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Open Science in a European Perspective

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Ron Dekker, National Open Access Workshop OpenAIRE, Warsaw, 16 November 2016.

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Open Science in a European Perspective

  1. 1. Open Science Ron Dekker, Seconded National Expert [opinions are my own] European Commission DG Research & Innovation A.6-Data, Open Access and Foresight Open Science in a European Perspective Polish National Open Access Workshop Warsaw, 16 November 2016
  2. 2. Contents What is Open Science European Open Science Policy From Vision to Action International Dimension Next Steps: What can you do?
  3. 3. Open Science - trend The way we do science will change, because of • Digitization Data availability (exponential growth) • Need for transparency and reproducibility Accountability, responsiveness and transparency • Need to better connect with society at large Including involvement of citizens; Digital Natives • Need to tackle grand challenges
  4. 4. Open Science – definition Michael Nielsen: "Open science is the idea that scientific knowledge of all kinds should be openly shared as early as is practical in the discovery process." scientific knowledge of all kinds: includes journal articles, data, code, online software tools, questions, ideas, and speculations; anything which can be considered knowledge. as is practical: very often there are other factors (legal, ethical, social, etc) that must be considered.
  5. 5. Open Science – umbrella term • Open source software • MOOCs/ • Open Educational Resources • Open innovation • Creative commons • Sharing/collaborative economy • Web 2.0
  6. 6. services and standards Collaborative bibliographies Analysis Open Science – an emerging ecosystem affects virtually all components of doing science and research
  7. 7. Open Science – a new approach to the research process Moedas (book on Open Innovation, Open Science, Open to the World): “Open Science represents a new approach to the scientific process based on cooperative work and new ways of diffusing knowledge by using digital technologies and new collaborative tools.” A new approach to the scientific process based on  cooperative work and  new ways of diffusing knowledge • by using digital technologies and new collaborative tools Shifting focus  from publishing as fast as possible  to sharing knowledge as early as possible
  8. 8. Article Accepted Research is done Write article Submit to Journal Peer review Revision by authors Publication accessible via subscription New research builds on published results Publishing process Access is maximized, although delayed article processing charges paid by institution/funder pays/author Access is maximized Source: Adapted from T. Brody and S. Harnad (Southampton University) Access behind paywall
  9. 9. Open Science – genesis of EC policy Extensive stakeholder consultation  Public consultation (July-September 2014)  Validation workshops (October-December 2014)  Final report (February 2015) http://ec.europa.eu/research/consultations/science-2.0/science_2_0_final_report.pdf Strong support by Member States  Competitiveness Council Conclusions ‘Data-Driven Economy' May 2015  Presidency conference Open Science & Competitiveness Council Conclusions ‘Open Science' May 2016 European Open Science Agenda  Broad consensus on five policy action lines  High Level Expert Groups on 8 Action Lines  Open Science Policy Platform  Included in the Digital Single Market strategy May 2015 9
  10. 10. 7.4 7.4 6.9 6.2 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.3 4.7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 On what issues a need for policy intervention? EC Consultation – key drivers
  11. 11. Over 80% agree/totally agree Digital technologies New ways of disseminating results New ways of collaboration • Less than 50% agree/totally agree Citizens acting as scientists EC Consultation – key drivers
  12. 12. Over 80% agree/totally agree Quality assurance Lack of credits Lack of infrastructures Limited awareness of benefits Less than 70% agree/totally agree Concerns about ethical and privacy issues EC Consultation – key barriers
  13. 13. Focus on Publications and Data Results (deliverables): • European Research Area Committee (member states) ERAC Taskforce Report on Open Data • Open Science Conference Amsterdam Amsterdam Call for Action on Open Science www.openaccess.nl/en/events/amsterdam-call-for-action-on-open-science • Competitiveness Council Conclusions on Transition to Open Science System www.data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-9526-2016-INIT/en/pdf Dutch EU Presidency 2016-I
  14. 14. TRAINING OF STAKEHOLDERS AND AWARENESS RAISING 1. Promote a better understanding of open research data 2. Establish training and education programs on Open Science 3. Establish a reward system for data sharing activities 4. Ensure sound monitoring DATA QUALITY AND MANAGEMENT 5. Make data identifiable and citable 6. Promote metadata standardisation and production of metadata 7. Promote innovative models for peer-review and quality assurance 8. Strongly promote the use of data management plans SUSTAINABILITY AND FUNDING 9. Ensure the existence of FAIR open research data infrastructures 10. Ensure funding for open research data and for data sharing activities LEGAL ISSUES 11. Make IPR issues insightful ERAC TF on Optimal Reuse of Research Data
  15. 15. Amsterdam Call for Action Two important pan-European goals for 2020: 1. Full open access for all scientific publications 2. A fundamentally new approach towards optimal reuse of research data Flanking policies 3. New assessment, reward and evaluation systems 4. Alignment of policies and exchange of best practices
  16. 16. Removing barriers to open science 1. Change assessment, evaluation and reward systems in science 2. Facilitate text and data mining of content 3. Improve insight into IPR and issues such as privacy 4. Create transparency on the costs and conditions of academic communication Developing research infrastructures 5. Introduce FAIR and secure data principles 6. Set up common e-infrastructures Fostering and creating incentives for open science 7. Adopt open access principles 8. Stimulate new publishing models for knowledge transfer 9. Stimulate evidence-based research on innovations in open science Mainstreaming and further promoting open science policies 10. Develop, implement, monitor and refine open access plans Stimulating and embedding open science in science and society 11. Involve researchers and new users in open science 12. Encourage stakeholders to share expertise and information on open science
  17. 17. Competitiveness Council Conclusions – May 2016 Council Conclusions aligned with • A’dam Call for Action • EC Open Science Agenda • Stress the importance of Open Science • Open Science Policy Platform and European Open Science Agenda • Removing barriers and fostering incentives • Open access to scientific publications • Optimal reuse of research data • Follow-up
  18. 18. • Stress the importance of Open Science 1. Open Science as an ongoing transformation 2. Potential to increase benefits of science 3. Focus on Publications & Data • Open Science Policy Platform and Open Science Agenda 4. Open Science Policy Platform; Start initiatives; Inform each other 5. Further develop the European Open Science Agenda • Removing barriers and fostering incentives 6. Results open ASAP; Remove legal barriers 7. Impact to Science and Society; QA; Reward Systems; Data Citation 8. TDM for All 9. Retain Copyright, use Licensing Models
  19. 19. • Open access to scientific publications 10. Open Access as point of departure; common principles 11. Compliance on Open Access 12. Open Access in 2020; Funding of new Models; Common Principles 13. Set Milestones; Monitoring; Facilitate Information Sharing • Optimal reuse of research data 14. Optimal reuse as point of departure; data as public good 15. Open by default; promote data stewardship; implement Data Management Plans 16. FAIR & Safe Data 17. European Open Science Cloud • Follow-up 18. Advocate Open Science; Coordinate Activities & Information
  20. 20. From Vision to Action • Open Science Agenda • High Level Expert Groups • Open Science Policy Platform • EC Programmes H2020/FP9
  21. 21. EC Open Science Agenda Fostering and creating incentives for Open Science Open Science in education programmes and best practices Extending the input of knowledge producers in an open environment It is also about the quality, impact and research integrity of science Removing barriers for Open Science includes a review of researchers' careers with a view on creating incentives and awarding researchers for engagement with Open Science Developing research infrastructures for Open Science Improve data hosting, access and governance Mainstreaming and further promoting Open Access policies to research data and publications Embedding Open Science in society as a soc-ec driver Open Science becomes instrumental in making science more responsive to societal and economic expectations.
  22. 22. 1. Reward systems 2. Measuring quality and impact: altmetrics 3. Changing business models for publishing 4. FAIR open data 5. Open Science Cloud 6. Research integrity 7. Citizen Science 8. Open education and skills EC Open Science Agenda – 8 key issues
  23. 23. 1. Reward systems 2. Measuring quality and impact: altmetrics 3. Changing business models for publishing 4. FAIR open data 5. Open Science Cloud 6. Research integrity 7. Citizen Science 8. Open education and skills EC Open Science Agenda – 8 key issues
  24. 24. European Open Science Cloud is part of Europe´s ambition to support the transition to Open Science and make the most of data-driven science. o Strongly stated need: it's cost-effective, and privacy & IPR-conscious o Virtual environment for all European researchers to store, manage, analyse and re-use data o Federation of existing and emerging data infrastructures o Added value: scale, data-driven science, inter-disciplinary, data - to - knowledge - to - innovation HLEG European Open Science Cloud
  25. 25. 3 pillars European Open Science Cloud (EOSC)  Integration and consolidation of e-infrastructures  Federation of existing research infrastructures and scientific clouds  Development of cloud-based services for Open Science  Connection of ESFRIs to the EOSC European Data Infrastructure (EDI)  Development and deployment of large-scale European HPC, data and network infrastructure Widening access  SMEs, Industry at large, Government COM 2016/178 (19 April 2016) – European Cloud Initiative
  26. 26. 27 Publication of the HLEG EOSC report Publication of the report of the High Level Expert Group on the European Open Science Cloud (11 October 2016) Including recommendations on Policy, Governance and Implementation http://ec.europa.eu/research/openscience/index.cfm?pg=open-science-cloud
  27. 27. HLEG Altmetrics ✓ Examine implications of: ✓ emerging social networks; research information systems; ✓ citation profiles ✓ Develop a framework for responsible metrics for research qualities and impacts for evaluation of Horizon 2020 and for wider use in the next framework programme ✓ Consider required data infrastructures ✓ Assess role of (alt)metrics in research evaluation ✓ Consider how altmetrics can be developed to support Open Science ✓ engage stakeholders; consider implications of metrics
  28. 28. HLEG Altmetrics – measuring is changing ✓ What counts as excellence is shaped by how we measure and define “excellence” ✓ What counts as impact is shaped by how we measure and define “impact” ✓ Qualities and interactions are the foundation for “excellence” and “impact” so we should understand those more fundamental processes first ✓ We need different indicators at different levels in the scientific system to inform wise management that strikes the right balance between trust and control ✓ Context crucial for effective data standardization
  29. 29. Open Science Policy Platform – goals • Catalyse the transition towards Open Science Advance Open Science in order to radically increase the quality and impact of European science • Identify the issues Work along the 8 priorities of the Open Science Agenda Harvest & connect what's happening ' outside' (RDA, MS) Make use of the expert groups, network, outside expertise, best practices, … Set up/work on new ideas (Right of initiative) • Connect the issues Have an overarching view 30
  30. 30. Open Science Policy Platform – mandate Function as a dynamic, stakeholder-driven mechanism a. identify the issues to be addressed b. bring up and address issues of concern for the science and research community Advise the Commission a. on how to further develop and implement open science policy b. recommendations on the policy actions required and any cross- cutting issue affecting Open Science Support policy implementation a. contribute to reviewing best practices, drawing policy guidelines and encouraging their active uptake by stakeholders 31
  31. 31. European Commission Digital Single Market & framework conditions for data: • Copyright - TDM • Data Protection • Free Flow of Data • … ERA & framework conditions for actors: • European Charter for researchers • Code of conduct for Research Integrity • Charter for Access to Research Infra • … Open Science Policy Platform Wide input from stakeholders: • ad-hoc meetings and workshops • e-platform with wider community • reports and independent experts  on Open Science Cloud  on Altmetrics  on new Publishing Models  on FAIR Open Data opinions context European Open Science Agenda Open Science Policy Platform  on Reward & Evaluation Systems  on Citizen Science  on Research Integrity  on Open Education & Skills advice
  32. 32. EC Programmes – research data open by default • Horizon 2020 grantees are required to • deposit underlying research data in a repository • take measures to grant access to the research data • Horizon 2020 grantees are encouraged to share datasets beyond publication • FAIR data • Findable + Accessible + Interoperable + Re-usable
  33. 33. From FP7 to H2020: OA to publications from pilot to underlying principle • Obligation to provide OA, either through the Green or Gold way in all areas; deposition mandatory either way • Allowed embargoes: 6 to 12 months (depending on discipline) • Gold open access costs eligible for reimbursement as part of the project budget while the project runs & post-grant support being piloted through OpenAIRE • Authors encouraged to retain copyright grant licences instead
  34. 34. Projects must have a Data Management Plan The Open Research Data Pilot has been extended to cover all thematic areas of Horizon 2020 as of the Work Programme 2017 A Data Management Plan provides information on: • The data the research will generate • How to ensure its curation, preservation and sustainability • What parts of that data will be open (and how)
  35. 35. The international dimension of Open Access • Robust open access policies around the world • not only European • Strong US OA mandate for federally funded research agencies with budget of over 100 million $ (NIH, NSF, …) • Strong Green OA mandate in Latin America (SCIELO) • Strong OA policies also in Canada, Australia, Japan... • Developing policies in other countries, e.g. China, Russia, India, South Africa, Kenya • Key non-state funders also have robust mandates Wellcome Trust, Gates Foundation, ...
  36. 36. Open Science and the G7 G7 Science and Technology Ministers’ Meeting in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, May 2016 • 6: Open Science ‐ Entering into a New Era for Science: • Putting into Practice New Framework of Research and Knowledge Discovery, Sharing, and Utilization through Openness • We support taking the following actions: i. i. Establish a working group on open science with the aims of sharing open science policies, exploring supportive incentive structures, and identifying good practices for promoting increasing access to the results of publicly funded research, including scientific data and publications, coordinating as appropriate with the Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) and Research Data Alliance (RDA), and other relevant groups; and ii. ii. Promote international coordination and collaboration to develop the appropriate technology, infrastructure, including digital networks, and human resources for the effective utilization of open science for the benefit of all.
  37. 37. Further developing Open Science with the G20 • The G20 Science, Technology and Innovation Ministers Meeting of 4 November 2016 stated: • 'We encourage discussion on open science and access to publicly-funded research results on findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable (FAIR) principles in order to increase collaboration on science and research activities'.
  38. 38. Open Science and the G7 & OECD G7-Autumn 2017, Italy G7 scheduled to adopt statement on Open Science with special reference to global dimension of Open Science Cloud and Rewards for Researchers to engage with Open Science Global Science Forum under the OECD is developing a framework for open and inclusive collaboration in Science in order to define future work priorities on Open Science
  39. 39. What can you do – some personal thoughts • Ecosystem implies an Inclusive Approach Make use of expertise, infrastructures, etc. from other stakeholders Join forces, also outside Europe (science is global, knowledge transfer also) Essential for solving today’s complex societal & grand challenges • It’s also about Data (and software and integrity and …) More data than all researchers could ever analyse • It’s about Impact Funders want more return  get out of the system where Impact is limited to scientific impact (= among peers) and further limited by taking the Journal Impact Factor as the main indicator. Real Impact deals with science, innovation, society and education • Open as a Principle We need to better connect science with innovation and to the world: Open Science, Open Innovation, Open to the World
  40. 40. Open Science – what is at stake? In total in 2014, LERU members alone had an economic impact across Europe of • €71.2 billion Gross Value Added • 900,000 jobs • Study by BiGGAR economics • www.biggareconomics.co.uk
  41. 41. Thank you Ron.DEKKER@ec.europa.eu

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