Emission to air from ship -Towards best practice for beyond compliance operations and management for ships By Sulaiman Olanrewaju, Oladokun PhD Researcher ( Marine Technology)
Specific ObjectivesTo discuss :• The links between air emission, efficiency, energy conservation and climate problem• The source of air pollution from ships• Air emission regulation regime• Mitigation option for prevention and control• Quantification and assessment• Environmental Technology- Existing ship and new - built
Presentation Navigation• Introduction• Energy, efficiency and environment• Environmental issues in ship operations• Regulation built – up• Ships emission to air and issues of global warming• Energy and fuel quality• Good practice towards beyond compliance• Alternative energy and technology• Environmental technology• The future of energy and ship
"It does not matter where on Earth you live,everyone is utterly dependent on the existence of that lovely, living saltwater soup. There’s plentyof water in the universe without life, but nowhereis there life without water. The living ocean drives planetary chemistry, governs climate and weather, and otherwise provides the cornerstoneof the life-support system for all creatures on our planet, from deep-sea starfish to desert sagebrush. That’s why the ocean matters. If the sea is sick, we’ll feel it. If it dies, we die. Our future and the state of the oceans are one." • Sea Change A Message of the Oceans • Sylvia Earle, 1995.
IntroductionMan, Environment and Technology• Man• Biosphere- Water, Air and Soil• The techno sphere - The ship, The port
Introduction • Combustion -----> pollution control ---> energy conservation • Combustion = Generation of electricity + release of chemical • Emission from combustion impacts: Generation of fossil fuel scarcity , Photo chemical smog, Oil dependent world. Aggressive quest for alternative energ,International and local registration build-up • Reassessment and revolution work on: • plan to reduce emission of existing and new engine • Challenge of matching energy efficiency at minimum emission of pollution • Control of emission is linked to traditional factors of reliability, fuel economy, per shaft
Fuel efficiency linked to pollution • Maximizing overall energy efficiency-temperature, electrical thermodynamic, and mechanical • A well insulated boiler system can achieve combustion efficiency close to 100% and thermal efficiency of the order of 90% • Heat loss by high temperature exhaust gas and in coolant systems reduce the thermal efficiency • For electrical energy, 70 percent of the primary energy is lost in the power generation & transmission stage • Thermal efficiency is improved by: insulation , recycling of gaseous effluents, rate of heat transfer in combustion chamber and liquid coolants • Designer of combustion chamber -> to achieve high combustion efficiency - unburnt fuel is considered to be a pollutants • Double incentive - complete combustion efficiency and reduce emission
Fuel efficiency linked to pollution • A good combustion require high temperature, a resident time sufficient long, present of oxidizer • Heat transfer from flame to solid surface is composed off conduction , convection and radiation • Luminosity and present of solid particles can lead to significance change in ratio of radioactive to convective heat transfer • Problem associated with achieving maximum efficiency are linked to pollution control • Complete oxidation and burning of fuel ->increase combustion efficiency and reduce pollution • However oxide of nitrogen have presented major problems due to contradictory requirement of pollutant formation and combustion efficiency • Formation of oxides of nitrogen has affinity to high temperature • Oxide of nitrogen ->difficult to treat as a pollutant - > restriction vital before formation • Sulfur control require removal of sulfur before burning or extraction from effluent
Issue of Today• Worldwide focus of fuel-> Exhaust gas emission law by IMO and introduction of local rules• Emission limits driving evolution to development and adaptation to new technology• Solution anticipated to maintenance of ship life cycle at average of 25 years• Focus is currently more on, NOx and SOx – HC, Cox and particulate will soon join• Consideration involve not only fuel use and design but also OPERATIONAL ISSUE
Main Threat • Freshwater supply and quality – surface & groundwater • Risk and threats to human health -> collapse of ecosystem health • Pollution of the lower atmosphere -> combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning • Land/marine interaction & transboundary issues ( eutrophication) • Environmental flashpoints/security • Nuclear waste issues • Long-term and inter-annual climate change • Habitat loss and forest fragmentation • Endangered species, link to food security & economic impacts • Sanitation and waste due to crosscutting urbanization • Chemical and toxic substances – Quality of life • Critical environmental zones
General Impacts• The alteration and destruction of habitats and ecosystems• The effects of sewage on human health• Widespread and increasing Eutrophication• The decline of living resources Sediments• The impacts of Climate Change Rising sea
Impact CategoriesHigh Probability and High-Impact Events:• Landbased resources degradation• Marine Resource degradation• Damages due to disasters• Environmental damages:-Loss of biodiversity-Depletion of natural resource bases-Increased greenhouse gas emissionsLow probability and slow impact events:• Global climate change• Stratospheric ozone depletion• Persistent organic pollutants
Global Climate Change ImpactsStratospheric ozone depletion: - Loss of biodiversity - Freshwater degradation - Desertification and land degradation - Deforestation and the unsustainable use of forests - Marine environment and resource degradation
Pollution from Ships Release: • Water pollution • Air emission • Persistent organism • Accidental - Grounding ,Stranding, Loss of oil, Hazardous cargo, Noxious liquid, collision with marine mammals • Operation - Oil spill, Cargo and Bunker fuel, Emission ( Sox, Nox, CFC & VoC) Antifouling toxins ,Ballast water discharges, Noise, Waste disposal at sea, Dredging @dispersal of soil -Intentional -Unintentional
Flow Process of typical exhaust gas Composition •Emission is inherent consequence of powered shipping •Fuel oil burning as main source •Continuous combustion machineries - boilers, gas turbines and incinerators
Global Warming Potentials byEmission Sources 12000 Cox 10000 NOx 8000 CHX 6000 HFC-134a 4000 HFC-227e a 2000 HFC-c-23a 0 CF GWP (100 Ye ar ITH)
UN Agencies Get Serious• Galvanize the scientific community:- set up panels /collaborating scientists and technical bodies- use existing scientific bodies and research centers- use global observation systems• Tap on informal sources of information related to early warning• Dealing with problem of sharing sensitive data among countries• Human capacity• Rapid spread of Internet as a tool for information compilation, discussion, and dissemination
Regulation Build-Up• UN Agencies• Local agencies UN Agencies Regulation Cluster •(Oil Spills Protocol) - Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW Protocol) •Protocol Concerning Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities (LBS Protocol) •Agenda 21
IMO Get Serious – New Strategies• To address greenhouse gas emissions from ships- Adoption of control and prevention measures in 2003;• To address problems associated with the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms in ships ballast water – adoption of final text of IMO Diplomatic Conference in 2004;• To support the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems in Ships 2001; and• To address the ongoing implementation of the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990.
LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND REGULATION CLUSTER -IMO • International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships (MARPOL) 1973 • It covers accidental and operational oil pollution as well as pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution • It was modified by the protocol in 1978 relating to (MARPOL 73/78) MARPOL cover: • Annex I- Oil • Annex II- Noxious liquid chemicals • Annex III- Harmful Goods (package) • Annex IV- Sewage • Annex V – Ballast water • Annex VI- emission and air pollution (Sox, Nox and green house gas, emission of ozone depletion gas (ODG))
IMONew annex to MARPOL focus :• Control and management of Ballast water to minimize transfer of harmful foreign species• Global prohibition of TBT in antifouling Coating - phase out scheduled for 2008• International convention on oil pollution, Response and cooperation (OPRC) - 1990• Policy to combating major incidents or threats , control to prevent, mitigates or eliminates danger of marine pollution through port to its coastline from a maritime casualty• Annex protocol under this convention (HNS Protocol) covers marine pollution by hazardous and noxious substances (HNS)• Air emission from ships
MARPOL Annex VI Convention • Technical code for prevention of air emissions from ships • Diesel engine test • Survey • Certification of compliance (IAPPC) • NOx compliance limit -30% reduction • Review of 5 years interval • Restriction on use of fluorocarbons on board • Carbon dioxide emission from ship • Fuel quality • SOx Emission Control Areas (SECA)
NOx Requirement for control of emission from ship • n<130 rpm 17 g/kwh • N>2000 rpm 45n ^0.2) g/kwh • N>200 rpm 9.8 g/kwh Other requirement and standards : • NOx depends on : Fuel efficiency, Large bore, Low speed • Fuel grade - ISO 8217 • Emission test - ISO 8178 • One common limits for all engine - International harmonization of regulation and equipment standards
IMO NOx Compliance Line • Minimizing the NOx emissions from diesel engines is a pressing international problem • The above graph shows the international regulation standards adopted by the IMO in September 1997 • In response to this, engine manufacturers are exploring all means of reducing NOx emissions • Low-NOx type marine diesel engine for new series engines use the following methods to reduce NOx emissions: *NOx is generated when combustion gas is held at high temperature. To reduce NOx generation, the following steps are required: 1. Lower the combustion temperature. 2. Shorten the combustion time. • Improvements aimed at NOx reduction are: 1. Delay of fuel injection time 2. Use of SCR
SOx Emission Control Areas (SECA) • Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78 limits the sulphur content of MFO to 1.5% per mass and will apply in designated SECAs. • The first SECA is the Baltic Sea ->enters into force on 19 May 2006. • The North Sea Area and the English Channel SECA will enter into force 22 November 2007. • The geographical boundaries for these two SECAs are defined in MARPOL 73/78 • EU directive 2005/33/EC, requires ships to burn fuel oil with less than 1.5% sulphur in the North Sea SECA from 11 August 2007.) • New SECAs are expected to be adopted in the future based on certain criteria and procedures for designation of SECAs • MARPOL Annex VI, Regulation 14 (4b) gives the option of using an exhaust gas cleaning system (EGCS) which reduces the total SOX emissions to 6.0 g/kWh.
Emission of Particulates as a Function of FuelSulphur Content A large part of the difference between HFO and DO is related to the sulphur, which together with water forms particulates
Mitigation • Shipboard and waste emission outline – • Treatment and Elimination - Pollution Prevention (P2) or Pollution Control-this is backbone of the thrust in achieving clean ship. • The basic P2 principles follow: • Pollution Prevention Use fewer environmentally harmful substances and generate less waste on board. Pollution Control: Increase treatment, processing, or destruction of wastes on board. -Eliminating the use of environmentally harmful chemicals, such as ozone-depleting substance (ODSs), toxic anti-foulant hull coatings, and other hazardous materials, may be the best approach for some potential problems. • Emission can only be subject to reduction at best rather than elimination • Other pollution are subjects to zero discharge or use of minimum possible given current technology
Emission Reduction Potentials • Recent studies revealed that exhaust emission from ship is responsible for : - 14% of the worldwide NOx emission - 8% of world SOx • Emissions from ocean-going are forecast to increase - 9% to 13% by 2010 - 20% to 29% by 2020 • Bulk carrier, container and tanker vessels are the three largest contributors. • Low exhaust emission diesel engine could achieves a 25% reduction in air emissions • The IMO, NOx emission limit will reduce the average NOx emission factors for ocean-going vessels by: - 4.1% for main engines - 8.3% for auxiliary engines
General Mitigation Techniques Primary measures: • Use of low sulfur fuel – ( less than 6g/kwh) Secondary measures: • Exhaust gas cleaning system or technology ** Sox for ECA (Emission Control Area) & Fuel change over There are 3 ways by which pollution can be controlled • Cleaning fuel prior to combustion (fuel preparation such as fractionation , catalytic cracking , desulphurization ) • Reducing the production of pollutants during combustion ( state combustion, exhaust gas recirculation and reduced temperature level ) • Cleaning exhaust gas **(All these methods attracts major design modification that heat economic of energy balance
Existing Emission Mitigation Methods • Nitrogen reduction -> through choice of propulsion system • Sulfur reduction ->in bunker fuel • On board Catalytic system -> like : -Converter -water injection -Emulsion • Operationally -> through : -speed reduction -Use of shore power connection
NOx Reduction Options For existing engines: • Use of NOx injectors • Retarding injection timing • Temperature control of the charge air • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) • Fuel / water emulsion • Water injection • Humid Air Motor (HAM) Technique- addition of wet steam to the engine • Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) For new engines: Engine certification - Pre-certification, - Technical file clarification on engine family and group, - Final certification
Operational Measures -Relifiquation plants for LNG/LPG carriers-> Reduction of NOx, Sox, + cost saving through boiled off gas reuse -Speed reduction at ashore proximity->~ 10-20% -Alfa Lubricator system - Reduction in cylinder oil consumption-> reduction in particulate emission -Electronic control engine -> Programmed fuel injection and exhaust valve->Emission reduction -Turbo generator plant –> Use of high efficiency air flow for power take off –> reduce fuel + reduction of emission -System integration ->Humid air Motor (HAM)- engine intake air operating with water + Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ~50% reduction - HFO sulfur content - Need for oil company to change their equipment for low sulfur oil production-> ship- owner will face high cost - Additive solution has been expensive so far - Dual fuel option for low sulphuR restricted areas( 1.5-4.5)– need for additional tanks and
Slide Valve Option •The content of hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas from large diesel engines depends on the type of fuel, the engine adjustment and design. •sac volume is the void space in the fuel valve downstream of the closing face •Reduced sac volume in the fuel valves has greatly reduced HC emissions.
Alfa Lubricator System• A high-pressure electronically controlled lubricator that injects the cylinder lube oil into the cylinder at the exact position and time -> optimal effect is not always possible with the conventional lubricators• A parallel line is followed by the SIP (Swirl Injection Principle) lubricator, where the oil is injected prior to piston passage, thereby having the oil distributed by the air swirl.• Use for marine engines and engines for power generation purposes, very low feed rates have been demonstrated, with oil consumption down to 0.5 g/bhph.• By applying low oil dosage -> emission is lowered + less cylinder oil is wasted in the engine- where it could end up in the system oil, resulting in increased TBN and viscosity.
Particulate Emission - Function of PotentialLub. Oil Consumption
PM Measure •The picture of the filters used for dilution tunnel PM measurements taken before and after the scrubber at 75% load and 15% recirculation.
Scavenge Air Factor •NOx reduction by means of SCR can only take place in the mentioned temperature window •Because if the temperature is too high, NH3 will burn rather than react with the NO/NO2. • At too low a temperature, the reaction rate would be too low, and •condensation of ammonium sulphates would destroy the catalyst
SCR Installation Block Diagram •To reduce the NOx level by up to 98%, it is necessary to make use of the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technique. •With this method, the exhaust gas is mixed with ammonia NH3 or UREA (as NH3 carrier) before passing through a layer of a special catalyst at a temperature between 300 and 400C, whereby NOx is reduced to N2 and H2O. •The reactions are, in principle, the following: •4NO + 4NH3 + O2 → 4N2 + 6H2O •6NO2 + 8NH3 → 7N2 +
SCR System Layout The amount of NH3 injected into the exhaust gas is controlled by a process computer dosing the NH3 in proportion to the NOx produced by the engine as a function of the engine load.
SCR Electronic System •The flexibility of the electronically controlled engine can improve the emission control and operation of NOX reduction by means of water emulsion •When operating with an SCR catalyst, it is difficult to maintain the engine dynamics and the turbocharger stability at transient engine loads. •With the electronically controlled engine, a faster load-up by early exhaust valve opening and late injection timing is possible •Also, modulated exhaust valve timing stabilizes the turbocharger.
Exhaust Gas Recovery (EGR) •EGR system has two water injection stages, with a simple water separator unit after both. •The first water injection stage involves humidification with salt water in order to ensure that there is no freshwater consumption in the second freshwater injection stage. •The outlet temperature of the first stage is approximately 100oC. •This stage has a single multi-nozzle injector.
EGR with Water Treatment •This system is connected to the exhaust system in the same way as the simple EGR system •But the EGR line is routed to a .bubble-bath. scrubber from the which cleans and cools the exhaust gas. •The water loop in the scrubber system is cooled and monitored in a Water Treatment Skid with a filter and settling system, cleaning the used sea water.
EGR and HAM System •The NOx production only takes place at very high temperatures (2,200°K and above), and it increases exponentially with the temperature. •The EGR method is based on a reduction of the oxygen content in the cylinder charge, and the HAM method is partly based on reducing the oxygen content of the cylinder charge and partly on increasing the heat capacity of the cylinder charge by the addition of water vapor
Typical Pressurized Fuel Oil System withHomogenizer
Humid Air Motor (HAM) •The addition of water to the HFO by homogenisation increases the viscosity •To keep the viscosity at the engine inlet at 10-15 cSt, max. 20 cSt, It is necessary to raise the temperature to more than the 150oC which is standard today (max. 170oC at 50% water) raise the fuel oil loop
NOx Reduction from Emulsification •10% NOx reduction for each 10% water added •The water amounts refer to the injected amount of fuel oil
EGR •At increased recirculation amounts, the HC and PM emissions are reduced corresponding to the reduction of the exhaust gas flow from the engine.
Case Study – Retrofit Installation of SCR Norwegian owned LPG-carrier Navion Dania, equipped with a 6S35MC main engine.
Emission Assessment Quantification• Emissions calculation- using emission factors and activity data by mode of operation:• Emissions = Σ[(P x LF x EF)Main+ (P x LF x EF )Auxiliary] Modex TMode• P = registered main or auxiliary engine power, kW;• LF = load factor relative to registered power;• EF = emission factor by mode, g/kWh;• Tmode= time in mode, hours.
Environmental Risk•Since options are many and moneywill be involve, it is better to use IMOFSA HAZOP method for variousdecision on alternatives.•RISK = Hazard (Toxicity) xExposure (an•estimate on probability that certaintoxicity will be realized)For example:• Use of X rays has a high AQ (Highbenefit, low risk)• Use of Thalidomide has a small AQ(Small benefit,high risk)• Nuclear war has a very small AQ(No benefit,very high risk)
Risk Management• Risk management is the evaluation of • alternative risk reduction measures and the implementation of those that appear cost effective• It must be remember that :• Zero discharge = zero risk, but-the challenge is to bring the risk to acceptable level-at the same time, derive the max. benefit
Energy Source and Fuel Quality • The quests for an efficient fuel friendly to the environment have been recognized in maritime industry for a long time in maritime industry. • Improvements of gasoline and diesel by chemical reformulation that can lead to decrease in ozone-forming pollutants and carbon monoxide emissions • Inconvenience posed by these reformulation chemicals are performance problems: -cold-start ability -smooth operation -avoidance of vapor lock are disadvantages of using reformulated fuels. • Global trend in de-Carbonization of the energy system follow the following path: COAL > OIL> NATURAL GAS > HYDROGEN
Potential of Natural Gas • The drive towards environmentally friendlier fuels points next at Natural Gas (NG) • The infrastructures to support that trend are being pre-positioned by corporate mechanisms and governmental bodies worldwide. • NG is cheap and its reserve is plentiful. • Natural Gas as fuel is becoming more and more established in Urban Transport and Power Generation sectors. • Its use will also take aggressive approach for all coastal vessel including ferries due new regulations. • Internationally its operational record and GHG gas score is rated as GOOD.
Impact of Using New Fuel • That technology will transfer sympathetically to the marine industry via availability of engines, systems and technical assistance. • Marine craft operation in inland water operation as well as deep sea will require fuel supplied in bulk rendering the NG distribution viable • The use of an alternative fuel for vessel propulsion will leads to a design review of: - Power plant - associated fuel system - propulsion train; • + Effectively reshaping areas such as Machinery Arrangement, Hull Form, Compartment, Cargo Deck, Payloads, Superstructure, Interior Layouts, Escape &
Environmental Technology ForEmission Reduction• Alternative energy• Alternative fuel and dual fuel engines• Infusion of water mist with fuel and subsequent gas scrubbing units for slow speed engines• Additional firing chamber• Potential for gas turbine complex cycle• Potential for turbocharger diesel engine• Compound cycle with : gasified fuel, external compressor, combustion with pure oxygen• Exhaust after treatment for medium speed engines
Comparison of Propulsion Plantsefficiency and System Size
Environmental Technology Update• Lloyd performed a research on exhaust gas emission assessment• Roll-Royce built Allen 5000 Series engine with electronics fuel injectors that control NOx• Mak engine has developed a new MDS engine with reduction in NOX without fuel penalty
Exhaust gas Monitoring Equipments Come with new technology must be monitoring system – some of the available monitoring systems are : • Electrochemical cells • Chemiluminescent analyzer • Paramagnetic analyzer • Analysis of optical radiation Monitoring mode could be : -In situ - with simultaneous data analysis -Extractive systems- data analysis transfer to other location for processing
Sustainability and Maritime MARITIME INDUSTRY IN NEW WORLD CHARACTERIZED BY SUSTAINABILITY CAPACITY BUILDING , EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATION OF DEVELOPMENT ,PRACTICE AND OPERATIONS THAT MEETSTHE NEEDS OF THE PRESENT GENERATIONWITHOUT COMPROMISSING THE ABILITY OF FUTURE GENERATION TO MEET THEIR NEED
Advantages of Maintaining• Quality Good environmental quality is essential for sustaining coastal and marine ecosystems20, commercial, recreational fisheries, and economic growth in coastal communities.• It is also an important means of providing natural protection against rising sea levels and storm damage.• The health of coastal and marine ecosystems is affected by water quality, and in turn, water quality is dependent upon ecosystem health. If one is impaired, the other is threatened.• Despite their value and the programs designed to protect them, many coastal waters are being degraded at an alarming rate in addition to this.** Ship that meet environmental requirement will be able to meet requirement of “GREEN PASSPORT” concept for ships
Advantages of Maintaining Quality Other advantages are : • Compliance with all applicable environmental laws • and regulations; • No significant adverse environmental impacts; • Wastes treated or destroyed on board to the extent practicable; • No inappropriate dependence on shore facilities for waste off-load and disposal; • Minimal energy consumption; • Minimal logistical costs for waste management; and • Minimal use of hazardous materials. **Reducing emission will make ship to meet future local and international emission regulation.
LOCAL MARINE EMISSION RULES • Today, only a few countries have ratified the IMO-regulations • Countries like Sweden, Hamburg and Norway have introduced reductions in harbour fees for ships operating on low sulphur fuel and with a low NOx level, in order to encourage low pollution applications. • There is potential for more local rules like these coming up, depending effectiveness of IMO enforcement regulationEuropean Union • The EU has adopted the IMO annex VI Marpol convention including expanding the low-sulphur restricted area the French coast in the English Channel, and the North Sea. • Sweden- The Swedish authorities decided to aim at a 75% emission reduction by the beginning of 2000. In order to reach this goal, the authorities apply financial incentives in the form of environmentally differentiated fairway and port due – To stimulate ships to take measures which would benefit the environment, such as using catalytic converters or making other technical improvements that decrease the nitrogen oxide emissions and promote the use of low-sulphur bunker fuel.. • Norway -The Norwegian Maritime Directorate issues guidelines on emission limits. The limits do not apply to all ship types and are based on a calculation of the total emission load factors from NOX, SOX, the type of fuel, and the use of redundant machinery. The higher the emission factor, the better the protection of the environment, and the less is to be paid in tonnage tax by Norwegian owners and operators. This rule became effective on 28 November 2000, and applies to ships above 1000 net register tons.
The future Towards Clean Ship Operation • The development of new measuring equipment for emission control will continue in the coming years, and especially techniques like HAM and EGR • The concern of local authorities will change from focusing on NOx and SOx to include also smoke, in particular. • The IMO Annex VI unconditional ratification for NOx IN 2003 and the recent inclusion of SOx is sign for more environmental restriction in future • Local rules that encourage the use of emission cutting means, such as SCR reactors, through harbour fee reductions will become more dominant than today. • SCR units are preferably installed during the construction of the vessel, however, retrofitting is has been successfully practiced • The challenge to ship-owners will increase as vessels are required to have, or be prepared for, emission control equipment. • The sulphur content in fuel will be reduced, and vessel tank systems have to be prepared for dual fuel and dual cylinder lube oil systems. • In some areas, the operating profile of the ship will have to be adapted to local rules for reduced smoke emission.
The Future Towards Clean Ship Operation• Land based air pollution regulation is a foundation for future legislatures in marine industry• Fossil fuel is considered the single ;largest contributor to emission Apart from Nox , others like CO,HC, particulate matter , Cox, smoke emission are likely to attract new regulations• To facilitate adaptation to emission regulations, operators, officers, engine builders, yards and ship-owners must have view to achieving the global target of a cleaner planet.• The latest generation of electronically controlled engines are an integral part of that policy.
• "... [M]an’s fingerprint is found everywhere in the oceans. Chemical contamination and litter can be observed from the poles to the tropics and from beaches to abyssal depths...But conditions in the marine environment vary widely. The open sea is still relatively clean...In contrast to the open ocean, the margins of the sea are affected by man almost everywhere, and encroachment on coastal areas continues worldwide...If unchecked, this trend will lead to global deterioration in the quality and productivity of the marine environment." The State of the Marine Environment, 1989;Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Poll
Other Environmental Technology Update• Ozone safe substances- 200-Ton Air- conditioning Plant Conversion Kit -The CG- 47and DDG-51 plants have been successfully converted to the ozone-friendly refrigerant HFC- 236fa conversion kit has been established by NRL• Solid waste - Solid-Waste Pulpers -The pulper (especially the large pulper) is the machine into which you dump tremendous quantities of paper, cardboard, or food waste. The waste mixes with seawater to form slurry, which is then discharged overboard.• Studies show an immediate 100,000-to-1 dilution when discharged into the wake of a ship. Ships equipped with a pulper can dispose of their paper, cardboard, and food waste just about anywhere and at anytime—at sea including MARPOL areas.• Liquid waste - OWS and Bilge water Polishers: Many bilge cleaners the Navy uses today contain long-lasting emulsifying agents, which produce stable oil-in-water emulsions that shipboard OWSs cannot effectively process.
Recent Development in Coalition ControlWorkA number of promising developments that exist today are:• Kutsuro Kijima showed a modeling approach that permitted analysis of passing situations that would help set procedural standards for safe passing.• IanDand reported on the development of models for ship squat that have shown very good accuracy over the years.• Larry Daggett described the advent of dual frequency DGPS receivers and their role in gathering full-scale ship trial data. In addition to the excellent horizontal accuracy of the normal DGPS receiver, these receivers provide vertical location with an accuracy measured in centimeters.
Measure for Ship Design for Safetyand Environmental Protection IMO approved interim guidelines for estimating the maneuverability: • Rudder size and effectiveness, • Ability to transit at slow forward speed, • Propulsion and propeller characteristics, • Number of available engine reversals, • Adequate horsepower for control, • Extra reserve rudder angle needed to allow for ship crabbing from wind • forces or moored ship suction, • Visibility from bridge and bridge arrangement, • Hull form squat (trim and sink age) characteristics, • effect of bank forces on moorings and passing ships, • Air draft, Emergency anchoring ability, • Amount of tow line leads and line access.
General Best Practice for Power Plants • General conservation practice for machineries are : • Fan lubrication • Pumps lubrications • Compressors lubrications • Repair steam and compress air leaks • Insulate bare steam lines • Inspect and repair steam traps increase condensate return • Minimize boiler blow down • Maintain and inspect temperature measuring devices • Maintain and inspect pressure measuring devices
Best Practice for Operation ofMachineries• Recover energy from hot gases• Reduce energy from hot liquid• Reuse hot wash water• Add effects to existing evaporators• Use liquefied gases as refrigerants• Recompress vapor for low pressure steam• Generate low pressure steam from flash operation• Use waste heat for absorption to reduce heat loss
Management Responsibility• Maintain air- conditioner efficiency and reduce heated and cooled space• Maintain boiler efficiency• Use nature ventilation whenever and wherever possible, reduce air infiltration and seal leaks in pipes and ducts• Raise office temperatures in summer• Lower office temperature in winter• Use shading efficiently• Close windows and other air leaks• Do not use light necessarily• Turn off office equipment that is not use
Area of Concentration for Domestic Utilities• Cooking• Heating• Hot water• Cooking• Lighting• New equipment application
Personal Responsibility• Buy energy efficient equipments• Use well tuned engine for gain in efficiency and safety• Use natural ventilation wherever it is possible• Use natural ventilation in dwelling place• Avoid unnecessary trips• Do not waste food• Do not overeat• Make conscious effort to conduct your life in an energy efficient basis