Emancipation Proclamation to Total War


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This lecture covers the period in the American Civil War from the Union's establishment of the Emancipation Proclamation as a measure to win the war to Sherman's March to the Sea.
It is one in a series of textbook/lecture substitutes designed for students in a college seminar on the Civil War and Reconstruction.

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  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • HIS 5040/7040: The Civil War & Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
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  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation before the cabinet / painted by F.B. Carpenter ; engraved by A.H. Ritchie. Source: American Memory. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Emancipation_Proclamation.PNG
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation before the cabinet / painted by F.B. Carpenter ; engraved by A.H. Ritchie. Source: American Memory. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/almintr.htmlThe Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • James Ciment, Atlas of African-American History, 79. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/Battle_of_Fort_Pillow.png. Date accessed: 6/626/2012.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Source: David Herbert Donald et al eds., 229-230. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Source: David Herbert Donald et al eds., 229-230. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://0.tqn.com/d/history1800s/1/0/K/2/-/-/First-Avenuebattle.jpg. Date accessed: 6/24/2012.The Civil War and Reconstruction
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  • http://0.tqn.com/d/history1800s/1/0/N/2/-/-/Morgue-riots.jpg. Date accessed: 6/24/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Source: David Herbert Donald et al eds., 229-230. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chancellorsville. Date accessed 6/16/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Battle_of_Chancellorsville.png. Date accessed 6/16/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
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  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Battle_of_Gettysburg,_by_Currier_and_Ives.png. Date accessed: 6/16/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vicksburg. Date accessed: 6/16/2012.The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Battle_of_Vicksburg,_Kurz_and_Allison.png. Date accessed 6/16/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://www.civilwar.org/education/contests-quizzes/quizzes/vicksburg-campaign/vicksburg-campaign-quiz-answers.html.Date accessed 6/5/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chickamauga. Date accessed: 6/16/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Chickamauga.jpg. Date accessed: 6/16/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
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  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Battle_of_the_Crater.jpeg. Date accessed 6/17/2012.The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_wilderness/. Date accessed: 6/16/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Battle_of_the_Wilderness.png. Date accessed: 6/16/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
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  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
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  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/William-Tecumseh-Sherman.jpg. Date accessed 6/5/2012. The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Emancipation Proclamation to Total War

    1. 1. The Civil War & Reconstruction
    2. 2.  To date we have seen the rise of the Confederacy and the Union’s efforts to vanquish the CSA go unrealized. This presentation spans the years 1863 and 1864 where we see the development of a national emancipation plan, the authorization of black soldiers, and the Union begin to gain an edge in the fighting of the war. Some of the campaigns covered include Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Vicksburg, the Wilderness, Shenandoah, and Sherman’s March. Students may rely on the readings to get a sense of soldiers’ lives and developments on the home front.
    3. 3.  This is a critical year of the war. The Emancipation Proclamation (with its manumission of Confederate slaves and its authorization of black men’s enlistment) goes into effect. The USA’s Congress authorizes conscription for Union forces. Rebellion by civilians (over conscription &impressment) and by runaway slaves forces the CSA to fight the war on multiple fronts. A growing peace movement led by northern Democrats forces Lincoln to fight on multiple fronts. The tide slowly starts to turn in favor of the USA with measurable victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga.
    4. 4.  Although slavery was at the heart of the Confederacy’s campaign for independence, white men on both sides went into the war confident that the war was for USA advocates to preserve the Union and for the CSA to establish an independent country to protect their “way of life”  the foundation of which was slavery. Neither side expected slavery to be touched by the war. Both thought that enslaved people would stay put and that free African Americans would stay out of the issue. This thinking reflecting much of the racial attitudes of 19th century America that the USA (and by extension the CSA) was a “white man’s government.” Enslaved and free blacks rejected this argument. Many enslaved people fled their masters and many free blacks called on Lincoln to end slavery and authorize black military service.
    5. 5. Lincoln, Slaveryand the WarLincoln is unwavering inhis determination topreserve the Union.He doesn’t want toprovoke the remainingslaveholding BorderStates to leave theUnion and he wants toreturn the secededstates to the Union.Any policies thatprotected or abolishedslavery were lesssignificant to Lincolnthan returning theseceded states to theUnion.
    6. 6. Lincoln, Slavery,and the WarIndeed, because theConstitution protectedproperty rights(including enslavedpeople), Lincolndoesn’t believe that hecan simply abolishslavery.He can, however, usethe U.S. military toreturn the secededstates to the Unionand convince Congressto pass an amendmentto change theConstitution.
    7. 7. Lincoln, Slavery, and the WarThe president’sthinking reflectedthat of most of theRepublican Party andthe overwhelmingmajority of whiteUnionists.
    8. 8. Frederick DouglassTo fight againstslaveholderswithout fightingagainst slavery, isbut a half-heartedbusiness, andparalyzes the handengaged in it…Firemust be met withwater…War for thedestruction ofliberty must bemet with war forthe destruction ofslavery.
    9. 9.  The president’s position infuriated abolitionists and free African Americans. They argued that Lincoln should use the rebellion as cause to strike at the institution and to command the labor of enslaved people. Enslaved people had different ideas. They understood that the outcome of the war would determine the fate of slavery and many decided to do whatever they could to escape bondage and to help the Union.
    10. 10. The Anglo-African, New York Newspaper
    11. 11.  African Americans rejected the idea that the U.S. was “a white man’s country” and that the Civil War did not involve them. Rather than stay put, many enslaved people took flight from farms, plantations, stores, businesses, and homes, seeking Union forces. Over time, their actions would play a critical role in prompting Union generals, members of Congress, and the president to support emancipation.
    12. 12.  The president’s and the Congress’s initial failure to establish policy re: runaway slaves forced generals to cobble together policies to advance the war effort when they encountered enslaved people.  African Americans flooded Union camps and institutions, most of them were ready to work or fight for the Union by supplying intelligence on CSA troop movement or the landscape of the South, growing food, etc.
    13. 13. Contraband ofWarIn 1861, Whenenslaved peoplearrive at FortressMonroe(VA), GeneralBenjamin Butlerlabels them“contraband of war,”which simply meansenemy property.He providessanctuary forrunaway slaves anddoes not return themto their masters.The legal fate of thesepeople still hung inthe balance.
    14. 14. John C. FrémontIn 1861, General JohnC. Frémont declaredmartial law inMissouri anddeclared free peopleenslaved by the CSA.Lincoln rescindedthe order & removedFrémont fromcommand.
    15. 15. David HunterIn 1862, GeneralDavid Hunter issuedan order freeingpersons inGeorgia, Florida, andSouth Carolina.Lincoln overruledthe order.
    16. 16.  In 1861, Congress passed the Confiscation Act, which mandated that when the CSA used enslaved people in the war effort, they forfeited their claim to them. In 1862, Congress passed another Confiscation Act, which moved the nation closer to emancipation by declaring that enslaved people being used in the CSA war effort would be “forever free.” In 1862, Congress passed the Military Act which freed slaves and their families owned by the enemy. In 1862, Congress abolished slavery in Washington, D.C. Although there were some abolitionists in Congress, the majority of supporters of this legislation saw emancipation as a way to win the war.
    17. 17. Abraham Lincoln, 1862 My paramount objective...is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would do that also.Lincoln famously wrote this in response to Horace Greeley’s “Prayer of TwentyMillions” criticism of his failure to use the war to end slavery
    18. 18.  As the war continues, as slaves flee plantations, Lincoln’s ideas and policies evolve. Lincoln tries to develop a plan for compensating slaveholders for manumitting their slaves but Confederates reject this. To address white Americans’ fears of interracial sex, racial equality, and economic competition between blacks and whites, he tries to develop a plan to repatriate free blacks in Haiti or in Liberia.
    19. 19. AbrahamLincoln, 1862Your race suffergreatly, many ofthem, living amongus, while ours suffergreatly from yourpresence…We should beseparated…But for your raceamong us there couldnot be war…
    20. 20. Robert PurvisThe majority ofAfrican Americansopposed this idea.They reject the ideathat the war issomehow the fault ofblack people.Robert Purvis’sstatement reflectsblack people’sthinking:Sir, this is our countryas much as it is yoursand we will not leaveit.
    21. 21. Lincoln met with his cabinet on July 22, 1862 for the first reading of a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation
    22. 22. Abraham LincolnWe know how to savethe Union...In givingfreedom to theslave, we assurefreedom to the free—honorable alike inwhat we give, andwhat we preserve. Weshall nobly save, ormeanly lose, the lastbest hope of earth.Other means maysucceed; this couldnot fail.
    23. 23.  As a strategic decision to use the Confederates’ most valuable weapon (their slaves and their dependence on their labor) against them, Lincoln issues the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in the fall of 1862. Read the text of this document at the National Archives site. Lincoln hopes that this warning shot will make the Confederates put down their arms to protect their institution. However, they dismiss this war measure. The Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect.
    24. 24.  Lincoln issues declaration that on January 1, 1863, the slaves of masters who were still in rebellion would be “forever free.”  He wants to give Confederates 100 days to stop fighting with the promise that they can keep their slaves. Document reiterated Lincoln’s support for the colonization of freed blacks to some place outside the U.S. White northerners were divided.  Abolitionists favored it as did people who thought attacking slavery would help to end the bloody war.  Northern Democrats thought it was unconstitutional and an abuse of power.  Although they were exempted, Union supporting slaveholders in the Border States worried that they would lose their slaves too. White southerners were outraged Free and enslaved African Americans rejoiced but they were opposed to colonization.
    25. 25.  The Proclamation only freed enslaved people in the states and the part of states that were still in rebellion (people who were enslaved in the Border States, the states that never left the Union, or in the areas already controlled by Union forces are not included). More than 800,000 people still enslaved. It authorized the full enlistment of black soldiers in the Army & Navy. It marked the beginning of slavery’s legal end in the U.S.  It is only the beginning because as long as the war goes on, slaveholders won’t release their slaves.
    26. 26. EmancipationProclamationThe proclamationexcluded more than800,000 enslavedpeople living in theBorder States and inthe parts of theConfederacycontrolled by Uniontroops (the areas ofthe map marked inteal).
    27. 27.  Effect in the USA: redefined the war. Generals free to free slaves and recruit men into military service. Generals also provide food and shelter for freedpeople in return for work either for the Union army— barbers, cooks, laundresses, mechanics, officers’ personal servants, laborers, nurses, cultivating food and cotton.
    28. 28.  Effect in the CSA: reduced chances of international support (Britain could no longer count on cotton for its textile mills and withdraws promise of financial and military support) & increased the number runaway slaves (see Berlin, Foner, and Kolchin). Slaveholders in the interior move roughly 150,000 enslaved people to Texas, away from Union lines. Others simply refuse to acknowledge the proclamation and continue to hold people in bondage. Slavery remains legal in non-Confederate areas until the war ends in 1865 and when the Thirteenth Amendment is issued and goes into effect.
    29. 29. April 1861 Fort Sumter attacked; Civil War beginsMay 1861 General Benjamin Butler refuses to return escaped “contrabands” to slaveryAugust 1861 General John Frémont orders emancipation of slaves in Missouri; Lincoln countermands himAugust 1861 First Confiscation Act frees captured slaves used by Confederate ArmyApril 1862 Congress provides funds for compensated emancipation; border states spurn proposalMay 1862 General David Hunter issues order abolishing slavery in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida & Lincoln revokes itJuly 1862 Second Confiscation Act frees all people enslaved by ConfederatesSummer 1862 Lincoln concludes that Union victory requires emancipationSeptember 22, 1862 Lincoln issues Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation after AntietamJanuary 1, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation takes effectDecember 1865 Thirteenth Amendment ratified
    30. 30. Lincoln met with his cabinet on July 22, 1862 for the first reading of a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation
    31. 31. Abraham Lincoln, Emancipation Proclamation
    32. 32. EmancipationProclamationAlso authorizes theenlistment of blacksoldiers.
    33. 33.  Generals who were desperate for manpower and for men to fight did not wait for Lincoln or the Congress to authorize enlistment. In 1862, General David Hunter organized one of the first unofficially organized regiments of black troops when he mobilized former slaves from Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina. General John Phelps mobilized five black regiments to help command Louisiana. General Benjamin Butler authorized free “colored” Louisiana militia men to volunteer. In 1862, the War Department sanctioned the recruitment of black soldiers. The Emancipation Proclamation removes many of the barriers.
    34. 34. State/District Number of Army RecruitsKentucky 23,703Missouri 8,766Maryland 8,718Pennsylvania 8,612Ohio 5,092New York 4,125District of Columbia 3,269Massachusetts 2,966Rhode Island 1,837Illinois 1,811 Most black men servedOther* 110,076 in the Army. RoughlyUnion Total 178,975 9500 men served in the Navy.*From the Confederacy & otherstates
    35. 35.  Most African American men served as laborers while much smaller numbers actually took up arms against the CSA.  Deeply engrained ideas about black racial inferiority made many Union soldiers object to arming black men.  Very few of these men, especially enslaved men, had experience with weaponry. Serving in the Union Army gave both freed and free black men an even greater sense of urgency in helping to secure freedom once and for all by helping the Union to win the war. It also allowed them to claim and express their patriotism and manhood.
    36. 36.  Although white Unionists eventually came to accept black military service, deep racial prejudices influenced the treatment black men received. Black soldiers were required to be commanded by whites. Black officers were officially opposed but 100 black men held commissions. Black men experienced discrimination in pay, bonuses, medical services (leading to high casualties). Their lack of training with the weaponry of war and the difficulty of learning on the fly endangered many men. They also faced greater threats of retaliation at the hands of Confederates. The CSA estd a policy allowing black prisoners of war to be executed or reenslaved.
    37. 37. Fort PillowOne example of thebrutality they facedwas at Fort Pillowwhen CSA generalNathan BedfordForrest’s forcesmassacred severalhundred blackprisoners of war in1864.
    38. 38.  Slavery still existed after the Emancipation Proclamation. More than 800,000 enslaved people not covered by the proclamation. CSA slaveholders did not acknowledge the proclamation. Finally, the war was not yet over. Only the conclusion of the war with a Union victory, state laws, and a constitutional amendment would finally end the peculiar institution.
    39. 39.  West Virginia estd a gradual abolition law as a condition for joining the Union in 1863. Maryland & Tennessee abolished slavery by constitutional amendment in 1864 and 1865. Missouri abolished slavery by state convention in 1865. Congressional Republicans had tried to abolish slavery earlier on but they were overruled. It is not until January 1865 that Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment.
    40. 40. “Neither slavery nor involuntaryservitude, except as a punishmentfor crime whereof the party shallhave been duly convicted, shall existwithin the United States, or anyplace subject to their jurisdiction.”
    41. 41. Source: Donald et al eds., The Civil War and Reconstruction, 229-230. In July 1862, the USA called for more volunteers for military service but still found itself fighting a war with no end in sight and doing so with an army that was short by several hundred thousand men. During the late winter of 1863, Congress passed a national conscription law that held that all male citizens between 20-45 were liable for service. Some exemptions were possible for men with disabilities, elected officials, and men who were the only sons of widows and men with sick parents. Conscripted men could be called for up to 3 years of service. If men were called to serve, some avoid service by finding a substitute or paying a fee.
    42. 42. Source: Donald et al eds., The Civil War and Reconstruction, 229-230. From 1863-1865, more than 750,000 men were enrolled but only 46,347 entered the army as draftees, 73,607 found substitutes, 86,724 paid a fee, and others avoided the draft by volunteering. The exemptions of the law benefitted the middle class and elite and stoked anger and anxiety among the working class, particularly the newly arrived immigrants who had not yet managed to accumulate wealth. Outraged men attacked the draft offices and rioted on communities throughout the USA.
    43. 43. New York DraftRiotNew York City wasthe site of thelargest draft riot.The riot grew from aconvergence oflongstandingconflict betweenCSA sympathizers v.Unionists;Democrats v.Republicans; thepoor v. middleclass/elite; blacks v.whites; immigrantsv. native born Ams.
    44. 44. New York CityDraft RiotDemocrats, whodominated NYpolitics opposedLincoln and hishandling of thewar, objected stronglyto the draft.This image shows themob attacking theLincoln-supportingNew York Tribune.
    45. 45. New York CityDraft RiotLike other localeswhere riotsoccurred, there wasgreat opposition tothe EmancipationProclamation andgreat racial hostilitytoward AfricanAmericans.
    46. 46. New York CityDraft RiotRioters moved fromattacking draftoffices to ventingtheir frustrations onAfrican Americanindividuals andinstitutions.
    47. 47. New York CityDraft RiotOne mob attackedthe Colored OrphanAsylum on FifthAvenue.They burned it tothe ground and thechildren barelyescaped.
    48. 48. New York DraftRiotArmy units fromNew York returnedfrom Gettysburg tosuppress thefighting.119 New Yorkersdied, hundreds ofAfrican Americanswere wounded, andthousands fled thecity.
    49. 49. Despite some opposition and frustrations with thecommutations and exemptions, more 1 million men were enlisted from 1863-1865.
    50. 50. CSA USA Robert E. Lee  Joseph Hooker Army of Northern  Army of the Potomac Virginia  133,868 soldiers 60,892 soldiers  17,197 casualties  13,303 casualties  1,606 killed  1,665 killed  9,672 wounded  9,081 wounded  5,919 captured/missing  2,018 captured/missing Victor-Confederacy
    51. 51. Battle of Chancellorsville Hailed as a strategic win for Lee, despite high casualty figures (similar results would eventually make it harder for the CSA to fight). Claimed the life of Stonewall Jackson. Lincoln removed Hooker from command.Kurz and Allison image depicts the wounding of Robert E. Lee
    52. 52. CSA USA Robert E. Lee  George G. Meade 71,699 soldiers  93,921 soldiers 23,231 casualties  23,055 casualties  4,708 killed  3,155 killed  12,693 wounded  1,4531 wounded  5,830 captured/missing  5,369 captured/missing  Victor—Union
    53. 53. Gettysburg Lee invaded the North in PA. Meade (who replaced Hooker) held the line but failed to vanquish Lee. The CSA & USA clashed over three days and the Union won a decisiveCurrier and Ives image depicts events of July 3, 1863 victory.
    54. 54.  In 1863, the USA was still trying to control the entire Mississippi (they gained control of the upper part of the river in 1862 via victories at Forts Henry and Donelson and at Shiloh). The USA focused on Chattanooga and Vicksburg.  Chattanooga was vital because it was the center of railroad lines that delivered troops and supplies to the CSA.  Taking Vicksburg would give the USA access to and control of the lower river as well as control over railroad lines heading to Texas.
    55. 55. CSA USA John C. Pemberton  Ulysses S. Grant Army of Vicksburg  Army of the Tennessee 33,000 soldiers  77,000 soldiers  3,202 killed or wounded  4,835 casualties  29,495 captured  Victor—Union
    56. 56. Siege at Vicksburg Union forces tried several times to take Vicksburg. Grant moved above Vicksburg (at Milliken’s Bend) where he coordinated with the navy and then crossed the river and took the area around the city.Siege of Vicksburg--13, 15, & 17 Corps, Commanded by Gen. U.S. Grant, assistedby the Navy under Admiral Porter--Surrender, July 4, 1863, by Kurz and Allison
    57. 57. VicksburgBlockadeThe siege lasted for6 weeks beforePembertonsurrendered.This victorycoincided with thevictory atGettysburg.It boosted civilianand military moralein the USA.
    58. 58.  There were a total of three battles for control over Chattanooga. In the 1862 campaigns, CSA forces led by John Hunt Morgan and Nathan Bedford Forrest managed to disperse Union forces in what were indecisive outcomes. It was not until 1863 that Bragg evacuated the city (August) and Grant finally defeated Bragg (November) that Union forces could claim victory in Chattanooga, only to face defeat at Chickamauga.
    59. 59. CSA USA Braxton Bragg  William Rosecrans Army of Tennessee  Army of the Cumberland 65,000 soldiers  60,000 soldiers 18,454 casualties  16,710 casualties  2,312 killed  1,657 killed  14,674 wounded  9,756 wounded  1,468 captured/missing  4,757 captured/missing Victor—Confederacy
    60. 60. Chickamauga Some historians argue that the casualty rates here rival those at Gettysburg and Antietam. The CSA went on surround the USA in Chattanooga. Grant and Sherman’s forces vanquished Bragg’s army at Lookout Mountain (aboveKurz and Allison’s Battle of Chickamauga Chattanooga), leavin g TN in Union hands.
    61. 61.  With victories in Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga, the Union started to deplete the economic and military forces of the CSA. Though most in the USA still wanted the war to end quickly, the successes boosted morale to continue fighting. This morale boost was needed because despite suffering significant losses, the CSA was no where near ready to surrender. Their victory in Chancellorsville proved their ability to continue waging war and exacting high Union casualties. At the same time, the loss of such generals as Stonewall Jackson and the CSA’s own very high casualty rates will start to catch up with them as will a growing revolt among the white civilian and enslaved populations.
    62. 62.  This year will be marked by: The cumulative effect of the USA’s blockade on the CSA’s ability to provide for the civilian and soldier population. The CSA’s nearly insurmountable problem of making their states’ rights doctrine fit into the federal government’s desperate need for authorization to mobilize all resources to wage war. Grant’s stunning defeat at Cold Harbor. The 1864 election. Sherman’s capture of Atlanta. High desertion in the CSA.
    63. 63.  Both the CSA and the USA struggled for control of northern Virginia and Union forces continued their mission to claim Richmond. Butler failed to take Richmond when he had the chance but Grant was determined to capture Lee and take the city. After multiple skirmishes, the CSA continued to command Richmond & Petersburg. Union forces responded by constructing a mine underneath CSA works, filling it with powder, and lighting it on July 30.
    64. 64. Battle of theCraterThe Union’sexplosion of the minecreated huge crater.In the battle thatensued, Unionsoldiers piled into thecrater and fought itout withConfederates whoalso surrounded thecrater & fired into it.The Union lost 4000men and the CSA lost1500.Of the Union’s 450men from the USCT,322 were lost.
    65. 65. CSA USA Robert E. Lee  Ulysses S. Grant & Army of Northern George G. Meade Virginia  Army of the Potomac 61,025 soldiers  101,895 soldiers 11,125 casualties  17,666 casualties  1,495 killed  2,246 killed  7,928 wounded  12,037 wounded  1,702 captured/missing  3,383 captured/missing
    66. 66. Battle of the Wilderness Grant’s forces met Lee’s in the wilderness, instead of the open area. In bloody campaign, Grant refused to retreat and pushed on to Cold Harbor where Lee delivered stunning defeat that bolstered the peace movement.Kurz and Allison’s Battle of the Wilderness - Desperate Fight onthe Orange C.H. Plank, near Todd’s Tavern, May 6, 1864 Campaign also noted for the deadly brush fires.
    67. 67. PetersburgThe “Dictator” siegemortar atPetersburg.The figure in theforeground on theright is Henry J.Hunt, chief ofartillery of the Armyof the Potomac.
    68. 68.  Union forces continued their mission to take Richmond the the CSA continued to defend the city. While Grant was working through the Wilderness campaign, Philip Sheridan moved toward the Confederate capitol. Rather than take a city his forces could not hold, Sheridan destroyed the CSA’s provisions and munitions and disrupted its supply lines by breaking up railroad lines. He moved from there to continue severing CSA lines. Confederates civilians retaliated which elicited Sheridan’s ire and increased his willingness to wage war by any means against disloyal civilians who targeted Union soldiers.
    69. 69. Philip Sheridan’sCampaign in theShenandoah ValleySheridan’s forces metresistance atWinchester and atFisher’s Hill but theycontinued fightingtheir way souththrough the valley.One feature of thiscampaign, in additionto the attacks on CSAforces was Sheridan’sdestruction of civilianproperty—burning ofhouses and barns,destroying food, andremoving enslavedpeople—which somecalled total war orhard war.
    70. 70. Sheridan’s ValleyCampaignGrant sent Sheridaninto theShenandoah Valleyto vanquish theCSA’s Jubal Earlywho had staged araid onWashington, D.C.that Union forcesput down andretaliation burnedChambersburg, PA.
    71. 71. Sheridan’s ValleyCampaignFrank Leslie’s“Sherman’sCampaign in theValley of theShenandoah – Battleof SummitPoint, August21, 1864.
    72. 72. William T.ShermanSherman gainednational andhistorical fame forhis “March to theSea,” in which he ledhis forces fromTennessee to Atlantaand on a scorchedearth campaignthroughout Georgiaand the Carolinas.
    73. 73.  In Georgia, Sherman confronted the CSA’s Joseph Johnston with Grant’s command to destroy Johnston’s army, capture Atlanta, and advance as far into CSA territory as possible, inflicting as much damage as possible. Sherman’s campaign was no easy one. He was in enemy territory and he faced a highly skilled enemy in Johnston who destroyed bridges and railway tracks to make sure the USA couldn’t use them, kept Sherman’s men moving in pursuit, and fought as much as possible behind entrenchments. Despite Johnston’s ability to match Sherman, the CSA government replaced him with John Hood. Sherman captured Atlanta on September 2, 1864 and burned the city.
    74. 74.  In November, Sherman began his famous “march to the sea” to assert Union dominance over Georgia and then the Carolinas. Sherman is said to have wanted to “make Georgia howl,” by waging a relentless war against not only the soldiers but also the civilian population through the destruction of their property. This relentless war was motivated by the conviction that all Confederates need to bear the costs of waging war. For 163 days, Sherman advanced from Atlanta to Raleigh, foraging on CSA goods, destroying houses, barns, farms, crops, roads, bridges, and municipal buildings.
    75. 75.  Sheridan and Sherman wrought hell in their campaigns. Lincoln wins the election despite a strong campaign by his Republican and Democratic opponents to halt his reelection. With such significant losses, Jefferson Davis finds it harder to maintain support for continuing the war, as civilians start to withdraw support and his armies melt away under high casualty and desertion rates. Neither side is quite ready to thrown in the towel but looking back on this year, we can see that 1864 was the beginning of the end.
    76. 76.  David Hunter: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/ David_Hunter.jpg/200px-David_Hunter.jpg Declaring Contraband: http://www.contrabandhistoricalsociety.org/history.asp John C. Fremont: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/JCFr%C 3%A9mont.jpg Philip Sheridan: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7b/ Philip_Sheridan_1-restored.jpg/220px-Philip_Sheridan_1- restored.jpg William T. Sherman: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/William- Tecumseh-Sherman.jpg
    77. 77.  David Hunter: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/David_Hunter.jpg/200px- David_Hunter.jpg Emancipation Proclamation portrait: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/almintr.html Emancipation Proclamation Map: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Emancipation_Proclamation.PNG NYDR Attacking NY Tribune: http://0.tqn.com/d/history1800s/1/0/S/2/-/-/Tribune-rioters.jpg NYDR First Avenue: http://0.tqn.com/d/history1800s/1/0/K/2/-/-/First-Avenuebattle.jpg “Hanging and Burning”: http://blog.insidetheapple.net/2009/07/civil-war-draft-riots-day-2.html NYDR Mob attacking African American: http://0.tqn.com/d/history1800s/1/0/J/2/-/-/Clarkson-st02.jpg. Colored Orphan Asylum: http://0.tqn.com/d/history1800s/1/0/O/2/-/-/Orphan-fire01.jpg. NY Draft Riot Morgue: http://0.tqn.com/d/history1800s/1/0/N/2/-/-/Morgue-riots.jpg Chancellorsville: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Battle_of_Chancellorsville.png Gettysburg: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Battle_of_Gettysburg,_by_Currier_and_Ives.png. Vicksburg: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Battle_of_Vicksburg,_Kurz_and_Allison.png Chickamauga: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Chickamauga.jpg Battle of the Wilderness: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Battle_of_the_Wilderness.png Dictator at Petersburg: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Battle_of_the_Crater.jpeg Battle of the Crater: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Battle_of_the_Crater.jpeg Sheridan Crossing River: http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1865/march/sheridan-shenandoah- valley-campaign.htm Frank Leslie’s Valley of the Shenandoah: http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/11800/11867/shenandoah_11867.htm
    78. 78.  Confederate and Union Home Fronts.  Women  Civilian Life  Political Culture The Eastern Campaigns. Lincoln’s Assassination. The Collapse of the Confederacy.