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  1. 1. RETHINKING THE CREATIVE RURAL ECONOMY IN THE POST- AGRICULTURAL ERA a rural community perspective Dr. Ian HunterThe Creative Rural Economy – From Theory to Practice Conference, Kingston, Ontario, June 15 2011
  2. 2. Public Farm 1 Exhibition, MoMA/PS1 New York 2008
  3. 3. The Creative Rural Economy initiative in Englandwas developed as a response to a growing senseof crisis in the rural community:Climate Change and Global WarmingThe Global Economic DownturnImplementation of EU CAP reformsAnimal pandemics and public health concernsDemographic and political changes
  4. 4. Climate Change and Global Warming Royal family to produce its own wine from Windsor Great Park grapesEnglish wine is certainly having quite a moment. As recently as 1984 just 325 hectares of land were producing grapesthat were being made into wine but over the past few years there’s been a huge increase in planting.“It’s not all in production yet but we’ve now got 75 per cent more land under vine than we had in 2004,” says JuliaTrustram Eve of English Wine Producers. “The official figure stands at 1,323 though we estimate that the actual figure iseven higher than that.”
  5. 5. Climate Change and Global WarmingGreenhouse Britain, Helen & Newton Harrison, 2009
  6. 6. The Global Economic Downturn Theories of Social Change - unstable dynamicsChange as a fundamental feature of modern life - the notion of ‘repertoire’
  7. 7. Implementation of radical EU CAP reformsThe Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) represents 48% of the EU’s budget, 49.8billion Euros in 2007.CAP reform (Pillar 2) aims to reduce this contribution to 36% by 2013 by shiftingsubsidies from agricultural production to social and environmental priorities (RDPE).
  8. 8. BSE/vCJD (Mad Cow Disease)The costs of BSE in Britain:£3.5 billion since 1996168 people dead and 95 suspect.
  9. 9. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASEImages of Tony Blair at the height of the foot-and-mouth crisis may have frightened off foreigntourists, says the governments media chief.Alastair Campbell is quoted in a think-tanks newreport, which says much of the £2bn lossesexperienced by the British tourist industry duringthe crisis was due to a lack of communication withthe public overseas.
  10. 10. AVIAN FLU (H5N1) Incineration of H5N1 infected turkeys, 2002US Congress voted $7.1 billion to combat avian flu. In 2006 donor nations pledged $2billion to combat bird flu at the two day International Pledging Conference on Avian andHuman Influenza held in China. Over ten billion dollars have been spent and over twohundred million birds have been killed to try to contain H5N1. Investment strategies arebeing altered to manage the effects of H5N1. This changes the valuations of trillions ofdollars worth of stocks worldwide as investors move assets to avoid risk.
  11. 11. E-coliE. coli fear grips Hamburg The gate to the grounds of the organicJune 2nd 2011 farm where the outbreak beganThe killer bug claimed at least 33 lives, has left some 3,000 people ill across 14 countries,and led to several bans on vegetables grown in Europe, which have cost farmers millionsof euros (dollars) in losses. The compensation package finalised by the EuropeanCommission will cost more than €210m in June 2011.
  12. 12. Crisis also challenges us to re-think our values,priorities, and the way we do thingsAn opportunity to re-think the core principles of the CreativeRural Economy?Creativity: professional, para-professional, and endogenousRural: land-based and agricultural communitiesEconomy: that’s anybody’s guess!
  13. 13. The Crisis in Agriculture is a Crisis in CultureProposing a cultural strategy for agricultural changeEstablishment of a Rural Cultural ForumThe Creative Rural Communities Report
  14. 14. Re-defining Rural Creatives: unlocking thecultural capital of ‘other’ rural communitiesFarmer CreativesWomen and the Rural EconomyYoung PeopleRural EldersArtists and Professional Cultural EntrepreneursNew Rural Cultural DiversitiesMarginals and illegals
  15. 15. Tessa Bunney, Royal Agricultural Show, 2006
  16. 16. Acting on GovernmentAdvice:A Rural Mandate:Need for evidence of support fromgrass-roots rural and professional artsstakeholders (NFU, RASE, SoilAssociation, ACRE, etc.)Policy FitFocusing the aims of the rural culturalstrategy to address key Governmentpolicy agendas: environmentalsustainability, public health, youth,social cohesion, The Big Society, etc.Making the Economic Arguments:The proposal for a Creative RuralEconomy initiative was recognisedas the key to the success of the strategy
  17. 17. The Rural Community Response 2006 - 11Establishment of The Rural CulturalForum, 2006Rural Cultural Summit, Tate Britain,2006 (stakeholders’ conference)The Creative Rural EconomyConference, Lancaster University, 2006The Creative Rural CommunitiesReport, July 2010 The Government’s Rural Advocate, Dr Stuart Burgess, with Tate Britain Director Stephen Deuchar, at the Rural Cultural Summit
  18. 18. Creative Rural Economy Conference - Final PanelMichael Hart, Farmer (Chair); Linda Burnham, Art in the Public Interest, USA; Janet Barton, Lancashire Economic Partnership; Sally Medlyn,Consultant; Dr Jan Hartholt, Dutch Ministry of Agriculture; Mark Robinson, Arts Council England; Iain Bennett, North West DevelopmentAssociation.
  19. 19. Mapping the Creative Rural EconomyArts and rural cultural tourismDigital media and the rural economyPromoting creative rural clusters (chains)Arts-led urban rural and cultural diversity business partnershipsArt-farms, rural biennales, and rural arts festivalsNew rural design and architecture initiativesInvesting in rural community creativity and rural cultural capitalArts-based land use, and renewables (energy and fibre crops)Food cultures and rural food marketing initiativesNew rural crafts, and textile/fashion interfaces with agriculture.
  20. 20. Re-Thinking the Rural: The Post-AgriculturalLandscapeThe emergence of unanticipated rural social, economic,and environmental formationsInventing a new rural aestheticProposing a cultural strategy to manage agriculturalchangeRe-thinking the rural economy from a culturalperspective
  21. 21. CREATIVE RURAL ECONOMY Re-thinking the Rural Economy from a cultural perspectiveMichael Eavis (farmer/Glastonbury) Murray Carter (biomass farmer) Robert Garlick (craftsman) Farm Barbecue (ArtBarns project)
  22. 22. £100 million for the local economy.. and still counting. Farmer creativity &cultural entrepreneurship.Rural leaders and farmers are successfully innovating by adopted a culture of self-help and creative entrepreneurship, and are very eager to take on furtherengagement with the arts, media and cultural sectors in developing all aspects ofrural regeneration, rural community development, farm diversification and the creativerural economy. But they are still not getting anywhere near the level of support andbacking from the statutory arts and cultural funding and policy sectors that they feelthey are entitled to. Commenting on the outcome of a recent public into communitybenefits from the Glastonbury Festival,Farmer/cultural entrepreneur Michael Eavis stated:"The local economy gets £100 million a year .. they are all on board now becauseeverybody earns some money from it [Glastonbury Festival] - and there are seven[other] farms I now rent”.
  23. 23. HAY FESTIVALS AROUND THE WORLDCARTAGENA26—29 JAN 2012BEIRUTMAY 2012 BELFAST28 MAY—4 JUN 2011HAY26 MAY—5 JUN 2011XALAPA6—9 OCT 2011BRECON12—14 AUG 2011MERTHYR2—4 SEP 2011NAIROBI15—18 SEP 2011CAPE TOWN21—25 SEP 2011SEGOVIA22—25 SEP 2011MALDIVESNOV 2011KERALA18—20 NOV 2011Over the past decade, Hay Festival has become a global not-for-profit institution
  24. 24. The changes in agriculture areradical, and are giving rise tonew economic, environmentaland social formations in ruralareas, and changing the way inwhich farming and ruralcommunities think aboutthemselves and their role in thecontext of the national discourse. Gareth Gaunt (left) with fishing instructor Leon ShipleyThere is a major shift away from FARM PROJECT HELPS CHILDREN Farmers Guardian, August 10th 2007farming and food production to YORKSHIRE children with learning andrural development and social and behavioural difficulties are set to benefit fromenvironmental goods. a new education project being set up by a local land owner. Gareth Gaunt is investing in three dedicated fishing ponds and a new classroom at his Sicklinghall Farm, near Wetherby. Working with schools throughout the Leeds area, he will take small groups of problematic children, at risk of being excluded from school, to help them gain an official ‘Fishing and the Environment’ qualification.
  25. 25. Creative rural communitiesThe enhancement and unlocking of the creative and cultural capital ofgrassroots rural communities and businesses Sally Robinson, farmer and rural entrepreneur, founder of
  26. 26. Releasing rural creative potentialand cultural capitalQ. Why have rural communities and businesses not benefited more from thecreative rural economy and related arts and cultural funding and resources? (i) Culture = untapping new economic potential. Because they don’t have acoherent rural cultural strategy which clearly articulates and demonstratedtheir cultural needs and potentials;(ii) Culture = jobs They don’t know who to talk to, nor do they have access tothe policy language and key policy makers at DCMS, Arts Council, etc.;(iii) Culture as an exclusively urban policy zone? Cultural industries, creativeeconomy and cultural policy discourseis in general preoccupied with urban values and priorities.
  27. 27. Rural cultural strategy & creative ruraleconomy initiativesIt’s all about sustainabilityA rural cultural strategy also means aligning the rural sector’s contributionsmore identifiably with key government objectives for economic, energy andenvironmental sustainability.Achieving a credible rural policy fitAddressing some of the RDPE axes, and paying attention to regional ruraldevelopment priorities as logical points of entryMapping rural cultural and economic diversityUnderstanding the complexity and cultural diversity our ‘rural’constituencies; what about the fishing port communities?Partnership v dependencyPromoting rural communities as positive, proactive and full of untappedcultural capital and creative potentialBrokering a place at the policy tableGetting the DCMS and DEFRA policy people on boardPolitical tractionPromoting a cross-party rural affairs lead on the creative rural economy
  28. 28. Four creative rural sectorsA brief sampling of a couple of rural sectors and communities which (fromour research) would seem to constitute important, but as yetundocumented or unrecognised, new areas of creative economic outputand potentialRural creativesProfessional artists, craftspeople, designers, architects, etc., resident and/orworking in mainly rural locationsFarmer creativityFarmers who have pioneered uniquely cultural projectsand/or are consciously generating new cultural and social goods; i.e. socialfarming and the ‘art farms’ phenomenaCreative rural communitiesThe enhancement and unlocking of the creative and cultural capital ofgrassroots rural communities andbusinessesNew urban – rural creative economic interfacesNew cultural communities in the countryside; farmmarkets and cultural diversity; the Black Farmer
  29. 29. Rural creatives Professional artists, craftspeople, designers, architects, resident and/or working in rural locations contribute around £250 million per annum to the national Creative Economy‘Rural (traditional) crafts could soon overtake farming as the biggest contributor to therural economy’‘The Crafts in the English Countryside’ Report, The Countryside Agency, 2004
  30. 30. BASKETS BY GYONGY LAKYMade using orchard prunings -recycling waste materials for highvalue craft products
  31. 31. CONTEMPORARY RURAL CRAFTSand new craft and textile/fashion interfaces with agriculture
  32. 32. The Owl ProjectNew digital rural crafts
  34. 34. Rose Garden, Cumin Cow (Dreaming) House Design for a Cowshed, Rural Studio Alabama
  35. 35. Egglu project: new rural design for urban people Design of agricultural equipment
  37. 37. FOOD CULTURE AND ARTS-LED MARKETING INITIATIVESPoet James Crowden promoting West country cider
  38. 38. ARTS AND RURAL TOURISM: the ArtBarns project - promoting cultural tourism with marginal hill-farming communities in LancashireTribute to Kurt Schwitters by Simon Cuttsneon installations outside and inside farmer Norman Nutter’s barn at Fence, Forest of Bowland
  39. 39. Photo Tessa Bunney
  41. 41. Stan Herd, US Land Artist
  43. 43. ART FARMSThere are 17 documented ArtFarm projects currently active in the South Westof England.
  44. 44. Farming fibre and alternative energy: new urban markets for rural craft skills and farm grown materialsMurray Carter, Yorkshire pioneer of willow energy crops Willow bio-mass growing trials, at Long Ashton
  45. 45. Promoting new markets for surplus biomass willow: Concorde commission,Manchester International Airport, 2007
  46. 46. The Bio-Regional Group: experiments with hemp growing for fashion textiles
  47. 47. DIGITAL MEDIA AND THE RURAL ECONOMYInterviewing Henry Bainbridge and local farmers on Chipping FM, GRASS ROOTS 2001
  48. 48. ArtBarns project: Toro Adeniran-Kane with Sarah Hartley and Ben at Masons House Farm,Bashall Eaves, discussing a joint farm produce marketing initiative
  49. 49. Arts-led farm foods marketing and new urban rural cultural diversity business partnershipsFarmer John Hartley entertaining African women fromManchester - ArtBarns 2000 - a project which led to a directselling scheme for his milk
  50. 50. Spitalfields Community Farm - Coriander Club. Lutfun Hussain. Photo Alex Moore, 2004
  52. 52. Creative Rural Marginals and IllegalsContribution of Travellers, Gypsies and Roma communities to the rural economyMigrant rural workers and transportation of refugees across national rural bordersUrban/rural Youth culture, Nu-raves, and extreme sports/artsSmokies and illegal meat exports for ethnic minority communitiesRural elders, rural Grey Bars: rural wisdom and the Knowledge economyRural Drug industry, and moonshineCat houses and sex ranching
  53. 53. Contribution of Travellers, Gypsies and Roma communities to the rural economyThe Appleby Horse Fair and Traveller convention in northern Englandcontributes an estimated £1.4 million annually to the local economy.Right: The Rural Media Company, Hereford, publishes a monthlyperiodical for Gypsies and Travellers
  54. 54. Migrant rural workers and transportation of refugees across national rural borders FSA rural documentary project, 1930s Below: Project with migrant workers by Bridging Arts, England
  55. 55. Mass gatherings draft bylaw prompted by rural ravesby Nelson Daily editor on 24 November 2010A surge of Nu-raves in the Kaslo area and Taghum Beach (BC) in the last year hasprompted complaints and now the drafting of a regional district bylaw to regulate massgatherings.
  56. 56. Smokies and illegal meat exports for ethnic minority communitiesSmokie gangs threaten meat tradeThe illegal meat trade could have serious long-term implications for Welsh farming, aconference in Cardiff has been told.Mafia-like criminal gangs are making huge profits from the illegal meat trade with littlerisk of being caught and punished. Wales is becoming the centre for the illegalproduction of so-called smokies - a delicacy made from carcasses which are primitivelyblow-torched.
  57. 57. Elders: natural wisdom and the rural Knowledge economyLeft: The world’s first Grey Bar? Right: Sheep Judging at an English agricultural show
  58. 58. Rural Drug industry, and moonshine A traditional rural stillDEA Assessment: Methamphetamine is the principal drug of concern in all parts ofIowa. Despite some abatement through State regulations placed on precursorchemicals, rurally based local small toxic laboratories continue to be a significantproblem throughout the state.
  59. 59. THE HEART OF GOLD RURAL ECONOMYThe Shady Lady Ranch brothel in Nye County, Nevada, about 150 miles northof Las VegasSome small brothels, with just a few girls, pay a quarterly fee of $5,000(£3,100). Bigger houses can pay up to $37,000 (£23,000) per quarter. OneNevada county takes in several hundred thousand dollars a year. The money isused for services ranging from ambulances to veterans’ assistance. McMurdohas found that in the “heart of gold” tradition, brothels are big on being silentpartners for community projects.
  60. 60. MoCCA? Museum of Contemporary Countryside Art
  61. 61. CHANGING THE POLARITY OF THE DISCOURSEChanging the language and focus of the the creative rural economic debateCreative = FERTILITY (the key to survival is safeguarding biodiversity and humanfertility)Rural = SUSTAINABILITY (farming the sun - farmers produce our protein, energy,fibres, and culture)Economy = OIKOS (oikophobia - rejection of home values alienation - socialresponsibility)CAP Pillar III? A (rural) cultural strategy for agricultural changeReframing EU agriculture and rural development policy become a cultural discourseand social responsibilityAgriculture sits at the heart of culture (urban/rural)Agriculture as the first cultureThe rural is no longer marginal: its now moving to the centre of economic andenvironmental policy discourses
  62. 62. CALCULATING THE COSTS OF THE WRONG AGRICULTURE POLICY Making the economic (OIKOS) arguments £14bn estimated costs to the British Economy (1996 - 2011) of pandemics/health scares: BSE, FMD, H5N1, E-coli. Approximately £.75 bn. p.a. By reframing agricultural policy as a cultural undertaking and responsibility i.e. factoring in other ethical, social, aesthetic, environmental values we could possibly save the economy £2.5 bn over the next five years, or £750 million p.a. Reduce animal welfare, environmental, public health, and other social costs
  63. 63. RETHINKING THE CREATIVE RURAL ECONOMY a post-agricultural perspectiveRecalibrating the the rural sectors (cultural and creative) p.a. contribition to thenational creative economy1.Estimated reduction (at 20%) in the costs relative to public health, animal welfare,compensation, etc. £150 million2.Farmer Creatives, rural marginals, illegals, and the cultural capital of creative ruralcommunities. £250 million3.Rural creatives, artists, architects, designers, crafts, etc.£350 million Total contribution pa. £750 million This has been achieved without any Government arts or culture ledregeneration funding By way of contrast the cities and urban economy have received over £200bn in DCMS/ACE arts and Lottery Arts funding in the last five years In the same period the Rural Culture Forum has only been able to secure£100,000 of arts funding for rural regeneration.
  64. 64. Presentation by Dr. Ian Hunter
  65. 65. REGISTERED CHARITABLE TRUST NO. 1002365LITTORAL Arts is a non-profit making charitable trust set up in1990 to promote innovative arts projects in response to social,environmental and cultural change.The Arts & Rural Creativity programme is supported by the ArtsCouncil of England.42, Lodge Mill Lane, Turn Village, Bury, Lancashire BL0 0RWTel/Fax: ++44 (0)1706 827 961E-mail: littoral@btopenworld.comWebsites: