Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science            System’s Development and Project            Management –         ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science                           DatesFeb. 1               14:45 – 17:30           ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceAn organizational behavior primer…  Theory X:                                ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceTeams and IT development  !   Staff in an organization will often belong to a...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceStages in becoming a team     Forming                    Storming            ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceStages in becoming a team (cont’d)  !   Forming:     !    Members get to know...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceStages in becoming a team (cont’d)  !   Norming:     !    Solidarity, rituals...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMyers Briggs Model  !   Focus of attention     !    Extrovert (E): Comfortabl...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMyers Briggs Model  ! Decision Making    !    Thinking (T): Relying on princi...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMyers Briggs Model       ESTJ   ESTP   ESFJ   ESFP   ENTJ   ENTP   ENFJ   ENF...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGetting the right mix  !   Meredith Belbin studied teams working      togethe...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGetting the right mix  !   Eligible candidates: CV shows right      qualifica...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types  !     Persons can have more than one type!  !...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types  !   The chair/coordinator     !    Not necess...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types (cont’d)  !   The shaper     !    Rather a wor...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types (cont’d)  !   The completer-finisher     !    ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types (cont’d)         Role                    Contr...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceTypical team problems  !   More than one shaper and no strong chair -      ar...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGeneral advice  !   Time your interventions, don’t overwhelm the      others ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceComposition of the project team  !   Optimization Inputs     !    Project con...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceComposition of the project team (cont’d)  !   Basic criteria:     !    Interc...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceComposition of the project team (cont’d)                            100 -    ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProject team structure    c                                                  ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProject team structure (cont‘d)Performance                                   ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGroup performance  !   Teaming up vs. parceling out - should you      divide ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGroup performance (cont‘d)  !   Additive     !    Effort of individuals added...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGroup performance (cont‘d)  !   Disjunctive     !    Only one correct answer ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceSocial loafing  !   Team members who are parasites  !   Sometimes problem wit...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceLeadership types of power - positionpower  !     Coercive power - threatening...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceLeadership types of power - personalpower  !   Expert power     !    Being a ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceLeadership styles                                              Decision-makin...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMotivation  !   Herzberg‘s two-factor theory     !    Hygiene or maintenance ...
Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMotivation (cont‘d)  !   Specific goals: demanding vs. acceptable  !   Regula...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

SDPM - Lecture 9 - Managing people and organizing teams

4,226 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,226
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
287
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
257
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

SDPM - Lecture 9 - Managing people and organizing teams

  1. 1. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science System’s Development and Project Management – Managing people and organizing teams Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 1
  2. 2. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science DatesFeb. 1 14:45 – 17:30 Introduction, Project DescriptionFeb. 2 13:45 – 16:30 STEP WISE Approach to Project PlanningFeb. 9 13:10 – 15:45 STEP WISE Approach to Project Planning, SAVE ENERGY CaseFeb. 15 14:45 – 17:30 Selecting an Appropriate Software Dev. ApproachFeb. 16 15:15 – 18:00 Activity Planning and Resource AllocationFeb. 22 14:45 – 17:30 Software Effort EstimationFeb. 23 13:15 – 15:45 Risk management, project escalationMar. 1 14:45 – 17:00 ExamMar. 2 13:45 – 16:30 Risk Management, Project monitoring and controlMar. 8 14:45 – 17:30 Software Quality AssuranceMar. 9 13:45 – 16:30 Managing People; Contract ManagementMar. 18 15:00 – 17:00 Trade Fair
  3. 3. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceAn organizational behavior primer… Theory X: Theory Y: !   Humans dislike work !   Work is natural as rest/play !   Need for coercion, control, !   Coercion/control not only and direction means for influence !   People avoid responsibility !   Commitment is built by rewards !   Humans accept and seek responsibility !   Capacity to exercise creativity is widely distributed 3
  4. 4. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceTeams and IT development !   Staff in an organization will often belong to a department depending on their technical expertise !   Staff from different technical areas could then be brought together to work on a project !   Once project is completed, team may be disbanded 4
  5. 5. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceStages in becoming a team Forming Storming Norming Performing Team-building exercises can help the process of becoming a team Adjourning 5
  6. 6. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceStages in becoming a team (cont’d) !   Forming: !  Members get to know each other, start testing ways of acting !  First rules emerge !   Storming: !  Conflicts develop, struggles for power and status !  Questioning team manager 6
  7. 7. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceStages in becoming a team (cont’d) !   Norming: !  Solidarity, rituals, and sense of belonging develops !  Members find their personal roles !  Conflicts are settled !   Performing: !  Most internal problems are solved !  Members are geared towards objectives and tasks !  Mutual support and job satisfaction !   Adjourning (often overlooked) 7
  8. 8. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMyers Briggs Model !   Focus of attention ! Extrovert (E): Comfortable working with other, gain energy from working in group. ! Introvert (I): Comfortable working alone, drain energy from working in group. ! Seeking Information ! Sensing (S): Fact and data oriented, often find small errors that others missed. ! iNtuitive (N): Speculators, get „big picture“. Focus on how arguments were laid, not on detailed errors. 8
  9. 9. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMyers Briggs Model ! Decision Making ! Thinking (T): Relying on principles, laws, rules, logic, objective analysis. !  Feeling (F): Consider feelings of people involved, maintain harmony within a group. ! Relationship to World ! Judging (J): Oriented toward outcome. Rapid decision makers, frustrated by delays. ! Perceiving (P): Process oriented. Open minded, make decisions slowly, often considering new possibilities. 9
  10. 10. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMyers Briggs Model ESTJ ESTP ESFJ ESFP ENTJ ENTP ENFJ ENFP ISTJ ISTP ISFJ ISFP INTJ INTP INFJ INFPESTJ 0,67ESTP 0,33 0,67ESFJ 0,83 0,50 0,67ESFP 0,50 0,83 0,33 0,67ENTJ 0,83 0,50 1,00 0,67 0,67ENTP 0,50 0,83 0,67 1,00 0,33 0,67ENFJ 1,00 0,67 0,83 0,50 0,83 0,50 0,67ENFP 0,67 1,00 0,50 0,83 0,50 0,83 0,33 0,67ISTJ 0,50 0,17 0,67 0,33 0,67 0,33 0,83 0,50 0,33ISTP 0,17 0,50 0,33 0,67 0,33 0,67 0,50 0,83 0,00 0,33ISFJ 0,67 0,33 0,50 0,17 0,83 0,50 0,67 0,33 0,50 0,17 0,33ISFP 0,33 0,67 0,17 0,50 0,50 0,83 0,33 0,67 0,17 0,50 0,00 0,33INTJ 0,67 0,33 0,83 0,50 0,50 0,17 0,67 0,33 0,50 0,17 0,67 0,33 0,33INTP 0,33 0,67 0,50 0,83 0,17 0,50 0,33 0,67 0,17 0,50 0,33 0,67 0,00 0,33INFJ 0,83 0,50 0,67 0,33 0,67 0,33 0,50 0,17 0,67 0,33 0,50 0,17 0,50 0,17 0,33INFP 0,50 0,83 0,33 0,67 0,33 0,67 0,17 0,50 0,33 0,67 0,17 0,50 0,17 0,50 0,00 0,33 10
  11. 11. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGetting the right mix !   Meredith Belbin studied teams working together on management games !   Found that the academically brightest teams often did badly, e.g. !  Arguments !  Implementation of plans neglected, etc. !   Gave psychometric tests to participants to identify best mix of team members 11
  12. 12. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGetting the right mix !   Eligible candidates: CV shows right qualifications on paper. !   Suitable candidate: Can actually do the job well. !   Mistake: Select eligible candidates who are not suitable. !   Suitable candidates who are not eligible: Can be ideal candidates – more likely to remain loyal. 12
  13. 13. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types !   Persons can have more than one type! !   30% of all could not be classified at all! !   Framework intends to make you thinking !   Good abilities: !  Time your interventions !  Be flexible !  Be restrained !  Keep common team goals in mind all the time. 13
  14. 14. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types !   The chair/coordinator !  Not necessarily a strong leader but must be good at controlling meetings: calm, strong, but tolerant !   The plant !  Good at generating ideas and potential solutions !   The monitor-evaluator !  Good at evaluating ideas and helping to select the best one 14
  15. 15. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types (cont’d) !   The shaper !  Rather a worrier, helps direct the team’s attention to important issues, a driver !   The team worker/implementer !  Good at creating a good team environment and getting people to do things !   The resource investigator !  Good at finding resources and information 15
  16. 16. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types (cont’d) !   The completer-finisher !  Focused in getting task completed !   The company worker !  A good team player who is willing to undertake less attractive tasks if they are needed for team success !   The specialist !  The ‘techie’ interested in knowledge for its own sake 16
  17. 17. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceBelbin’s management team types (cont’d) Role Contribution Characteristics Acceptable Weakness Plant Generating new ideas Unorthodox thinking Often lost in thought Resource investigator Develops contacts Communicative, extrovert Often too optimistic Assists and supports decision Can be perceived as Coordinator Confident, faithful making processes manipulating Brave enough to overcome Dynamic, works well under Shaper Impatient, provocative obstacles pressure Monitor/evaluator Evaluating ideas Unemotional, strategic, critical Lacks inspiration Improves communication, Teamworker Cooperative, diplomatic Undecided in critical situations reduced friction losses Implementor Turns plans into action Disciplined, reliable, effective Inflexible Avoides mistakes, assures Overanxious, does not like to Completer Conscientous, accurate optmal results delegate Contributes expertise and Self-centered, dedicated, Specialist Often too much detail-oriented information expertise counts 17
  18. 18. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceTypical team problems !   More than one shaper and no strong chair - arguments over direction !   Several plants and specialists, but no shapers or completer-finishers - interesting discussions but nothing gets implemented 18
  19. 19. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGeneral advice !   Time your interventions, don’t overwhelm the others in the team !   Be flexible !   Be restrained !   Keep the common goals of the team in mind all the time 19
  20. 20. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceComposition of the project team !   Optimization Inputs !  Project content and objectives !  Project organization !   Design Parameters !  Composition: variety of competences represented by the team !  Size: number of team members !  Structure: organizational subdivision of the team 20
  21. 21. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceComposition of the project team (cont’d) !   Basic criteria: !  Intercultural competence !  Method competence !  Motivation competence !  Social competence !   Optimization criteria: !  Skills !  Project (management) experience !  Personality, e.g. Belbin team types 21
  22. 22. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceComposition of the project team (cont’d) 100 - sharing of project Functional Divisions 50 - Project Team tasks Staff- Matrix- Pure- Project Cont. 0- Project Novelty low medium high Complexity low medium high Scope (relative) small medium large Project Examples Bug fixes Delivering an increment Loyalty card IS Typical Size of Project 1-6 5 - 30 20 - 100 Teams (persons) 22
  23. 23. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProject team structure c K1 45 K5 K2 K4 K3 Example: 21 ⎛ n ⎞ n ( n 1) c = ⎜ ⎟ = n=5 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 c = 10 Kn ... network nodes n ... number of nodes c ... number of connections n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 23
  24. 24. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProject team structure (cont‘d)Performance Structured Project Team Sum of individual Performances Unstructured (without teamwork) Project Team Provided the performance of the project team (P) exceeds the sum of n individual performancesP > ∑ p ), ( i i =1 there are teamwork synergies and a reason for project management. Number of Staff (n) 0 7 10 12 24
  25. 25. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGroup performance !   Teaming up vs. parceling out - should you divide work up between you or should you do it as a group? !   It depends partly on the type of work !  Additive tasks !  Compensatory tasks !  Disjunctive tasks !  Conjunctive tasks 25
  26. 26. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGroup performance (cont‘d) !   Additive !  Effort of individuals added together to get end result !  People are interchangeable !  E.g. shoveling snow, interviewing people in the street !   Compensatory !  Judgments of individuals are pooled !  Errors by some can be corrected by others !  E.g. estimating costs, effort 26
  27. 27. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGroup performance (cont‘d) !   Disjunctive !  Only one correct answer !  Getting answer depends on: someone getting the right answer; others recognizing it as being correct! !   Conjunctive !  Progress depends on the progress of the slowest performer !  Software projects often like this 27
  28. 28. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceSocial loafing !   Team members who are parasites !   Sometimes problem with student groups, but also in work environments !   Can be alleviated by: !  Making work of individuals identifiable !  Consciously involving group member in the project outcomes !  Rewarding individuals for team contribution, e.g. ‘club player of the year’ in sports teams 28
  29. 29. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceLeadership types of power - positionpower !   Coercive power - threatening punishment !   Connection power !   Legitimate power !   Reward power !   Leadership: Ability to influence others in a group to act in a particular way to achieve group goals. 29
  30. 30. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceLeadership types of power - personalpower !   Expert power !  Being a person who is able to do specialized tasks !   Information power !  Exclusive access to information !   Referent power !  Based on personal attractiveness/charisma 30
  31. 31. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceLeadership styles Decision-making Directive Permissive Autocrat Implementation Makes decisions alone, Makes decisions alone, close supervision of subordinates have latitude implementation in implementation Democrat Makes decisions Makes decisions participatively, participatively, close supervision of subordinates have latitude implementation in implementation 31
  32. 32. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMotivation !   Herzberg‘s two-factor theory !  Hygiene or maintenance factors •  Make you dissatisfied if they are not right! !  Motivators •  Make you feel the job is worthwhile !   Vroom‘s expectancy theory of motivation !  Expectancy: working harder leads to better performance !  Instrumentality: belief that better performance is rewarded !  Perceived value of reward 32
  33. 33. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceMotivation (cont‘d) !   Specific goals: demanding vs. acceptable !   Regularly provide feedback !   Consider job design: !  Job enlargement – more tasks !  Job enrichment – tasks normally done at managerial or supervisory level 33

×