What is graffiti? A definition:<br /><ul><li>Words or drawings, especially humorous, rude or political, on walls, doors, etc. in public places.</li></li></ul><li>Graffiti<br />What is it?<br />
A modern timeline<br /><ul><li>In the late 1960s, “tagging” began to emerge.
The tags began to proliferate on subways as writers tried to get their tags across the city.
Graffiti writers who had not met each other communicated and competed through the developing graffiti form.</li></li></ul><li> A modern timeline CONTINUED..<br /><ul><li>Graffiti writers strove to create ever more unique, more elaborate, and larger scale pieces.
Graffiti became a key element in the expression of emerging sub-cultural music scenes, including rap/hip hop and punk.</li></li></ul><li>Timeline CONTINUED…<br /><ul><li>This evolution in graffiti was driven, in part, by:
competition for recognition of writing skills in the developing graffiti community</li></ul> > the social, economic and political context.<br /><ul><li>Since 1980s</li></ul>Graffiti artists moved out of subways onto ‘street canvases’<br /> There has been increasing appreciation of graffiti as an art-form<br />Graffiti has an increasing presence in commercial media<br /> Graffiti is constantly evolving: <br /> Adapting to new environments, social contexts and material available.<br />
Adapting to new environments, social contexts and material available.</li></li></ul><li>Profiling the Tagger…<br /><ul><li>The majority of our taggers are between the age of 18 and 35 and they are not juveniles. They are old enough to know better, usually educated and come from middle class families.
Less than 15 percent of local tagging is gang related.
They also don’t have a designation on tagging. They just tag whatever they see.</li></li></ul><li>Facts of Graffiti<br /><ul><li>Writing graffiti on public or private property is act of vandalism and is against the law. It is called defacement of property.
Person who is caught and arrested for writing graffiti can be sent to jail and fined. He or she can also be held liable for the damaged caused by graffiti.
Often times, gang youth and “taggers” write graffiti to mark an area they believe is there territory, to let another gang or the community know they are around or because they think its somehow shows pride in themselves and this neighborhood.
Gang and tagging graffiti can cause violence and contribute to the deterioration of a neighborhood.</li></li></ul><li>What is graffiti? Modern<br />Tag<br />the writer's logo, his/her stylized personal signature.<br />
Graffiti styles“Tagging”<br /><ul><li>Tagging is the most basic writing of an artist name in either spray paint or marker. This tagging is often the example given when opponents of graffiti refer to vandalism, as they use it to label all acts of graffiti writing
Another form is the “ throw-up” also known as a “fill-in” which is normally painted very quickly with two or three colors, sacrificing aesthetics for speed.
“Piece” is a more elaborate representation of the artist name, incorporating more style such as, “block” or “bubble” letters, using three or more colors. This of course is done at the expense of timeliness and increases the likelihood of the artists getting caught.</li></li></ul><li>Graffiti styles “ wild style”<br /><ul><li>“Wild style” a form of graffiti involving interlocking letters, arrows, and connecting points.
A “Blockbuster” is a “fill-in” that intentionally takes up an entire wall, sometimes with the whole purpose of blocking other “taggers” from painting on the same wall.</li></li></ul><li>Graffiti styles “stickers”<br /><ul><li>Stickers tags are commonly done on blank postage stickers, or really anything with an adhesive side to it.
“Stencils” are made by drawing an image onto a piece of cardboard or tougher versions of paper, then cut with a razor blade. What is left is then just simply sprayed over, and if done correctly, a perfect image is left.
Many graffiti artist believe that doing blockbusters or even complex wild styles are a waste of time.</li></li></ul><li>What is graffiti? Modern: Types of graffiti<br /><ul><li>Applying marks directly onto a surface
Commonly used material: spray paint, paint, marker, chalk, etc.
Can be done freehand or using pre-made stencils.</li></li></ul><li>What is graffiti? Modern: Types of graffiti<br />Applying pre-made pieces to surfaces using adhesive<br />
The BIG Problem<br />Why is it considered a problem? <br />What kind of problem is it? <br />Promotes gang violence.<br />Damages public property.<br />Lowers neighborhood value.<br />
Gang relations<br /><ul><li>Groups that live in an industrial or poor areas may use graffiti for various purposes, especially if many groups populate one specific area or city.
The main use is to mark either territory or “turf” by tagging a space such as a wall on a building near or on the boundaries of a gangs turf to inform other gangs of their presence.
They are also used to communicate with other gangs, usually to warn them of a coming assassination of a certain member, by either writing the members street name and crossing it out, or by finding tags by the member and crossing them out.
If a gang overwrites another gangs tag, it is also a symbol of a take over of a gangs turf or a sign of aggression toward the gang.</li></li></ul><li>IssuesIs graffiti a problem?<br /><ul><li>Some see graffiti as a threat -- something that:
But, sometimes graffiti is understood to be more menacing than just a sign pointing to problems.</li></li></ul><li>Portland Police Report<br />Graffiti investigators with the Portland police Bureau said they’ve seen graffiti increase over the last five years.<br />Portland police said less than 15 percent of the graffiti you see is gang related and that most of it comes from taggers.<br />Since graffiti has increased the city has had to set aside extra funds to hire a second graffiti investigator to help deal with the growing problem and make more arrests.<br />
IssuesPublic approaches to handling graffiti<br />Repression<br />Suppression (erasure)<br />Illegalisation (e.g. of the act)<br />Expression<br />Graffiti as community building<br />Graffiti as expressing community identity<br />
Public approaches to handling graffiti Continued…<br /><ul><li>They work for
providing a place where young artists can take creative risks
neighborhood beautification and community development through public art
fostering a sense of creative cooperation and self healing</li></li></ul><li>Managing Graffiti<br />“Spread the Paint”, Vancouver’s graffiti management program, works together with:<br />business and property owners;<br />community groups and residents;<br />graffiti artists <br /><ul><li>A mural program provides sanctioned spaces for graffiti writers to display their work.
Property owners can donate a wall for the mural program. The City facilitates the process and provides the supplies.
The City offers repair kits or financial assistance to property owners for graffiti removal.
‘Community Paint Outs’ encourage community groups, businesses and residents to team up and improve the physical appearance of their neighbourhood.</li></li></ul><li>Stains on the Rose City<br />Graffiti taggers hit a 14 year-old mural in the Hawthorne district on June 8th. The tag was a three-foot-high letters that spell “ Fun Boy” in green and black paint.<br />Damage was greater than a $1000 and the mural required a restorer’s touch.<br />The costs restoration will be considerable, they plan to charge the tagger responsible for the graffiti with a felony instead of a misdemeanor.<br />
Preventions<br /><ul><li>Encourage citizen reporting. Educate the public about the impact of graffiti vandalism and provide a way to report graffiti
Keep up the neighborhood and appearance looking clean and neat, remove litter and trash, fix broken fences, trim landscape, and ensure all lighting is working properly.
Remove graffiti promptly. Rapid removal of graffiti is an effective prevention tool.
Encourage citizen reporting. Educate the public about the impact of graffiti vandalism and provide a way to report graffiti.</li></li></ul><li>Data shows that removal within 24 to 48 hours results in a nearly zero rate of recurrence.<br />
Solutions<br /><ul><li>Organize a paint out. Gather supplies and community volunteers to remove graffiti in your neighborhood.
Make a presentation on graffiti prevention to your school, class, or neighborhood group.
Plant trees or other greenery near a graffiti-plagued wall.
Ask your community to install lighting in areas that are dark and often hit by graffiti</li></li></ul><li>Portland Graffiti Artist<br />
Team Members<br /><ul><li>AbubekerAdera: Research ,PowerPoint