Cross culturally- in Yorubas (a Nigerian Tribe) and the Alaskan Inuit Eskimos At around the same time (as Pinel), psychiatrists in America and Britain began reporting a similar disorder. “Morally insane”– heinous crime committers who were not crazy or lunatics
Hare is the primary researcher on psychopathy today and while his research has been beneficial, it dominates any other theories or findings regarding psychopathy that are out there.
Coldhearted and dominant personalities Shallow emotions Nonplanfulness It is the combination of these three that ultimately defines psychopathy
Under-aroused systems: -studies show that psychopaths do not empathetically respond well to victims -have reduced responsiveness to those who might need help -and are impaired when recognizing emotions in others. To make up for this, they use the reactions of others as cue cards for how they should feel
However, ease of lying does not equal successful lying! Especially on personality assessments! Also, these characteristics are from case studies, it has not been empirically tested! It is also easy to incite reactions within them, say the wrong things and they might impulsively decide to turn violent.
If you think this sounds extreme, think about what it would be like to basically experience no guilt– you would go around and do whatever you wished!!!
However, the decrease is more prominent in nonviolent crimes Yet this is not true for all psychopaths! Some continue to be violent for the rest of their lives! However, it is important to remember that psychopathy is a lifelong condition, that is not static.
A meta-analysis by Hemphill and colleagues of psychopathy and recidivism studies found that….
which immediately makes them poor candidates of therapy Such as “I was abused as a child” or I was never taught how to get in touch with my feelings” However, this tells us not that therapy won’t work at all, just that conventional types of therapy will not work and we are going to have to look outside of the box for solutions, if there are any.
Although 3 million psychopaths seems trivial compared to 300 million Americans, it becomes noteworthy when you consider that psychopaths are responsible for more than 50% of serious crimes committed in the US (Hare)
Psychopathic behavior begins at a young age, and Although some psychologists strongly believe that there are child psychopaths, Hare and Hart warn against diagnosing anyone with psychopathy until the age of 25! Why would that be? Personality and behavior is not truly set until around 25 PCL-R only properly assesses individuals of this age.
However, 95% CI is ±6 points, which can mean a person’s score could span from the psychopathic to non-psychopathic range Also, this measure, is best used with Caucasian males with criminal records, and if psychopathy is found cross culturally, this means that the PCL-R is not capable of accurately capturing all psychopaths
Some researchers think that the two are separate, while others feel psychopathy is just a more severe form of ASPD and that they are not distinct. To make matters worse, the DSM-IV grouped Antisocial Personality Disorder, Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and dissocial personality disorder together as synonymous terms. Saying that psychopathy was aka (also known as) ASPD! Which widens the confusion among psychologists even more! So we get these two teams, which is good in a way, for their not to be a dominate view, but bad because instead of really studying psychopathy they wind up arguing with each other, further more, we only have Two views! Which is minute in comparison to the plethora of different theories out there on shame, for example! So they look similar, yes, however, where is the narcissism in ASPD? The shallow emotional effect across all emotions, not just remorse? It’s easy to understand the confusion, however, until more is empirically known about psychopathy, placing it as a forgotten subset of ASPD is not going to solve any questions or help anyone (those with the disorder or those affected by it).
Furthermore!!! ASPD focuses on the one aspect of antisocial behavior, but to be classified as a psychopath one must have the three requirements of arrogant interpersonal style, deficient affective experience, and impulsive behavioral style. The main focus of ASPD seems to be behavior, while the main focus of psychopathy (primary psychopathy) is personality! So it seems, that for psychopaths, ASPD is just 1/3 of the description!!!!!
Point 2: REMEMBER even though it is 1% of the population, and criminal psychopathy is less than that 1%, they are still responsible for 50% of serious crimes within the US (Hare)!
Sharon Stenberg Psicopathy
What is Psychopathy?
A personality disorder in which an individual manifests
immoral and antisocial behavior, lack of ability to love or
establish meaningful personal relationships, extreme
egocentricity (self-centeredness), failure to learn from
A Brief History
It has been anecdotally recognized for centuries.
Evidence for psychopathy has been found in literary,
historical, political, and religious texts.
It has also been found cross-culturally.
Philippe Pinel is thought to have created the first
written record for psychopathy in the mid 1800’s.
In 1941 Hervey Cleckley became the first to
catalogue psychopathy's specific traits.
Psychopathy differs from other
personality disorders in 3 distinct ways:
1) Arrogant interpersonal style
2) Deficient affective experience
3) Impulsive behavioral style
Snakes in Suits
Not neurotic or psychotic; they are calm, cool, and
Excessive users of Instrumental Aggression.
Cyclical behavior patterns.
Under-aroused nervous systems.
Psychopaths lie A LOT.
However, although they lie easily, they openly contradict
themselves from one sentence to the next.
They blame others for their own downfalls.
They look out for “numero uno”.
“One of our subjects, who scored high on the Psychopathy
Checklist, said that while walking to a party he decided to buy a
case of beer, but realized that he had left his wallet at home six
or seven blocks away. Not wanting to walk back, he picked up
a heavy piece of wood and robbed the nearest gas station,
seriously injuring the attendant” (Hare, 1995, pg. 58-59)
The typical criminal psychopaths begin criminal behavior at a
young age and continue until around 40 years of age, where
the number of crimes decreases.
Psychopathy, Recidivism, and Drug
Within a year of release, psychopaths are 3 times more likely
than non-psychopathic inmates to recidivate and 3 to 5 times
more likely to recidivate violently.
Smith and Newman found those with psychopathy were
significantly more likely than non-psychopathic offenders to
meet diagnoses of alcoholism, drug disorders, and
Psychopathy and Therapy
• Psychopaths have self-inflated images and are generally happy
• This results in low motivation to do well in therapy and early
drop out rates.
• They can also pick up on a variety of reasons to justify their
“These programs are like a finishing school. They teach you
how to put the squeeze on people”
Snakes in Skirts?
- More rare than male psychopathy.
- Make up an estimated 15% of incarcerated female
- Less violent than male psychopaths.
- Lower rate of recidivism than male psychopaths.
Never indulge in serious criminal behavior (or never are
Excel in business.
CEO’s, politicians, etc.
1 in every 100 people in the U.S.
2 in every 100 people in Britain
Make up an estimated 20% of the incarcerated male
Theories of Psychopathy
Psychopathy has been attributed to:
Genes, Society (such as an abusive home-life), Environmental
Insult (as in birth complications, brain damage, or physical
anomalies), Molecular Neuroscience (like abnormal
serotonin levels in the brain), Amygdale Dysfunction,
Frontal Lobe Dysfunction, Cognitive Dysfunction, and other
Restrictions to Psychopathy
Measures of Psychopathy
The Golden Standard: The Psychopathy Check List (PCL-R)
- Two factor structure of psychopathy: Personality and
- 20 item clinical interview, accompanied with review of
criminal and health records.
- Score of 30 or higher indicates psychopathy
A divide in the community
1) Arrogant interpersonal
2) Deficient affective
3) Impulsive behavioral
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and
violation of the rights of others
occurring since age 15 years, as
indicated by three (or more) of the
- Failure to conform to social norms;
- Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead;
- Irritability and aggressiveness;
- Reckless disregard for safety of self or
- Consistent irresponsibility; and
- Lack of remorse
80% of the United States prison population meets the
diagnostic criteria for ASPD, while only 15 to 25% meet the
criteria for psychopathy as designated by the Psychopathy
Checklist Revised (PCL-R)
Although psychopathy has been around for many years, little
is empirically known around it.
Even though it deals with a tiny portion of the population,
knowing more about psychopathy is crucial for their safety