The importance of content-mining in the EC policy on open access
Jean-François DechampOpen Access Policy OfficerEuropean CommissionDirectorate-General for Research & Innovation (DG RTD)Brussels, 22 April 2013Licences for Europe, TDM working group, 3rdmeetingThe European CommissionThe European Commissionpolicy on open access:policy on open access:the importance ofthe importance oftext and data miningtext and data mining
Research & InnovationWhat is open access (OA) toscientific informationOA = online access at no charge to the user (&further distribution and proper archiving)• to peer-reviewed scientific publications• to research dataTwo main OA publishing business models• Gold OAGold OA: costs covered (e.g. by authors)immediate OAimmediate OA: provided by publisher• Green OAGreen OA: deposit of manuscriptsimmediate/delayed OAimmediate/delayed OA: provided by author
Research & InnovationTwo Commissioners on open access• Vice-President Neelie Kroes• Digital Agenda• "We spend hundreds of billions of Euroon research in Europe and we need tomake sure the results can have thelargest possible impact”• (July 2012 Press conference)• CommissionerMáire Geoghegan-Quinn• Research & Innovation• “Open access will (…) boost Europesinnovation capacity and give citizensquicker access to the benefits ofscientific discoveries”• (2012 Stakeholder meeting)
Research & InnovationThe Commission objective• The Commission wants to optimise the impact of publicly-funded scientific research• At European level (FP7, Horizon 2020)• At Member State level• One way to get there: open access• Expected benefits:• Results of publicly funded research can be disseminated morebroadly and faster for the benefit of researchers, industry andcitizens• Equal access across Europe and beyond• Drive down the costs of dissemination without sacrificing quality
Research & InnovationThe Commission strategy• Develop and implement open access to research resultsfrom projects funded by the EU Research FrameworkProgrammes (FP7, Horizon 2020)• Incl. funding research and supporting activities in the area ofopen access• Encourage national initiatives at Member State level• Contribute to co-ordination between Member Statesand within the European Research Area
Research & InnovationThree key documents from theEuropean Commission (16.07.2012)• Communication A reinforced European Research Areapartnership for excellence and growth• Global setting• Communication Towards better access to scientificinformation: boosting the benefits of public investments inresearch• Focus on Horizon 2020• Recommendation on access to and preservation ofscientific information• Focus on EU Member States
Research & Innovation1. Communication ERA• The ERA is based on the internal market in whichresearchers, scientific knowledge and technology circulatefreely• One of the five priority areas: Optimal circulation,access to and transfer of scientific knowledge• Joint statement by stakeholders organisations• Formal commitments and activities on open access by:EARTO, NordForsk, Science Europe, LERU and EUA
2. Communication: Towards betteraccess to scientific information• OA Pilot in FP7• Best effort to provide OA• 7 areas• Peer-reviewed publications• Allowed embargos: 6/12 months• OA publishing costs• Eligible while project runs• All projects• OA mandate in H2020 (tbc)• Obligation to provide OA• All areas• Peer-reviewed publications• Allowed embargos: 6/12 months• + Pilot for research data (detailstbd / interests to protect)• OA publishing costs (tbc)• Eligible while project runs• All projects• Publications after project ends??(conditions tbd)GreenOAGreenOAGoldOAGoldOAResearch & Innovation
Research & Innovation3. Recommendation to Member States• Member States to define policies for and implement:• OA to publications• OA to research data – taking into account data-specificconcerns• preservation and re-use of scientific information• e-infrastructures• Consistency between H2020 policy and MS policy• Structured co-ordination of MS (National Points of Reference)at EU-level and reporting• Multi-stakeholder dialogue to be set up
Research & InnovationHow are Commission policy documentson TDM and OA intertwined? (1/2)• The Scientific information package (2012 Communicationand Recommendation) came prior to the 2012Communication on Content in the Digital Single Market• No explicit mention of TDM• However...
Research & InnovationHow are Commission policy documentson TDM and OA intertwined? (2/2)• Communication (Horizon 2020):"[...] information already paid for by the public purse should not be paid foragain each time it is accessed or used, and [...] it should benefit Europeancompanies and citizens to the full.""The Commission encourages authors to retain their copyright and to grantlicences to publishers, according to the rules applying in Member States."• Recommendation (Member States):"[as a result of OA policies] Licensing systems contribute to open access [topublications] in a balanced way, in accordance with and without prejudice to theapplicable copyright legislation, and encourage researchers to retain theircopyright while granting licences to publishers.""[as a result of OA policies] Research data [are] publicly accessible, usable andre-usable through digital infrastructures."
Research & InnovationR&I perspective: the need to openup TDM (1/2)• Efficient use of TDM is a way optimise the impact ofpublicly-funded scientific researchSeveral studies predict a huge potential of TDM for R&I and the economyas a whole• TDM must be ‘opened up’: existing legal and technicalbarriers to TDM must be removedIdeally and whenever possible, content to be mined should be open, freeto access online for text and data miningAt the very least, licenses to read / access content should include TDMTechnical challenges must also be addressed: being able to access largevolumes of data via unique entry points (platforms would speed up theR&I process)
Research & InnovationR&I perspective: the need to openup TDM (2/2)• The Commission understands the concerns of its stakeholders, including theresearch community, about making additional licensing the only solution:Content-mining licences should not be barriers to TDM of publicly-funded research• All evidence, opinions and solutions to facilitate the widest adoption of TDMmust be given equal weighting: No solution should be ruled to be out ofscope from the outset• TDM policy development will have an impact not only on the R&I done in theremit of Horizon 2020, but on any research and knowledge transferperformed within the ERA• Not only parallel developments in TDM should not jeopardize the EU policy onopen access TDM policy developments must be coherent with thebroader move towards openness in R&I: open access, open data, openinnovation, citizen science, crowdsourcing, etc.
Research & InnovationWhat can DG RTD bring to the process?• Commissions objectives:Stakeholders are invited to point to all the issues and limitations of currentlicensing models and indicate preferred options, including legislative reformThe stakeholder dialogue does not affect the parallel on-going legislative reviewConclusions do not bind any of the participantsThe overall responsibility for the dialogue rests with DGs CNECT, EAC & MARKT• DG RTD will be more actively involved:Need to ensure the broadest discussion and reporting on various possiblesolutions to tackle the obstacles for TDMThis includes considering copyright exceptions in the EU legalframework on copyrightNeed to ensure coherence with the EU policy on open access
Thank you!• Website of the European Commission on open access• http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/open_access• Contacts in DG RTD• email@example.comResearch & Innovation