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#openbelgium15	#opentourism	
	
	
	
	
	
	
A	community	suppor.ng	Digital	Crea.vity	in	Tourism
Cause	and	context	
Raf	Buyle	-	Open	Knowledge		
	
	
	
	
	
@ra4e	#opentourism
WHAT	
IF…	
	
Imagine	we	could	use	the	same	services	in	different	
places	around	the	world	without	the	need	for	
searching	new	service	providers	or	new	apps...
WHAT	
IS	
Informa>on	o?en	can't	be	reused	without	analizing	
the	data	or	building	expensive	custom	connectors
WHAT	
COULD	
BE?	
	
	
	
Linked	Open	Data	aims	to	connect	these	solitary	pieces	
of	informaGon	to	other	data	sources	on	the	web.
WHAT	
SHOULD	
WE	DO?	
	
	
we	need	more	Open	Data	and	a	common	
language	for	machine	readable	touris>c	
informa>on.
Joined	forces	with	‘sustainable	mobile	tourism	
guides’,	Thomas	More	-	iMinds
shared	vision:	
“Open	Standard		
for	Tourism”	Vocabulary	
	
Ontologies	are	expected	to	enable	
computers	to	process	informa.on	
“much	more	effec*vely	in	ways	that	are	
useful	and	meaningful	to	the	human	
user”	(Berners-Lee,	Hendler,	and	Lassila	
2001).
User	Group		40+	actors:	SME’s,	NPO’s	involved	in	
culture	and	tourism	ac>vi>es,	representa>ves	from	
the	provinces	and	of	the	major	ci>es	in	Flanders
priori>es	both	as	data	
producer	and	as	data	
consumer
“ALer	defining	the	
scope	of	each	sub-
domain	we	
organized	working	
groups.	Each	group	
was	responsible	to	
work	out	their	sub-
domain	in	detail	in	
terms	of	domain	
modeling”
Data	in	line	with	the	Open	Tourism	specific>on	
The	West	Flanders	tourism	
organiza>on																	was		
the	first	to	bring	their	data	inline	
with	the	specifica>on
Open	Tourism	hackathon	
	DATA	
	TOOLS	
	APP’S	
	FEEDBACK	
h]p://www.mobielegidsen.be/hackathon/
From	ad-hoc	ac>vity	to	a	solid	community	
Our	mission	is	to	“support	digital	crea.vity	concerning	
tourism"	and	to	host	the	“Open	Standard	for	Tourism”	
Vocabulary,	which	is	a	reusable	Ontology	for	describing	
tourism	data.	
Join the
Community
Meeting, March
5, 2016
Mechelen
Release	Open	Tourism	Communty	Site		
	
●  Mailing	list	
●  Tools	and	resources	
●  The	Open	Standard	for	Tourism	Ecosystems	Data	
SpecificaGon		
●  News	on	the	upcoming	events
Join	our	community!	tourism.openknowledge.be
Join	our	community!	tourism.openknowledge.be
Vision	and	strategy…		
	
●  Bring	The	Open	Tourism	vocabulary	at	
an	interna.onal	level	
●  Build	a	bridge	to	interoperability	
programme	of	the	Flemish	Government,	
“Open	Standards	for	Linked	
Governments”.	
		
●  First	step	-	March	3	our	work	and	vision	
will	be	presented	at	the	Interna.onal	e-
Gov	Conference	in	Montevideo.
What	you	really	should	
remember	from	this	talk:		
	
●  Seman.c	collabora.on	is	going	to	be	a	
cornerstone	of	the	next	genera.on	tourism	
applica.ons		
●  seman.c	standards	are	a	katalysator	for	
beZer	services	and	Open	Data.		
●  The	Open	Tourism	vocabulary	exist	hZp://
w3id.org/ost/spec	
●  You’re	welcome	to	join	our	community!	
hZp://tourism.openknowledge.be
Geang	started	with		
the	Open	Tourism	Specifica.on	
	
Bruno	Koninckx	
THOMAS	MORE	
	
		
	
@brunokon	#opentourism
Which domains are covered (for now)?
➔  Offering
What? By whom?
➔  Availability
Where? When?
➔  Experience
How?
➔  Demand
Offering
Availability
Experience
Demand
Availability Demand
Offering
Experience Offering
Demand
Offering
Specifications
http://w3id.org/ost/spec
Questions, remarks, issues on the domain model and
specifications via:
https://github.com/openknowledgebe/tourism/issues
Publising	and	Consuming	
Linked	Tourism	Data	
	
Anastasia	Dimou	-	iMinds	-	Data	Science	Lab	
	
	
	
	
@natadimou	#opentourism
RML.io	
Genera>ng	High	Quality		
Linked	Open	Data	
from	Open	or	Not	Data	
Anastasia	Dimou	
Data	Science	Lab,	Ghent	University	-	iMinds	
anastasia.dimou@ugent.be		
@natadimou
What	is	the	SemanGc	Web?
The	SemanGc	Web		
	is	the	extension	of	the	World	Wide	Web
Are	you	the	owner	of	your	data?		
		
OR		
	
is	the	applicaGon	that	hosts	your	data?
The	SemanGc	Web		
	is	the	extension	of	the	World	Wide	Web	
		
	enables	sharing	content	beyond		
	the	boundaries	of	applica>ons	&	websites
the	Web	for	humans,	thanks	to	HTML,	
is	understandable	&	constant		
		
BUT	
	
is	the	Web	for	machines	too?
The	SemanGc	Web		
	is	the	extension	of	the	World	Wide	Web	
		
	enables	sharing	content	beyond		
	the	boundaries	of	applica>ons	&	websites	
	
	allows	machines	to	understand		
	the	meaning	of	hyperlinked	informa>on
SemanGc	Web	enabled	applica>ons	
rely	on	data	represented	as	Linked	Data
What	is	Linked	(Open)	Data?
Linked	(Open)	Data		
	
	a	standardized	way	of		
	expressing	the	rela>onships	between	data
Linked	(Open)	Data		
	
	a	standardized	way	of		
	expressing	the	rela>onships	between	data		
		
	seman>cally	annotated	the	data	
	with	different	vocabularies	or	ontologies
Linked	(Open)	Data		
	
	a	standardized	way	of		
	expressing	the	rela>onships	between	data		
		
	seman>cally	annotated	the	data	
	with	different	vocabularies	or	ontologies	
	
describe	domain-level	knowledge	
understandable	by	humans	&	machines
Where	does	Linked	Data	come	from?
Linked	(Open)	Data		
	is	o?en	derived	from	originally		
	heterogeneous	(semi-)structured	data
Linked	Open	Data		
	from	Not	Open	Data
Linked	Open	Data		
	from	Not	Open	Data	
	from	Open	Data
Linked	Open	Data		
	from	Not	Open	Data	
	from	Open	Data	
	from	their	combina>on
How	is	Open	Data	published?
The	DataTank	
open	source	RESTful	data	management	system
The	DataTank	
open	source	RESTful	data	management	system	
	
enables	publishing	data	into	web	readable	formats	
	
read	the	data	and	publish	them	on	the	web		
using	a	URI	as	an	iden>fier.
The	DataTank	
supported	data	formats	
	
CSV	and	XLS	
XML	
JSON(-LD)	
SHP	
RDF	
MySQL	
SPARQL
How	is	Linked	(Open)	Data	published?
Linked	(Open)	Data		
	published	in	the	form	of	RDF	datasets
Resource	DescripGon	Framework	(RDF)	
	is	the	prevalent	data	model		
	for	describing	Linked	(Open)	Data
Resource	DescripGon	Framework	(RDF)	
	is	the	prevalent	data	model		
	for	describing	Linked	(Open)	Data	
	
		
	
	
		
predicate	
subject	 object
Resource	DescripGon	Framework	(RDF)	
	is	the	prevalent	data	model		
	for	describing	Linked	(Open)	Data	
	
		
	
	driven	by	unique	iden>fiers	(URIs)	
	
		
predicate	
subject	 object
Resource	DescripGon	Framework	(RDF)	
	is	the	prevalent	data	model		
	for	describing	Linked	(Open)	Data	
	
		
	
	driven	by	unique	iden>fiers	(URIs)	
	allows	establishing	a	shared	meaning	
		
predicate	
subject	 object
How	is	Linked	Data	derived		
from	(semi-)structured	data?
How	is	Linked	Data	derived	
from	(semi-)structured	data?	
id	 firstname	 lastname	 lab	 city	
1	 Anastasia	 Dimou	 DSLab	 Ghent	
2	 Ruben	 Verborgh	 DSLab	 Ghent	
3	 Erik	 Mannens	 DSLab	 Ghent
label	
Person	1	 Data	Science	Lab	works	
“Anastasia	Dimou”	
located	DataScience	Lab	 Ghent	
label	
Person	2	 Data	Science	Lab	works	
“Ruben	Verborgh”	
label	
Person	3	 DataScience	Lab	works	
“Erik	Mannens”
label	
Person	{id}	
{lab}	
works	
Assign	unique	iden>fiers	(URIs)	
“{firstname}	
{surname}”
label	
Person	{id}	
{lab}	
works	
Assign	unique	iden>fiers	(URIs)	
“{firstname}	
{surname}”	
label	
h]p:://
ex.com{id}	
h]p://ex.com{lab}	
works	
“{firstname}	
{surname}”
Annotate	data	rela>onships	with	ontologies	
label	
h]p:://
ex.com{id}	
h]p://ex.com{lab}	
works	
“{firstname}	
{surname}”
Annotate	data	rela>onships	with	ontologies	
label	
h]p:://
ex.com{id}	
h]p://ex.com{lab}	
works	
“{firstname}	
{surname}”	
rdfs:label	
h]p:://
ex.com{id}	
h]p://ex.com{lab}	
ex:works	
“{firstname}	
{surname}”
rdfs:label	
ex:1	 ex:DSLab	ex:works	
“Anastasia	Dimou”	
ex:located	ex:DSLab	 ex:Ghent	
rdfs:label	
ex:2	 ex:DSLab	ex:works	
“Ruben	Verborgh”	
rdfs:label	
ex:3	 ex:DSLab	ex:works	
“Erik	Mannens”
rdfs:label	
ex:{id}	
ex:{lab}	
ex:works	
ex:located	
ex:{lab}	 ex:{city}	
sets	of	triples	of	a	dataset	have	repe>>ve	pa]erns	
“{firstname}	
{surname}”
rdfs:label	
ex:{id}	
ex:{lab}	
ex:works	
sets	of	triples	of	a	dataset	have	repe>>ve	pa]erns	
“{firstname}	
{surname}”	
RDF	dataset	genera>on	tools		
	rely	their	implementa>on	on	repe>>vely		
	applying	those	pa]erns	to	input	data	
ex:located	
ex:{lab}	 ex:{city}
What	are	the	different		
	Linked	Data	GeneraGon	approaches?
Linked	Data	genera>on	approaches	
case-specific	solu.ons
Linked	Data	genera>on	approaches	
case-specific	solu.ons		
OR	
format	and	source	specific
Data	OWNER	/	PUBLISHER	
CSV	 JSON	XML	
RDF	 RDF	 RDF
R2RML	mappings	 R2RML	processor	
Data	OWNER	/	PUBLISHER	
defines	
RDF	
DB	 CSV	 JSON	XML	
RDF	 RDF	 RDF
RDF	Terms	(focusing	on	IRIs)	are…	
	
generated	independently	
disregarding	their	possible	prior	defini>ons		
	
manually	replicated	
by	reconstruc>ng	the	same	URIs	(if	possible)	
	
manually	aligned	a?erwards	
links	with	other	datasets	are	defined	a?er		
the	RDF	terms	are	published
Why	not	a	uniform	approach?
Uniform and declarative RDF generation
from heterogeneous data sources
				mappings		 processor	
Data	OWNER	/	PUBLISHER	
defines	
RDF	
DB	 CSV	 JSON	XML	 RDF
RDF Mapping Language (RML)
generic scalable mapping language
for generating and interlinking
RDF data from heterogeneous resources
in an integrable and interoperable fashion
superset of the W3C standardized
R2RML mapping language
http://rml.io
Uniform and declarative RDF generation
from heterogeneous data sources
RML	mappings		 processor	
Data	OWNER	/	PUBLISHER	
defines	
RDF	
DB	 CSV	 JSON	XML	 RDF
Defining	Mappings	to	generate	Linked	Data	
	
Retrieving	Input	Data	
	
EdiGng	Mappings
Defining	Mappings	to	generate	Linked	Data	
	
Retrieving	Input	Data	
	
EdiGng	Mappings
RML	describes	
	how	to	generated	RDF	
	from	structured	data	
predicate	
subject	 object
RML	describes	
	how	to	generated	RDF	
	from	structured	data	
predicate	
subject	 object	
Predicate	Map	
Subject	Map	 Object	Map
RML	describes	
	how	to	generated	RDF	
	from	structured	data	
predicate	
subject	 object	
Predicate	Map	
Subject	Map	 Object	Map	
<#TriplesMap>
rr:constant	
ex:located	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/
{lab}”	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/{city}”	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/
{id}”	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/{lab}”	
rr:template	“{firstname}	{surname}”	
rr:termType	rr:Literal	
RDF	Mapping	Language	(RML)	
@prefix	rr:	<h]p://www.w3.org/ns/r2rml#>
rr:constant	ex:works	
rr:constant	ex:located	rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/
{lab}”	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/{city}”	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/
{id}”	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/{lab}”	
<#ResearcherMap>	
<#LabMap>	
rr:template	“{firstname}	{surname}”	
rr:termType	rr:Literal	
RDF	Mapping	Language	(RML)
ExtracGon	Module	 Mapping	Module	
RML	Processor
Defining	Mappings	to	generate	Linked	Data	
	
EdiGng	Mappings	
	
Retrieving	Input	Data
RML	describes	
rules	to	map	any	structured	data	to	RDF	
	
RML	supports	any	data	independently	of	
which	structure	and	format	they	have	
where	they	originally	reside	
how	they	are	accessed	&	retrieved
Specifying	data	
	which	data	form	a	data	input	
	how	to	reference	data	input	extracts	
		
Accessing	&	Retrieving	data	
	data	input	from	original	source(s)
Specifying	data	
	which	data	form	a	data	input	
	how	to	reference	data	input	extracts	
		
Accessing	&	Retrieving	data	
	data	input	from	original	source(s)
Support	data	in	Heterogeneous	Structures	
	tabular-structured	
		
	
	hierarchical-structured	
	
	
	(semi-)structured	
		
		
	…	…	…
Support	data	in	Heterogeneous	Structures	and	Formats	
	tabular-structured		
	 	tables	in	DBs	or	CSV	files	…	
		
	hierarchical-structured		
	 	JSON	or	XML	…	
	
	(semi-)structured	
	 	HTML	…	
		
	…	…	…
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/
{id}”	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/{lab}”	
<#ResearcherMap>	 rr:template	“{firstname}	{surname}”	
rr:termType	rr:Literal	
	
id	 firstname	 surname	 lab	
1	 Anastasia	 Dimou	 DSLab	
2	 Ruben	 Verborgh	 DSLab	
3	 Erik	 Mannens	 DSLab	
tabular-structured	data
rr:constant	
ex:located	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/	
{/labs/lab/short}”	
rr:template	“h]p://ex.com/	
{/labs/lab/loca>on/city}”	
<#LabMap>	
<labs>		
				<lab>	
								<short>MMLab</short>	
								<>tle>Mul>media	Lab</>tle>	
								<loca>on>	
												<city>Ghent</city>	
								</loca>on>	
				</lab>	
				<lab>	….	</lab>	
				…	
</labs>	
hierarchical-structured	data
Specifying	data	
	which	data	form	a	data	input	
	how	to	reference	data	input	extracts	
		
Accessing	&	Retrieving	data	
	data	input	from	original	source(s)
Input	
data	
Input	
data	
Input	
data	
Output	
RDF	
Mapping		
module	
RML		
Processor	
Map	doc
Data	
source	
Access	
	interface	
Input	
data	
Input	
data	
Input	
data	
Output	
RDF	
Mapping		
module	
RML		
Processor	
Map	doc	
Data	
source	
Access	
	interface	
Data	
source	
Access	
	interface	
Retrieval		
module	
Source	
descrip>on
Support	different	LocaGons	and	Access	Interfaces	
Local	File(s)	
		
Database	connec>vity	
	
	
Web	source(s)	
	
	
RDF	source(s)
Support	different	LocaGons	and	Access	Interfaces	
Local	File(s)	
		
Database	connec>vity	
	D2RQ	
	
Web	source(s)	(Web	API/service)	
	 	DCAT,	CSVW,	Hydra,	VOiD	(Dataset)	
		
	 	RDF	source(s)	
	 	 	VOiD	(Endpoint),	SPARQL-SD
file.xml	
WEB	API	
DCAT	
XML	
data	
JSON	
data	
tabular	
data	
Output	
RDF	
Mapping		
module	
RML		
Processor	
Map	doc	
Data	repo	
WEB	API	
	Hydra	
Data	base	
JDBC	
D2RQ	
Retrieval		
module	
Source	
descrip>on	
Triple	
store	
SPARQL
Defining	Mappings	to	generate	Linked	Data	
	
Retrieving	Input	Data	
	
EdiGng	Mappings
Seman>c	Web	experts	Vs.	Data	specialists
Seman>c	Web	experts	Vs.	Data	specialists	
	
Modeling	Domain	Knowledge		
as	Linked	(Open)	Data		
is	not	straighsorward	for		
Data	Specialists
Seman>c	Web	experts	Vs.	Data	specialists	
	
Modeling	Domain	Knowledge		
as	Linked	(Open)	Data		
is	not	straighsorward	for		
Data	Specialists	
	
Data	context		
is	not	straighsorward	for		
Seman>c	Web	experts
Seman>c	Web	experts	Vs.	Data	specialists	
	
Data	Specialists		
should	be	able	to	specify	the	mappings,	
modify	and	extend	them	at	any	>me
Defining	Mappings	to	generate	Linked	Data	
	
EdiGng	Mappings	
	
Retrieving	Input	Data
The	five	stars	of	the	Linked	Open	Data	scheme	
should	not	be	approached	as	a	set	of		
consecu>ve	steps
Well-considered	policy	regarding		
mapping	and	interlinking	of	data		
in	the	context	of	a	certain		
knowledge	domain
GEO	>	OPEN	
	
Geraldine	Nolf		
Flemish	Informa.on	Agency	
	
	
	
	
@natadimou	#opentourism
>  Geographical data in Flanders
▪  Must follow its obligations, regulations, standards, …
>  F.e. SDI-Flanders partnership (decree, implementing decree, commandments, …)
>  MUST’s for describing metadata:
▪  ISO
>  19115 (datasets/series), 19119 (services), 19139 (implementation), 19110 (feature catalogue)
▪  INSPIRE
>  Directive: Implementing Rules on Metadata + Technical Guidelines on Metadata
▪  SDI-Flanders
>  Best Practices on Metadata v1.0 (metadata for datasets, dataset series, services, feature catalogues)
▪  OGC / INSPIRE
>  Catalogue Service for the Web (OGC Catalogue Services Specification 2.0.2) = Discovery Service (INSPIRE) =
Zoekdienst (SDI-Flanders)
>  Geoportal: http://www.geopunt.be
The way to open geographical data in Flanders?
Geo > Open 109
>  Open data Portal in Flanders:
▪  SHOULD follow its manual
>  SHOULD HAVE’s for describing metadata:
▪  DCAT-AP
>  Portal: http://opendata.vlaanderen.be/
▪  CKAN
The way to open geographical data in Flanders?
Geo > Open 110
>  So, do I have to describe my data on both portals?
>  The power of metadata:
▪  Describe it only once,
▪  Create multiple use
The way to open geographical data in Flanders?
Geo > Open 111
	
1
The way to open geographical data in Flanders?
Geo > Open 112
>  Follow the SDI-track to describe metadata (MUST)
▪  Appear on http://www.geopunt.be
▪  AND appear on http://opendata.vlaanderen.be/
>  Because of:
▪  Set keyword “Open data in Flanders” in the metadata record
▪  Via CSW harvest of Geopunt metadata
▪  With filter on keyword “Open data in Flanders”
▪  Mapping to DCAT (XSLT: ISO 19139 to DCAT)
▪  Mapping to CKAN
Geo > Open 113
Open	Discussion	
	
Bruno	Koninckx	
THOMAS	MORE	
	
		
	
	
@brunokon	#opentourism
Open	Discussion
Anastasia	
@natadimou	
Raf	
@ra4e	
Bruno	
@BrunoKon
Join	our	community!		
h]p://tourism.openknowledge.be	
	
	
#opentourism	|raf{dot}buyle{at}okfn{dot}be
A	world	where	knowledge	creates	power	
for	the	many,	not	the	few.	
A	world	where	data	frees	us	—	to	make	
informed	choices	about	how	we	live,	what	
we	buy	and	who	gets	our	vote.	
A	world	where	informa.on	and	insights	are	
accessible	—	and	apparent	—	to	everyone.	
This	is	the	world	we	choose	
	
#openbelgium16	#opentourism

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