created by delegated authorities (e.g. Secretary of State). Styles of government intervention* * Examples of different formal and informal powers and levers for government policy-makers Collaborator Working with others to build evidence and develop ideas Government as ... March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  3. 3. Collaborator Style of intervention - government Government can work with others to build evidence and develop ideas What: StewardCollaborator Customer Funder Regulator LegislatorProvider March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  4. 4. Demonstrating best practice “We are taking on the new code of practice in all government buildings” Champion DEVELOPINGEARLY STAGE SCALING Convening power Calling a summit “We are bringing you together to find a solution to x problem” Connecting networks Co-producing Creating an ecosystem “We are creating a network to address market failure” e.g. knowledge transfer networks Development of multi- agency safeguarding teams “Together, government, law enforcement, social services and others will develop action plans to support the most vulnerable” FRAMING Collaborator - Examples Build a case for change and retain alliances for action. Draw together expertise from across system. Encourage government, experts and citizens to co-create change. Co-deliver by steering different actors from across the system to deliver outcomes. March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  5. 5. Steward Government can steer a sector through influence and information What: StewardCollaborator Customer Funder Regulator LegislatorProvider March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype. Style of intervention - government
  6. 6. Steward - Examples Agenda Setting Strategy and skills planning Educating and informing Giving a voice Build awareness and confidence in new opportunities by providing thought leadership. Prepare for changing workforce demands and consequences of change. Ensure regulation is sufficiently understood and citizens know what is available to them. Creating platforms for citizens and stakeholders to protect vested rights and interests. DEVELOPINGEARLY STAGE SCALINGFRAMING Speech on the steps of Downing Street “My government will focus on x issue” Setting out what skills we will need for the future “Our purpose document sets out what the Cabinet Office needs…” Promotion of government schemes (e.g. apprentices) “Get in, go far – take on an apprentice” Measures for citizens to provide feedback “If you don’t think this service does well, you can take x action” March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  7. 7. Customer Government can buy goods and commission services What: StewardCollaborator Customer Funder Regulator LegislatorProvider March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype. Style of intervention - government
  8. 8. Catalyst Standard setting User centred commissioner Leverage buying power Review, identify and invest in key opportunities with strategic value. Develop standards for data collection and presentation. Understanding citizen needs and contracting services that deliver best impact. Utilise public procurement to encourage investment, innovation, and protect consumer rights. DEVELOPINGEARLY STAGE SCALINGFRAMING Customer - Examples Providing confidence in, and signalling sectors of interest through investment Government Digital by Default: “We will only buy these things” Setting technical standards for interfacing with systems “When uploading audio to the system, you can use only .mp3 files” Harnessing buying power through large orders “When we buy operational staff uniforms, we will only buy fair trade” Buying services which deliver for identified citizen needs “We have contracted with x organisation to deliver y service to z people” March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  9. 9. Provider Government can design, provide and modify public services What: StewardCollaborator Customer Funder Regulator LegislatorProvider March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype. Style of intervention - government
  10. 10. Create test beds, sandboxes and trials in real world settings. Innovator Service redesign Service provider Choice architect Establish legitimacy for more human-centred services, harnessing political will for change. Provide services directly or indirectly through funding and target setting. ‘Nudging’ behaviour so that the default is both attractive and easy. DEVELOPINGEARLY STAGE SCALINGFRAMING Provider - Examples New models of care: vanguard sites “We are prototyping a new service provision model” New commissioning models “We are integrating health and social care” Issuing of licences, passports and permits “We will issue most passport renewals in 3 weeks” Using behavioural interventions “We will remind people that nine out of 10 people in the UK pay their tax on time” March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  11. 11. Funder Government can stimulate or lead investment What: StewardCollaborator Customer Funder Regulator LegislatorProvider March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype. Style of intervention - government
  12. 12. Early adopter Fiscal incentives Grants and subsidies Platform provision Invest in the exploration of new opportunities with strategic value. Direct finance to stimulate new thinking that can drive future opportunities. Incentivise behaviour change through grants or other incentives. Scale up proven ideas through existing infrastructure and public services. DEVELOPINGEARLY STAGE SCALINGFRAMING Funder - Examples R&D labs e.g. Centre of Applied Science and Tech “We are putting resource into developing technologies which…” Northern Powerhouse investments “We are putting money where we want things to happen” Innovation funds “We want innovative projects which use xyz technologies” Government as a platform “We will provide the supporting infrastructure, you build add-on services” March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  13. 13. Regulator Government can regulate a sector and coordinate enforcement What: StewardCollaborator Customer Funder Regulator LegislatorProvider March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype. Style of intervention - government
  14. 14. Encourage voluntary codes Governance Building a regulatory environment Compliance Self-regulation, without legislation, allowing for greater flexibility. Ensure regulation supports the conditions for change and delivers the policy intent. Ensure regulation enables the intended policy outcomes. Support enforcement and harmonise regulatory compliance environment. DEVELOPINGEARLY STAGE SCALINGFRAMING Regulator - Examples The Woodland Carbon Code “We support the market’s adoption of this voluntary code” Creating an oversight board “Our terms of reference are to ensure the service runs effectively” Forming a new protection agency “This organisation will regulate the sector with these powers” Funding and supporting protection agencies “We are giving x agency more money for them to combat y” March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  15. 15. Legislator Through parliament, government can make laws and amend legislation What: StewardCollaborator Customer Funder Regulator LegislatorProvider March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype. Style of intervention - government
  16. 16. Green papers White papers & draft bills Primary and Secondary Legislation Amend rules Publish proposals for discussion with stakeholders and the public. Publish proposals for consultation and pre- legislative scrutiny. Support a bill through parliament and enact legislation. Statutory Instruments: rules, orders, created by delegated authorities (e.g. Secretary of State). DEVELOPINGEARLY STAGE SCALINGFRAMING Legislator - Examples The industrial strategy green paper “Here is what we want to do…” Future of East Midlands rail franchise “Here is how we plan to do it” The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 “This is the law” Amendments to the Misuse of Drugs Act “These things are now covered by the act” March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  17. 17. Style of intervention - other Who: What: What can be done by others, e.g. industry, communities and individuals? March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  18. 18. Other intervention ACTION Communities Other actors March 2018 - work in progress. Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  19. 19. Groups What can be done by groups or communities? What: Style of intervention - groups and communities Who: Work in progress (April 2018 version). Please provide feedback on this prototype.
  20. 20. Individuals What: Style of intervention - individuals What can be done by individuals? Who: Work in progress (April 2018 version). Please provide feedback on this prototype.

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