SDPM - Lecture 2 -The STEP WISE Approach to Project Planning

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SDPM - Lecture 2 -The STEP WISE Approach to Project Planning

  1. 1. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science STEP WISE The STEP WISE Approach to Project Planning Prof. Dr. Thomas BäckSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 1
  2. 2. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science DatesFeb. 1 14:45 – 17:30 Introduction, Project DescriptionFeb. 2 13:45 – 16:30 STEP WISE Approach to Project PlanningFeb. 9 13:45 – 16:30 Selecting an Appropriate Software Dev. ApproachFeb. 15 14:45 – 17:30 Activity Planning and Resource AllocationFeb. 16 13:45 – 16:30 Software Effort EstimationFeb. 22 14:45 – 17:30 Risk management, project escalationFeb. 23 13:45 – 16:30 Project monitoring and controlMar. 1 14:45 – 17:00 ExamMar. 2 13:45 – 16:30 Software Quality AssuranceMar. 8 14:45 – 17:30 Managing People; Contract ManagementMar. 9 13:45 – 16:30 VariousMar. 15 14:45 – 17:30 Trade Fair 2
  3. 3. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceDeadlines February 18, midnight Assignment 1: Project proposal ( bid ) February 25, midnight Assignment 2: Project Plan including functional specification March 1, midnight Assignment 3: Deutsche Bank case, 5 ppt slides March 1 (14:45 – 17:00) Exam March 15 (14:45 – 17:30) Trade fair March 16, midnight Assignment 4: Personal reflection paper on project management 3
  4. 4. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Save Energy Applications !   Project Control Book: Template ! !  ProjectControlBook.doc (Blackboard) !   Project proposal (bid) due by Feb 18, midnightSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 4
  5. 5. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science STEP WISE Approach to Planning !   STEP WISE Approach to Planning Software Projects !   STEP WISE aspirations !  Practicality •  Tries to answer the question „what do I do now ?“ !  Scalability •  Useful for small project as well as large !  Range of application !  Accepted techniques •  E.g. borrowed from PRINCE, etc. •  PRojects IN Controlled EnvironmentsSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 5
  6. 6. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science STEP WISE overview 1. Identify project objectives 0. Select Project 2. Identify project infrastructure 3. Analyze pr. characteristics 4. Identify products and activities Review lower level detail 5. Estimate effort for activity For each activity 6. Identify activity risks 10. Lower level planning 7. Allocate resources 9. Execute plan 8. Review / publicize planSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 6
  7. 7. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Example: A project scenario !   Hardware / software engineering company (C++ language of choice) !   Teams are selected for individual projects – some friction has been found between team members !   HR manager suggests psychometric testing to select team !   Software package to be used to test staff !   MS Access suggested as a vehicle for implementation !   Usability is important – decision to carry out usability testsSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 7
  8. 8. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Program management !   Individual projects vs. Program components !   Collection of projects that contribute to the same overall organizational goals !   Well-defined program goal, projects selected and tuned according to this goal: !  Contribution and visibility !  Timing and resourcing !  Financial outcomeSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 8
  9. 9. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Feasibility study !   Introduction: identifies what the document is !   Description of current situation !   Problem description !   Proposed development: !  Business and financial aspects !  Technical aspects !  Organizational aspectsSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 9
  10. 10. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Feasibility study (cont‘d) !   Estimated costs !  Development costs !  Setup costs !  Operational costs !   Envisaged Benefits !  Direct Benefits !  Assessable indirect benefits, e.g., increased accuracy !  Intangible benefits !   RecommendationsSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 10
  11. 11. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Cost-benefit evaluation techniques !   Net profit !   Payback period !   Return on investment (ROI) !  The profit or loss resulting from a project !   Net present value (NPV) !  An approach used in capital budgeting where the present value of cash inflow is subtracted from the present value of cash outflows. !   Internal rate of return (IRR) !  Often used in capital budgeting, its the interest rate that makes net present value of all cash flow equal zero. Essentially, this is the return that a company would earn if they expanded or invested in themselves, rather than investing that money abroad. !   Decision trees, etc.System‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 11
  12. 12. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 1: Establish project scope and objectives !   1.1 Identify objectives and measures of effectiveness !  How do we know if we have succeeded ? !   1.2 Establish a project authority !  Who is the boss ? !   1.3 Identify all stakeholders in the project and their interests !  Who will be affected / involved in the project ? !   1.4 Modify objectives in the light of stakeholder analysis !  Do we need to do things to win over stakeholders ? !   1.5 Establish methods of communication with all parties !  How do we keep in contact ?System‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 12
  13. 13. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Example: Continued !   Project authority !  Should be a project manager rather than HR manager ? !   Stakeholders !  Project team members to complete online questionnaires: concern about results ? !   Revision to objectives !  Provide feedback to team members on resultsSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 13
  14. 14. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Stakeholders !   = individuals/organizations that are involved in or affected by project activities. !  Can have tremendous impact on project development. !  Conflict among stakeholders is inevitable. !  Bargaining and negotiation required. !  Often, all stakeholder groups are slightly annoyed with the project team. !  Tradeoffs among stakeholder groups.System‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 14
  15. 15. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 2: Establish project infrastructure !   2.1 Establish link between project and any strategic plan !  Why did they want the project ? !   2.2 Identify installation standards and procedures !  What standards do we have to follow ? !   2.3 Identify project team organization !  Where do I fit in ?System‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 15
  16. 16. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 3: Analysis of project characteristics !   3.1 Distinguish the project as either objective or product-based !  Is there more than one way of achieving success ? !   3.2 Analyze other project characteristics (including quality-based ones) !  What is different about this project ? !   3.3 Identify high-level project risks !  What could go wrong ? !  What can we do to stop it ? !   3.4 Take into account user requirements concerning implementation !   3.5 Select general life cycle approach !  Waterfall ? Increments ? Prototypes ? !   3.6 Review overall resource estimates !  Does all this increase the cost ?System‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 16
  17. 17. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Example: Continued !   Objectives vs. Products !  Use paper questionnaire then input results of the analysis ? !   Some risks !  Team members worried about implications and do not cooperate !  Project managers unwilling to try out application !  Design difficult to implement in MS Access !   Answer ? – Evolutionary prototype ?System‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 17
  18. 18. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 4: Identify project products and activities !   4.1 Identify and describe project products – What do we have to produce ? A product breakdown Usability testing Structure (PBS) Selected subjects Testing arrangements Test results Change requests Booked machine Questionnaire design Completed Analysis report questionnaire !   PBS: Product Breakdown StructureSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 18
  19. 19. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Products !   The result of an activity !   Could be (among other things) !  Physical thing („installed PC“) !  A document („logical data structure“) !  A person („trained user“) !  A new version of an old product („updated software“) !   The following are NOT normally products !  Activities (e.g., training) !  Events (e.g., „interviews completed“) !  Resources and actors (e.g., „software developer“) – may be exceptions to this !   Products CAN BE deliverable or intermediateSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 19
  20. 20. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Product description (PD) !   Product identity !   Description – what is it ? !   Derivation – what is it based on ? !   Composition – what does it contain ? !   Format !   Relevant standards !   Quality criteria Create a PD for „test data“System‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 20
  21. 21. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 4 (cont‘d) !   4.1 Document generic product flows Testing plan Selected subjects Questionnaire design Booked machine Completed Test results questionnaire Questionnaire analysis Change requests !   PFD: Product Flow Diagram Sequence in which products are to be createdSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 21
  22. 22. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 4 (cont‘d) !   4.3 Recognize product instances: !  The PBS and PFD will probably have identified generic products, e.g., „software modules“ !  It might be possible to identify specific instances, e.g., „module A“, „module B“ … !  But in many cases this will have to be left to later, more detailed planning !   4.4 Produce ideal activity network: !  Identify the activities needed to create each product in the PFD !  More than one activity might be needed to create a single product !  Hint: Identify activities by verb + noun but avoid „produce …“ (too vague) !  Draw up activity networkSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 22
  23. 23. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science An „ideal“ Activity Select subjects Draft change Plan testing Design questionnaire Conduct tests Analyze results requests Book machineSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 23
  24. 24. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 4 (cont‘d) !   4.5 Add check-points if needed Design module A Code module A Design system Design module B Code module B Test system Design module C Code module C Design module A Code module ADesign system Design module B Check-point Code module B Test system Design module C Code module CSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 24
  25. 25. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 5: Estimate effort for each activity !   5.1 Carry out bottom-up estimates !  Distinguish carefully between effort and elapsed time !   5.2 Revise plan to create controllable activities !  Break up very long activities into a series of smaller ones !  Bundle up very short activities (create check lists ?)System‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 25
  26. 26. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 6: Identify activity risks !   6.1 Identify and quantify risks for activities !  Damage if risk occurs (measure in time lost or money) !  Likelihood of risk occurring !  Problem of assumption !   6.2 Plan risk reduction and contingency measures !  Risk reduction: activity to stop risk occurring !  Contingency: action if risk does occur !   6.3 Adjust overall plans and estimates to take account of risks !  E.g., add new activities which reduce risks associated with other activities, e.g., training, pilot trials, information gatheringSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 26
  27. 27. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 7: Allocate resources !   7.1 Identify and allocate resources to activities !   7.2 Revise plans and estimates to take into account resource constraints !  E.g., staff not being available until a later date !  Non-project activitiesSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 27
  28. 28. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Gantt charts March April 5 12 19 26 2 9Jean-Paul Design module A Design module BNita Code module APercy Code module C Code module BAli Design module C Design module DFranz Code module DDylan Test module CSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 28
  29. 29. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Step 8: Review / publicize plan !   8.1 Review quality aspects of project plan !   8.2 Document plan and obtain agreement (from stakeholders) !   Step 9 and 10: Execute plan and create lower level plansSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 29
  30. 30. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Upcoming project proposal („bid“) !   Use project control book template – project plan !   For the bid: Feasibility study outline - bid !   Distinguish between level one and level two functionalities (must have vs. nice to have) !   Draft basic timeline, projects charts needed for later, updated version !   Grading criteria: !  Amount of detail !  Clarity !  Comprehensiveness !  Consciseness !  „Theory“ useSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 30
  31. 31. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Summary of Terms !   PBS: Product Breakdown Structure !  What do we have to produce? !   PFD: Product Flow Diagram !  Sequence in which products are to be created !   AN: Activity Network !  Identify the activities necessary to create each product in the PFDSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 31
  32. 32. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science PRINCE II An excursion Prof. Dr. Thomas BäckSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 32
  33. 33. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Excursion – PRINCE 2 !   Very similar to STEP WISE PL1 Design Plan !   Also, very product based PL2 Define and analyze products PL3 Identify activities and their dependencies PL4 Estimate effort for each activity PL5 Schedule PL6 Analyze Risk PL7 Complete PlanSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 33
  34. 34. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Excursion – PRINCE 2 ! Project Organization   ! Users: Of products of the project   ! Suppliers: Of goods and services needed by the project   ! Executive: Ensures that project meets business requirements   ! Represented on Project Board: Overall accountability for success   ! Project Manager: Managing on day-to-day basis   !   Delegates to Team Managers for large projects !   Project Stages: More manageable segments. !   Each phase might have !   Req. Analysis and specification !   Logical design !   Physical design !   Build !   Testing !   InstallationSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 34
  35. 35. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Excursion – PRINCE 2 !   Project Procedures Project Management Team Programme Project Project Team Team Management Board Manager Manager Member SU: Starting up a project DP IP: Initiating a project SU DP: Directing a project CS: Controlling a stage IP MP: Managing product CS delivery SB: Managing stage MP boundaries CP: Closing a project SB PL: Planning CPSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 35
  36. 36. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Excursion – PRINCE 2 !   Directing a Project: !  Authorizing initiation !  Authorizing a project (agree after planning: go ahead) !  Authorizing stage – or exception plan !  Giving ad hoc direction !  Closing project !   Starting up the Project: !  Programme management (group of projects) !  Project Mandate (document, identify customer, scope) !  Project Brief (document, objectives of project) !  Project Approach (document, general technical approach)System‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 36
  37. 37. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Excursion – PRINCE 2 !   Initiating a Project: !  Project Quality Plan !  Project Plan •  Major products to be created •  Main activities to be undertaken •  Project risks and counter-measures •  Effort requirements •  Time scales •  Key decision pointsSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 37
  38. 38. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Excursion – PRINCE 2 !   Controlling a Stage: ID Processes CS1 Authorize Work Package CS2 Assess Progress CS3 Capture Project Issues CS4 Examine Project Issues CS5 Review Stage Issues CS6 Report Highlights CS7 Take corrective action CS8 Escalate Project Issues CS9 Receive Completed Work PackageSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 38
  39. 39. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Excursion – PRINCE 2 !   Managing Product Delivery: ID Processes MP1 Accept Work Package MP2 Execute Work Package MP3 Deliver Work PackageSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 39
  40. 40. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Excursion – PRINCE 2 !   Managing Stage Boundaries: ID Processes SB1 Planning a Stage SB2 Updating the Project Plan SB3 Updating the project business case SB4 Updating the Risk Log SB5 Reporting a Stage End SB6 Producing an Exception ReportSystem‘s Development and Project Management - Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 40

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