Participatory Philology:
The History of Science and the
Future of Historical Language
Education
Citizen Cyberscience Summi...
What is Philology?
Itaque ubi, quae et qualis philologia
meo iudicio sit, quaeritis,
simplicissima ratione respondeo, si
n...
What is Philology?
Philology is the analysis of the ancient
world in its entirety, including
everything in the physical an...
(What are written sources?)

4
What is Philology?
No aspect of human culture is outside
the purview of the philologist. No
methodology is out of scope if...
The Open Philology Project: two
fundamental goals:
1.

To advance the role of historical language texts in human
intellect...
The geography of Greek and
Latin

7
The Open Philology Project: two
fundamental goals:
1.

To advance the role of historical language texts in human intellect...
What is Participatory Philology?
“Illustration to Archimedes remark “Δοσ μοι που στω
και κινω την γην”, as quoted by Pappu...
Current Challenges in
Participatory Philology
1. More text than academic researchers, or computers, can analyze alone.
Sol...
The Open Philology Project:
workflow

11

Slide credit: Greta
Franzini (2013)
Greek and Latin Education in
Europe

12

Infographic courtesy of
Emily Franzini (2013)
Pillars of OPP eLearning
Pillar

Includes…

I. Social
Constructivism

actively creating new knowledge from prior localizat...
I. Localization: current
collaboration
English

Europe/North
America

Goals

German
Italian

Europe

•

Croatian
Bulgarian...
I. Localization: materials of local
interest
Goals
•

INSERT SCREENSHOT OF CROALA

15

CroaLa
I. Dynamic Syllabi
Customized in accordance with the particular needs of...
Texts
Example: current Open Philology developm...
II. Aligned translation for reading, learning,
and analysis
Published English

Literal English

Literal Persian

17

Persi...
II. Morphological analysis: L1-independent display
of a sentence

18
II. ePortfolios: Building a shareable index of digital
reputation
Scoring

Database

Optimisation of
individual learning

...
III. Games for data contribution
Transcriptio
n

Translation
(Alignment)
•

•

•

Practise typing by
Captchas
Identify OCR...
III. Digital editions:
Games cover every stage in the workflow of a digital edition

Goal

Transcription: OCR correction
T...
Back to the future

Humboldt vision of education = Students produce knowledge
Positive feedback loop for researchers
Citizen
contribution

Textual data + user
metadata

Better resources for
historical...
Natural Language Processing, Computational linguistics

24

Slide credit: Marco
Büchler
Teaching & learning, Cognitive science: quantifying
learning progress
Example: What percentage of the
original texts can a...
And of course, the humanities!
And of course, the humanities!
A word of caution!
Scholars often insist that we ’re not meant to take accounts of Atlantis
literally. ‘The idea
is that w...
Thank you!
www.dh.uni-leipzig.de

29
Further reading
Crane, G. et al. Student Researchers, Citizen Scholars and the
Trillion Word Library.
Smith, N. (2009) Cit...
Image Sources
Slide #4:
Top from left: inscribed objects, printed books
Bottom from left: Inscriptions, papyri, manuscript...
Medieval civilizations in
conversation

32
Text-based dialogue across
space & time
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Open Philology @ Citizen Cyberscience Summit

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  • Top from left: inscribed objects, printed books
    Bottom from left: Inscriptions, papyri, manuscripts
    Image source: book: http://library.wustl.edu/wishlist/images/emblemata.jpg
    Image source: inscription: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Gortys_law_inscription.jpg
    Image source: papyrus: http://www.schoyencollection.com/papyri_files/ms2752.jpg
  • Image in the public domain: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archimedes_lever.png
  • OCR= optical character recognition
    CTS = Canonical Text Services
    UBL = Universität Bibliothek Leipzig—the Leipzig University Library
    Markup = TEI Markup
  • Constructivism—different people need different explanations. Georgian has no articles, Persian has no case.
  • CroaLa
  • ***Add another image to this slide
    NLP ppl use morpho-syntactically analyzed corpora to run algorithms that track things like text reuse
    GO GRAB DAVID SMITH’S MAP
    Computational linguistics > WALS & Max Planck
  • MP: 1254-1324
    IB: 1304-1369
  • Image credit: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Talmud-Berachoth.jpg
  • Open Philology @ Citizen Cyberscience Summit

    1. 1. Participatory Philology: The History of Science and the Future of Historical Language Education Citizen Cyberscience Summit February 2014
    2. 2. What is Philology? Itaque ubi, quae et qualis philologia meo iudicio sit, quaeritis, simplicissima ratione respondeo, si non latiore, quae in ipso vocabulo inest, potestate accipitur, sed ut solet ad antiquas litteras refertur, universae antiquitatis cognitionem historicam et philosophicam. Augustus Boeck, “Oratio nataliciis Friderici Guilelmi III.” (1822) 2
    3. 3. What is Philology? Philology is the analysis of the ancient world in its entirety, including everything in the physical and the intellectual world through the use of written sources. [paraphrase]. Augustus Boeck, “Oratio nataliciis Friderici Guilelmi III.” (1822) 3
    4. 4. (What are written sources?) 4
    5. 5. What is Philology? No aspect of human culture is outside the purview of the philologist. No methodology is out of scope if it allows us to draw meaning from the words of the past – whether that methodology involves archaeological digs, irregular verbs, or probability theory. Augustus Boeck, “Oratio nataliciis Friderici Guilelmi III.” (1822) 5
    6. 6. The Open Philology Project: two fundamental goals: 1. To advance the role of historical language texts in human intellectual life as broadly and as deeply as possible in a global world, with initial resources focused on Greco-Roman culture and Classical Greek and Latin languages. 6
    7. 7. The geography of Greek and Latin 7
    8. 8. The Open Philology Project: two fundamental goals: 1. To advance the role of historical language texts in human intellectual life as broadly and as deeply as possible in a global world, with initial resources focused on Greco-Roman culture and Classical Greek and Latin languages. 2. To blow the dust off the simple, cogent and ancient term philology and to support an open philology that can, in turn, support a dialogue among civilizations. 8
    9. 9. What is Participatory Philology? “Illustration to Archimedes remark “Δοσ μοι που στω και κινω την γην”, as quoted by Pappus of Alexandria in Collection or Synagoge, Book VIII, c. AD 340. Greek text in Pappi Alexandrini Collectionis edited by Friedrich Otto Hultsch, Berlin, 1878, page 1060. Often translated into English as “Give me a place to stand on, and I will move the earth” (Dikshoorn 1987) or “Give me but one firm spot on which to stand, and I will move the earth” (Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, 1953). ” Giving students and interested citizens a “place to stand on“ in the discipline. 9
    10. 10. Current Challenges in Participatory Philology 1. More text than academic researchers, or computers, can analyze alone. Solution? Citizen and student engagement. But... 2. Wide geographic dispersal and variable abilities of students. And... 3. Little institutional incentive to teach many historical languages, particularly those with a geographic center outside of contemporary regional boundaries (e.g. Coptic, Classical Arabic among European and North American institutions, or Greek and Latin at Iranian universities). 10
    11. 11. The Open Philology Project: workflow 11 Slide credit: Greta Franzini (2013)
    12. 12. Greek and Latin Education in Europe 12 Infographic courtesy of Emily Franzini (2013)
    13. 13. Pillars of OPP eLearning Pillar Includes… I. Social Constructivism actively creating new knowledge from prior localization of resources and understanding and context: conversation working on sources of local between student and self provenance II. Apprenticeship learning the craft from experts in the field and learning by doing: active collaboration between students, teachers, and researchers III. Dialogue collaborative translation, old conversations, new participants: knowlege exchange across space and time, games and enhanced digital editions between students in different places and 13 different eras Open Philology Tools & Resources annotation, ePortfolios and distributed review
    14. 14. I. Localization: current collaboration English Europe/North America Goals German Italian Europe • Croatian Bulgarian Georgian Persian • Allow learners to work with digitized textbooks and translations in their preferred modern language. Present learners with explanatory material sensitive to the context of their language. Eurasia Western Asia 14
    15. 15. I. Localization: materials of local interest Goals • INSERT SCREENSHOT OF CROALA 15 CroaLa
    16. 16. I. Dynamic Syllabi Customized in accordance with the particular needs of... Texts Example: current Open Philology development of introductory Greek course for Thucydides Potential variables: what morphology and vocabulary exists in the text? Textbooks Example: usage by Open Philology eLearning of digitized John Williams White First Greek Book Potential variables: in what order and what language are grammatical concepts presented? Learners Example: collection of user data by Phaidra and Perseids, translation of learning resources Potential variables: learning style, age, L1 Teachers Example: Perseids syllabi for Tufts University Classes Potential variables: Semester length, hours facetime per week, school/student technical ability 16
    17. 17. II. Aligned translation for reading, learning, and analysis Published English Literal English Literal Persian 17 Persian translation by Maryam Foradi (2013)
    18. 18. II. Morphological analysis: L1-independent display of a sentence 18
    19. 19. II. ePortfolios: Building a shareable index of digital reputation Scoring Database Optimisation of individual learning Syntax Data-driven learning research Alignment Morphology Level-Up: Assessment of knowledge 19 Identification of reputation index for micro-publications Slide credit: Maria Moritz & Frederik Baumgardt
    20. 20. III. Games for data contribution Transcriptio n Translation (Alignment) • • • Practise typing by Captchas Identify OCR errors • Linguistic Annotation Fill in a missing word (forms) • Align new translation • Suggest correction for existing translations • Name Collaborative translation environment. • 20 Identify the morphology of a given word and context Identify the syntactic function of a word (treebanking) • Who/where/what is it? • Uncover ethnicities, locations, events in ancient texts
    21. 21. III. Digital editions: Games cover every stage in the workflow of a digital edition Goal Transcription: OCR correction Translation: alignment + collaborative translation Linguistic Annotation Identifying people and places(named entities) 21 Alpheios.net
    22. 22. Back to the future Humboldt vision of education = Students produce knowledge
    23. 23. Positive feedback loop for researchers Citizen contribution Textual data + user metadata Better resources for historical texts New Knowledge This data contributes to the work of researchers in multiple fields across the sciences and humanities, including.... 23
    24. 24. Natural Language Processing, Computational linguistics 24 Slide credit: Marco Büchler
    25. 25. Teaching & learning, Cognitive science: quantifying learning progress Example: What percentage of the original texts can already be understood? Thucydides "The Peloponnesian War” 25 Slide credit: Monica Lent (2013)
    26. 26. And of course, the humanities!
    27. 27. And of course, the humanities!
    28. 28. A word of caution! Scholars often insist that we ’re not meant to take accounts of Atlantis literally. ‘The idea is that we should use the story to examine our ideas of government and power,’ says the philosopher Julia Annas in Plato: A Very Short Introduction (2003). ‘We have missed the point if instead of thinking about these issues we go off exploring the sea bed.’ Platt, E. (2013). “Out of the Deep.” aeon Magazine. 28
    29. 29. Thank you! www.dh.uni-leipzig.de 29
    30. 30. Further reading Crane, G. et al. Student Researchers, Citizen Scholars and the Trillion Word Library. Smith, N. (2009) Citation in Classical Studies.
    31. 31. Image Sources Slide #4: Top from left: inscribed objects, printed books Bottom from left: Inscriptions, papyri, manuscripts Image source: book: http://library.wustl.edu/wishlist/images/emblemata.jpg Image source: inscription: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Gortys_law_inscription.jpg Image source: papyrus: http://www.schoyencollection.com/papyri_files/ms2752.jpg Slide #9: Image and caption in the public domain: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archimedes_lever.png Slide #33: Image credit: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Talmud-Berachoth.jpg
    32. 32. Medieval civilizations in conversation 32
    33. 33. Text-based dialogue across space & time

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