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The benefits of open access


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A presentation by Richard Pulsford as part of Open Access Week at the University of Exeter.

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The benefits of open access

  1. 1. International Open Access WeekSt. Lukes Campus, University of Exeter, 25th October 2012 1
  2. 2.  To examine the benefits of Open Access to the researchprocess prior to publication To examine the benefits of Open Access after publication  Visibility and impact  Evidence To examine the benefits of research repositories such as ERIC To examine the wider issue of publically funded researchbeing publically available 2
  3. 3.  Effect on quality of research  increased resources  aids all aspects of the scientific method planning, experimental design and methodology Better practice  reduces citation bias  reduces problem of ‘hollow citing’ 3
  4. 4.  Visibility of research The publication of research outputs in immediate open access journals or their availability in institutional repositories exposes then to a wider readership Increase in interest in research Increased citation rate 4
  5. 5.  Higher citation rate  Increased availability = increased downloads = increased citations Antelman 2004 ‘Do open-access articles have a greater research impact?’ Examined articles in four disciplines  Philosophy, political science, electrical and electronic engineering and mathematics  chosen as they represent various stages of adoption of open access ‘number of citations’ used to determine whether articles have agreater impact when their authors make them freely available 5
  6. 6. Antelman 2004 Difference in citation rate Mathematics 91%Electrical and electronic engineering 51% Political Science 86% Philosphy 45% Open Access - No 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Open Access - Yes 6
  7. 7. But.... Is this increase in citation rate due to other confounding factors? I. Top authors who are highly cited may be at better institutions which may be more likely to have publication repositories II. A greater number of authors on a publication may increase both the number of citations and the likelihood of it being open access – it only takes one! III. The benefits of OA are simply due to authors allowing free access to ‘trophy’ publications in personal or institutional repositories after their publication in non-OA journals 7
  8. 8. Eysenbach 2006  Bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June and December 2004 in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)  Controlled for potential confounding factors including, number of authors, authors’ publication history and impact, country, funding and discipline  Open access articles were twice as likely to be cited in the first 4- 10 months (OR = 2.1 [1.5-2.9]) & almost 3 times as likely to be cited in the 10-16 months after publication: OR = 2.9 [1.5-5.5]  Secondary analyses showed that papers in immediate OA journals were cited more than those in non-OA journals which were made available through repositories 8
  9. 9.  Across a variety of disciplines, OA articles have a greaterresearch impact than articles which are not freely available1 Readers find OA outputs more easily, read them more often1 andciting them earlier and more often in their own work2 This effect is evident even after controlling for confoundingfactors relating to authorship and institution2 9
  10. 10.  ERIC – allows searches by collection, subject, author, theme  Mutual benefit due to U of E reputation for research  Success within a discipline may raise profile for all rather than just those involved Stimulation of new research ideas  Increase in access to research outputs and ideas could stimulate new avenues of research Collaborations  Across institutions  Across disciplines Benefit to researchers, institutions and research as a whole 10
  11. 11.  ‘Publically funded research should be publically available’ In non-OA publication public funds are used three times inthe research process3  To pay for; 1) research, 2) peer review & 3) access RCUK and the HEFCE announced plans to ensure greater openaccess4‘significant outputs from research activity are made available aswidely as possible both within and beyond the researchcommunity. Open access to published research can benefit theresearch base, higher education, and the UK economy andsociety.’ OA is now advocated by many institutions & funders 11
  12. 12.  Open access, via immediate OA journals or depositories can benefitresearchers at all stages of the research process The main effects are an increase in resources and increased visibilityand impact of research outputs Can also stimulate interest across disciplines and institutionsallowing greater collaboration The wider issue of publicly funded research being publicallyavailable is beginning to be addressed due to support from RCUK &HCFCE and as OA increasingly becomes a mandate of the provision offunding. 12
  13. 13. 1.Antelmann, Kirstin (2004). Do open access articles have a greater research impact? College & Research Libraries News, 65(5), 372- 382.2.Eysenbach, Gunther (2006). Citation advantage of open access articles. PLoS Biology, 4(5).3. RCUK & HEFCE Press release - Information on Funding mandates - 13
  14. 14. International Open Access WeekSt. Lukes Campus, University of Exeter, 25th October 2012 14