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Confederate Ascendancy to the Eve of Emancipation

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This presentation covers the rise of the Confederacy (its initial victories) and the Union's slight recoveries in 1862. It is one is a series of textbook/lecture substitutes for student in a seminar on the Civil War and Reconstruction.

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Confederate Ascendancy to the Eve of Emancipation

  1. 1. The Civil War & Reconstruction
  2. 2.  Today’s Americans have the benefit of hindsight so we know that the Union defeated the Confederacy after 4 years of fighting and millions of civilian and military casualties but our Civil War era counterparts did not. At the beginning of the war both sides thought that it would be a short conflict. Neither side knew that the war would last as long as it did, that the Union would win, and that it would devastate Americans. The war’s outcome had as much to do with the specific decisions political figures that made and the resources (troops, provisions, etc.) they had as with what occurred on the battlefield. Indeed, looking back on the war there are many points where if the behavior of individuals was different, there might have been a different outcome.
  3. 3.  Recent research suggests that there were more than 10,000 engagements in the Civil War. This presentation, as well as the ones that follow, will cover some of the major or decisive engagements. Students may find on the Blackboard site more comprehensive information about several dozen major battles. After providing a demographic profile and several comparisons, this presentation starts with the Confederacy’s win at Bull Run, which revealed that despite the Union’s seeming military strength, that the war would not be won easily. What we will see is that after a series of initial missteps, Union forces began to recover by winning at Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, and Corinth. Despite these wins, Confederates’ fierce ability to wage surprise attacks (Shiloh) and to exact Union casualties meant that the war would continue much longer than anyone anticipated.
  4. 4. Recent research suggests the number of fatalities was higher. See the NYT Disunion BlogCSA USA 11 states  22 states 9 million (30% of whom  22 million people were enslaved)  3.5 million white men for 1 million white men for military service military service  Plus about 100,000 loyal 1 million served southerners & later free  800,000 enlisted (3 yrs of blacks and runaway slaves service)  2.9 million served  340,000 casualties  1.5 million enlisted (3  250,000 killed in action or years) from disease  650,000 casualties  360,000 killed in action or from disease
  5. 5. Confederacy Union Had to create a new  Economic strength—wealth government; and the nation’s banking and War fought on their turf, financial centers were located 750,000 sq mi; in NYC; Fierce determination to win to  More modern infrastructure establish their independence; (communication, More men trained to fight; transportation, industry);  Numerous military academies,  Existing government; inc West Point  Culture of chivalry, honor,  Existing military service; weaponry  Militia Possibility of foreign recognition  Regular army of the CSA; and  Volunteers Slave labor  Existing recognition by European powers.
  6. 6. Confederacy Union  Keep the support of the Border Get the support of States and/or occupy the  Recall armies from the West Border States  Protect the South’s valuable resources for the return to the Protect Richmond (CSA Union capitol), threaten  Protect Washington, D.C. (USA capitol), threaten Richmond Washington, D.C.  Control the Mississippi River— Anaconda Plan Get recognition from  Blockade of southern coasts to Britain, France, and deny the CSA supplies and to stop them from trading with Spain Europe.
  7. 7.  Most people focus on the army engagements but the naval engagements became more important as the war advanced. The Union wanted to maintain the blockade of southern ports and dominate the Mississippi and Tennessee rivers.  Started the war with a navy, focused on maintaining the blockade, replacing outdated technology, and assisting army forces. The Confederacy wanted to stop the USA’s merchant marine and maintain control over 3500 miles of coastal areas spanning Alabama, the Carolinas, and Mississippi.  Started the war without a navy but quickly mobilized resources and adapted new technology for warfare including submarines to sink USA warships and ironclads to attack the USA’s wooden ships.
  8. 8. Winfield Scott’sPlanSurround the CSA,control theMississippi, and thedivide CSA.Downside of theplan is that it wouldtake a long time toaccomplish.
  9. 9.  Some historians have noted that the beginning of the war was very much like a safety valve being released, unleashing Americans’ pent-up frustrations with decades of fighting about slavery’s extension and states’ rights. People on both sides began mobilizing for war—parading, mass meetings, volunteering, drilling. Both sides wanted to overwhelm their opponents with decisive victories, leading to the control of more territory and resources.  Unfortunately, few battles were decisive which a) forced both sides to regroup and fight again for the same area and b) prolonged the war and increased the casualty figures.
  10. 10.  The older style of fighting—phalanx—eventually disappeared as new technology was introduced. Only a few sieges—Petersburg and Vicksburg. Trench warfare, wherein opposing sides attack the other from a fixed position of trenches, was rare in the beginning but it became more common. The use of snipers, bushwhacking (making one’s way through wooded area and attacking along the way) , and guerilla fighting (irregular fighting, sabotage, harassment) became more common. Calvary—scouted, collected information. Balloons—to scout the location of troops (at risk of being shot down, of course). Telegraph—to communicate information but most commanders relied on scouts. Submarines—to attack ships and protect harbors.
  11. 11.  Rifled Musket Minié Ball Longer and more effective range of shooting & soft lead bullet yielded high casualty rates and changed how men fought.
  12. 12.  Forces mobilize in Kanawha Valley in the northwestern part of Virginia. Thomas (later “Stonewall”) Jackson and Joseph E. Johnston occupy Harper’s Ferry until the Union’s Robert Patterson takes over. Union forces maintain the area, aiding Unionists’ efforts to develop a new state. George McClellan becomes a hero.
  13. 13.  Rather than stay put, many enslaved people used the war’s beginning to flee their masters. General Benjamin Butler labels the runaway slaves that show up at Fortress Monroe “contraband of war,” meaning enemy property. Congress passed First Confiscation Act, which declared that any Confederate property being used to wage war against the Union, including enslaved people, could be confiscated. General John C. Frémont issued a proclamation that declared free all of the enslaved people of Missouri Confederates.  Lincoln rescinded the order to avoid losing the slaveholding loyalists and because the order violated the Confiscation act.  The two generals’ actions reflect the hesitancy of Lincoln and the Congress to address the issue of enslaved people fleeing their masters and heading toward Union lines.  They had no policies in place because they assumed enslaved people would stay with their masters.  This would be an ongoing issue between the administration and the generals until Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation.
  14. 14. These fugitive slaves are crossing Virginia’s Rappahannock river.
  15. 15. African Americanspulling up railroadlines.Enslaved peopleplayed a significantrole in buildingrailroads. Accordingto RhonnLaightonMitchell, during thewar, many used therailway lines,including the brokenones, to find theirway to Union troopsand to the North.
  16. 16. Alfred Waud’s“Contrabands”This 1863 image wasdrawn by AlfredWaud of Harper’sWeekly.It depicts AfricanAmericans who fledfrom slavery cominginto a Union camp.
  17. 17. CSA USA Joseph E. Johnston and  Irvin McDowell PGT Beauregard  Thomas Jackson earns  Lincoln replaced moniker of Stonewall McDowell w/ McClellan Casualties about 1,982  Union forced to retreat  387 killed  1,582 wounded in demoralizing fashion  13 missing  Casualties 2,896 Victor—CSA  460 killed Some historians say the  1,124 wounded win gave the CSA overconfidence  1,312 captured/missing
  18. 18. First Bull RunImage created byKurz and AllisonVictor-CSAExposes the Union’schallenge of havingso manyinexperiencedsoldiers.
  19. 19. Joseph E.JohnstonCSACommanded –Armies of theShenandoah,Northern Virginia,and Tennessee aswell as Dept of theWest.Major battles--1st BullRun, PeninsulaCampaign,Vicksburg, Atlanta
  20. 20. PierreGustaveToutantBeauregardCSACommanded theArmy of the Potomacand the Army ofMississippiBattles--1st Bull Run,Shiloh, Corinth,Petersburg
  21. 21. Irvin McDowellUSACommanded—Armyof NortheasternVirginia, Army of thePotomac, Army ofVirginiaBattles—1st and 2ndBull RunLincoln replaced himwith McClellan after1st Bull Run
  22. 22.  By the end of 1861: The CSA had won battles at Bethel, Bull Run, Springfield, Lexington, Leesburg, and Belmont. The USA had been successful in western Virginia and along the seaboard. Congress struck the first major blow at slavery by instituting Confiscation Act, which allowed USA troops to confiscate any Confederate property, including enslaved people, being used in the war effort. See also Adam Goodheart’s1861.
  23. 23. Fort Henry, 1862After losing to theCSA at Bull Run, theUSA strikes back.In a land-water unionbetween Ulysses S.Grant and RearAdmiral AndrewFoote, the USA takesFort Henry, theConfederate garrisonlocated on theTennessee River.This image is fromHarper’s Weekly
  24. 24. Andrew FooteUSANavy Rear AdmiralBattles—Fort Henry,Fort Donelson
  25. 25. Fort HenryVictor-USA
  26. 26. Fort Donelson, 1862Victor-USAGrant’s troops facedConfederate forces ledby Gideon Pillow andJohn Floyd.This was another jointland-water mission ledby Grant and Foote.Confederatecommanders’ failure tocoordinate use of forcescontributed to theirdefeat.
  27. 27. Grant develops moniker “Unconditional Surrender”
  28. 28. Fort Donelson, 1862Gunboats firing on FortDonelson on theCumberland River.Grant develops moniker“Unconditional Surrender.”After taking both FortsHenry and Donelson, theUSA’s efforts to gain controlof the Mississippi begins togain traction (the CSAunderstands the importanceof Mississippi for theirsurvival so they are going todo whatever they can tomaintain their supremacy).Victories boost morale in theUSA.
  29. 29. The Virginiasinking theCumberlandThe most famousnaval clashesoccurred off theVirginia coast inHampton Roads.The CSA raised theUSA’s sunkenMerrimack andrenamed it theVirginia and thenlaunched an attackon the Cumberland.
  30. 30. Clash of the Ironclads #7 The USA responded to the attack on the Cumberland, by launching the Monitor to protect other ships from the Virginia/Merrimac. After hours of fighting, neither side inflicted much damage and both sides agreed to a draw. Union forces added more ironclads toNumerous representations of the clashes are inaccurate in scale and their their fleet and thedepiction of the proximity of ships but this images provides a visual ofmaritime fighting. USA’s naval control would continue.
  31. 31. George C.McClellanUSACommands—Dept ofthe Ohio & Army ofthe PotomacBattles—PeninsulaCampaign, Battle ofAntietamBeloved by troopsbut a thorn inLincoln’s side for hishesitancy ofadvancing his troopsin the face of battle.
  32. 32. Ulysses S. GrantServed in the MexicanWar.His prowess at theBattles of Vicksburgand Chattanooga andin the Overlandcampaign lead to hiselevation incommand, eventuallyup General of theArmy, and his prestigeamong the troops.He will oversee Lee’ssurrender atAppomattox after thesiege at Petersburg.
  33. 33. CSA USA Army of Mississippi  Army of the Tennessee & Army of the Ohio Albert Johnston & PGT  Ulysses Grant and Don Beauregard Carlos Buell 44,699 men  66,812 men Casualties 1o,699  Casualties 13,047  1,728 killed  1,754 killed  8,408 wounded  8,012 wounded  2,885 captured/missing  959 captured/missing  Victor--USA
  34. 34. Battle of ShilohInexperience of Unionvolunteers revealed insurprising Confederate attackwhich allowed them to occupyUnion camps while chaosraged.Grant rallied his troops afterConfederates failed to back upBeauregard. He receivedreinforcements from Buell andWallace.Union controls westernTennessee.Ended beliefs that the warwould be short.Map covers last day of battle.
  35. 35. Don Carlos BuellUSACommanded—Armyof the OhioBattles—Shiloh,Corinth, Perryville
  36. 36. Henry W. HalleckUSACommanded—Western Theater &Dept of the MissouriBattles—Shiloh andCorinth
  37. 37. John PopeUSACommanded—Armyof the Mississippiand Army of Virginia
  38. 38. Albert SidneyJohnstonCSACommanded—Armyof MississippiBattles—ShilohFatally wounded
  39. 39. Leonidas PolkCSACommanded—Armyof Tennessee andArmy of MississippiBattles—Shiloh,Perryville, StonesRiver, Chickamauga,and Atlanta
  40. 40.  New Orleans was strategically value to the CSA, which made it a target of the USA. Union forces alone could not attack the city by land. Naval forces could not do the job alone either, with thousands of troops, two strong forts, and a CSA fleet of steamers and ironclads. The Union decided to coordinate the army’s (under Benjamin Butler) and navy’s operations (under David Farragut) and by the end of April, the USA occupied the CSA’s largest and richest city. Farragut moved north on the Mississippi to take Baton Rouge and Natchez but he could not take Vicksburg because of the strength of CSA forces there.
  41. 41. USA CapturesNew OrleansUnion forcesincreasingly realizedthe value of jointland-sea operations.
  42. 42. George C.McClellanUSAAlthough beloved bytroops, McClellanand Lincoln battledfor authority asLincoln commandedMcClellan to launcha direct advance onConfederate forces atManassas and hechose to attackRichmond.McClellan preparedfor a siege.
  43. 43. ConfederateConscriptionIn 1862, the CSACongress passed alaw that declaredthat all malesbetween 18 and 35could be subjectedto conscription.CSA officials tried toget men to avoidconscription byencouraging themto volunteer.
  44. 44.  A year later, the CSA Congress would exempt 1 male for every 20 enslaved people on a plantation and permit substitutions.  Both policies favored wealthy men. Many historians argue that Confederate conscription exposed a flaw in their ideology. The states seceded to chart their own destinies and to avoid centralized authority. But to fight and win a war for their independence, they would need to cede some authority to the government. Many slaveholding Confederates, even the fire-breathers, were having none of it and resisted at every turn the CSA’s efforts to centralize authority to win the war.
  45. 45.  By Spring 1862, the USA had defeated the CSA in the bloody campaign of Shiloh, which it followed by capturing Corinth, temporarily taking control of the western campaign. This success would be followed by delays and setbacks and then victories in Vicksburg and Chattanooga.
  46. 46.  Richmond and Washington, D.C., the capitols of the CSA and the USA were the primary targets of both sides. In 1862, both sides tried to foment chaos in the other side’s capitol. The USA’s McClellan wanted to launch his attack from the peninsula between the York and James rivers and then fight his way to Richmond. The cautious general refused to storm the CSA capitol and Lincoln removed him from supreme command. Meanwhile, the CSA’s Stonewall Jackson stopped the USA’s forces from reinforcing McClellan and taking Richmond by waging a raiding campaign up and down the Shenandoah Valley. Jackson eventually collaborates with Lee, the master tactician who became well known for his aggressive frontal assaults.
  47. 47. Thomas“StonewallJackson”CSAArmy of NorthernVirginiaFavored waging anaggressive anddestructive war.Battles—1st Bull Run,Shenandoah, SevenDays, NorthernVirginia, Maryland,Fredericksburg,Chancellorsville.
  48. 48.  Lee and Jackson’s combined forces met McClellan for a week long series of battles.  Mechanicsville (Beaver Dam Creek)  Gaines’ Mill  Savage’s Station  Frayer’s Farm  Malvern’s Hill The campaign, especially the one at Malvern’s Hill, became known for the high casualty & fatality rates. For the Union, there was the disappointment that despite the loss of life, McClellan still did not advance to take Richmond. Lincoln brought in John Pope to lead the Union’s forces in Virginia but the Confederates defeated him at the 2nd Battle of Bull Run.
  49. 49. MechanicsvilleThis image depictsConfederate forcesfleeingMechanicsville onthe second day ofthe Seven Days’campaign of 1862.
  50. 50. CSA USA Army of Northern  Army of the Potomac Virginia  George McClellan Robert E. Lee  104,100 men 92,000 men  Casualties 15,855 Casualties 20,204  1,734 killed  3,494 killed  8,066 wounded  15,758 wounded  6,055 missing/captured  952 missing/captured
  51. 51.  As the war continues with no real end in sight, Lincoln and Congress start to use the CSA’s dependency on the institution against them. Congress abolished slavery in Washington, D.C. (1862). General Hunter declared free enslaved people in SC, FL, and GA.  Lincoln rescinded the order. Congress passed Second Confiscation Act, which mandated that all enslaved people whose owners were engaged in the rebellion (and not simply those whose labor was being used in the war) were freed. Note: although history has given Lincoln all of the credit for abolishing slavery, the actions of the generals in the field and the Republican members of Congress deserve their share of the credit.
  52. 52. CSA USA Robert E. Lee  John Pope 50,000 men  62,000 men Casualties  Casualties  1,300 killed  10,000 killed and  7,000 wounded wounded Victor--CSA
  53. 53. Second Bull RunRuins of StoneBridge at Bull RunCreek, Manassas,VA, 1862
  54. 54. CSA USA Robert E. Lee  George McClellan Army of Northern  Army of the Potomac Virginia  75,000 men 38,000 men  Casualties 12,401  2,108 killed Casualties 10,316  9,540 wounded  1,546 killed  753 captured/missing  7,752 wounded  Inconclusive battle but  1,018 captured/missing Union has strategic edge.
  55. 55.  Single bloodiest day Lincoln uses the occasion of the Union’s victory to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
  56. 56. Kurz and Allison’s depiction of Battle of Antietam at Burnside’s Bridge
  57. 57.  Lincoln issues declaration that on January 1, 1863, the slaves of masters who were still in rebellion would be “forever free.”  He wants to give Confederates 100 days to stop fighting with the promise that they can keep their slaves. This document reiterated Lincoln’s support for the colonization of freed blacks to some place outside the U.S. White northerners were divided.  Abolitionists favored it as did people who thought attacking slavery would help to end the bloody war.  Northern Democrats thought it was unconstitutional and an abuse of power.  Although they were exempted, Union supporting slaveholders in the Border States worried that they would lose their slaves too. White southerners were outraged. Free and enslaved African Americans rejoiced but they were opposed to colonization.
  58. 58.  The USA wants European countries to stay out of the war and to accept its argument that the CSA was not an independent country but a group of rebels. The CSA wants European countries to recognize it as new country. Most European countries remain on the fence (they were internally divided on the issues relating to the war). They withhold formal support for either side until they have an angle on the outcome.  They will, however, do what is necessary to maintain access to certain goods and even supply the CSA with warships.
  59. 59. Cotton DiplomacyThe CSA hopes thatthey can use theirproduction ofEuropean requiredgoods, namely cotton,to elicit diplomaticrecognition.The plan fails largelybecause of theblockade, limitedcotton production,Europeans acquiringcotton from othercountries & beingmore dependent onnorthern goods thanthey were on southerncotton.
  60. 60.  Threat of European intervention heats up when Confederate commissioners board an outbound British ship, the Trent, and the ship is intercepted by the USA. British and Confederates are outraged at the seizure and the case opens the possibility that the British will recognize the CSA. The release of the commissioners eventually contributes to the British standing down some of their support for recognizing the CSA. In the end, Europeans remain withhold diplomatic recognition of the CSA.
  61. 61. Trent AffairSecretary of StateWilliam Seward holdsout his hand, releasingthe Confederatecommissioners whowere seized from theBritish ship.Britain’s Lord Russell(left) is satisfied.Jefferson Davis (right)is outraged over theoutcome as Britainrefuses to grant theCSA recognition as anindependent country.
  62. 62.  Although Lincoln won the 1860 election, secession changed the political landscape of the USA. Republicans switched from the minority party to the majority party and Democrats occupied the minority party once the majority of its southern members seceded.  The Republican party was still split by factions over such issues as the way to wage war, slavery, and equal rights for free blacks. Union Democrats styled themselves as rejecting secession while maintaining their support for small government.  They opposed Lincoln’s and congressional Republicans’ expansion of federal powers during the war, their willingness to try to use the war to end slavery, and some Republicans’ discussions of establishing equal rights.
  63. 63.  In the 1862 election, the temporarily depleted Democrats begin clawing their way back to political power in their support for the Union but their opposition to Lincoln’s managing of the war and to the Congress’s.  Democrats win more seats in Congress and governorships in New York and New Jersey. In 1863, Democrats dig in on their opposition to Lincoln’s expansion of federal powers during the war, including the draft and the Emancipation Proclamation.
  64. 64.  By the end of the year: There was still no clear end in sight because although each side achieved some victories, few were decisive enough to end the war. Although Confederates continued to display their mettle on the battlefield, the casualties they suffered will start to pile up and make it difficult for them to wage war as effectively against the much larger Union forces. As Stephanie McCurry and other shows, the CSA will also have to contend with growing revolts among their civilian population, namely “solders’ wives” and enslaved people. On the Union side, there is great frustration with Lincoln’s handling of the war, the military’s failure to win enough decisive victories to end the war quickly, the uncertainty caused by the looming preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
  65. 65.  Great Snake: http://www.loc.gov/shop/index.php?action=cCatalog.showItemImage&cid=14&scid=235&iid=3271 Bull Run Map: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Bull_Run Bull Run: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Bull_Run. Joseph E. Johnston: http://www.civilwar.org/education/contests-quizzes/quizzes/vicksburg-campaign/vicksburg- campaign-quiz-answers.html. PGT Beuregard: Image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P._G._T._Beauregard. William T. Sherman: http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sherman.htm. Ulysses Grant: http://www.civilwar.org/education/contests-quizzes/quizzes/vicksburg-campaign/vicksburg- campaign-quiz-answers.html. Irvin McDowell: Image: http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/hh/15/hh15c.htm. Thomas Jackson: http://www.nps.gov/hafe/historyculture/thomas-j-jackson.htm. George McClellan: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_B._McClellan Fort Henry: Image: http://thisweekinthecivilwar.com/?p=928 Andrew Foote: Image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Foote. Fort Henry: http://thisweekinthecivilwar.com/?p=928. Fort Donelson: http://thisweekinthecivilwar.com/?p=928 Fort Donelson: http://www.oceansbridge.com/oil-paintings/product/60469/generalgrantatfortdonelson. Gunboats at Fort Donelson: http://civilwar150th.blogspot.com/2012/02/battle-of-fort-donelson-bombardment.html Clash of the Ironclads #7: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Ironclads_battle_7.jpg Virginia sinking the Cumberland: http://www.usgwarchives.net/va/portsmouth/shipyard/sinkingcumberlandcopy.jpg
  66. 66.  Shiloh Map: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Shiloh Shiloh: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Shiloh Don Carlos Buell: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_Carlos_Buell. Henry Halleck: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Halleck. John Pope: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Pope_(military_officer) Albert S. Johnston: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Sidney_Johnston Leonidas Polk: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonidas_Polk. George McClellan Battle of Corinth: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:New_orleans_1862.jpg. New Orleans: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:New_orleans_1862.jpg. Stone Bridge Ruins: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Bull_Run. Battle of Antietam: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_Antietam.png. Mechanicsville: http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/06/22/where-was- stonewall/?ref=opinion. King Cotton Bound: http://emergingcivilwar.com/2012/02/26/a-world-on-fire-part-iii-king- cotton-and-confederate-foreign-relations-with-great-britain/. Trent affair: http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/grimsley1/h582/2001/trent.htm.
  67. 67.  The path to emancipation and black military enlistment. The Emancipation Proclamation. Union conscription & the Draft Riots. Battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Vicksburg, Chattanooga, the Wilderness. “Total War”  Sheridan’s Valley Campaign.  Sherman’s Campaign.

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