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20.01.2014
By Omer Bayazeid
Cassia Senna
Leguminoseae
EFG-702
Prof. Dr. Şebnem Harput
Definition:
Botanical origin:
The dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia known
as Alexandrian senna or C. angustifolia known
a...
Geographical distribution:
The plant is originated to tropical Africa.
It grows wild near the Nile river from
Aswan to Kor...
Identification:
C. senna occur as grayish-green
or brownish-green, thin, fragile
leaflets, lanceolate, mucronate,
asymmetr...
The powder is light green or greenish-yellow.
Examine under a microscope using chloral hydrate
solution.
The powder shows ...
A gutter-shaped group of similar fibres on the
abaxial side containing prismatic crystals
of calcium oxalate.
Under the epi...
Active constituents:
1.Anthraquinone glycosides:
known as Sennosides A, B, C and D.
A & B are dianthrone of Rhein R=(COOH)...
Dianthrones-Sennosides
B
Uses:
Act on the colon and stimulate its muscles (irritant
laxative).
1. Small doses: laxativein case of acute constipatio...
Chemical test
Borntrager’s Test For Anthraquinone glycosides
Chemical test Powdered Senna + KOH red color which
indicates ...
Contraindications:
• Intestinal obstruction or inflammation.
• Colitis, appendicitis.
• During pregnancy and lactation.
• ...
Side effects:
• Even in normal doses it may cause nausea,
griping and cramp-like discomforts of
gastrointestinal tract.
• ...
Toxicity:
The major symptoms of overdose are griping
and severe diarrhoea with consequent losses
of fluid and electrolytes....
Overview of Clinical trials:
Well-designed clinical studies are available for
combination products for occasional constipa...
The use in children under 12 years of age is
contraindicated and use during lactation is not
recommended. During pregnancy...
Cassia Senna
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Cassia Senna

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Pharmacognosy

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Cassia Senna

  1. 1. 20.01.2014 By Omer Bayazeid Cassia Senna Leguminoseae EFG-702 Prof. Dr. Şebnem Harput
  2. 2. Definition: Botanical origin: The dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia known as Alexandrian senna or C. angustifolia known as Indian senna F. Leguminoseae . Senna pods also contains the same constituents as the leaflets.
  3. 3. Geographical distribution: The plant is originated to tropical Africa. It grows wild near the Nile river from Aswan to Kordofan, and in the North-West Arabian area, India and Somalia. It is cultivated in India, Pakistan, and the Sudan.
  4. 4. Identification: C. senna occur as grayish-green or brownish-green, thin, fragile leaflets, lanceolate, mucronate, asymmetrical at the base, usually 15-40 mm long and 5-15 mm wide . Mucronate
  5. 5. The powder is light green or greenish-yellow. Examine under a microscope using chloral hydrate solution. The powder shows the following diagnostic characters:
  6. 6. A gutter-shaped group of similar fibres on the abaxial side containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Under the epidermal cells a single row of palisade layer. Paracytic stomata on both surfaces. Unicellular, papillose, non-glandular hairs Epidermis with polygonal cells unicellular thick-walled trichomes. On the adaxial surface cluster crystals of calcium oxalate distributed throughout the lacunose tissue.
  7. 7. Active constituents: 1.Anthraquinone glycosides: known as Sennosides A, B, C and D. A & B are dianthrone of Rhein R=(COOH). C & D are dianthrone of Rhein and Aloe emodin R= (CH2OH). 2. Free Anthraquinones ( aglycones): Rhein, Aloe emodin. 3. Flavanoids. 4.Mucilage.
  8. 8. Dianthrones-Sennosides B
  9. 9. Uses: Act on the colon and stimulate its muscles (irritant laxative). 1. Small doses: laxativein case of acute constipation. 2. Large doses: Purgative. 3. In folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data. As an expectorant, a wound dressing, an anti-dysenteric and for the treatment of gonorrhoea, skin diseases, dyspepsia, fever, and haemorrhoids.
  10. 10. Chemical test Borntrager’s Test For Anthraquinone glycosides Chemical test Powdered Senna + KOH red color which indicates that it contains free anthraquinone. Modified Borntrager’s Test For Anthraquinone glycosides In a Test Tube: Powder Senna + 4ml Alcholic KOH, Boil for 2-3 min Dilute with 4ml water +2 Drops H2O2 Filter, Acidify with 5ml HCl, Cool, Shake with Benzene Separate the benzene layer & shake with 2 ml conc. NH3 Rose Red Color in NH3 Layer(lower layer).
  11. 11. Contraindications: • Intestinal obstruction or inflammation. • Colitis, appendicitis. • During pregnancy and lactation. • Children under 12 years old. • Chronic constipation.
  12. 12. Side effects: • Even in normal doses it may cause nausea, griping and cramp-like discomforts of gastrointestinal tract. • With chronic or prolonged use, it may lead to electrolyte imbalance. • Potassium deficiency can lead to disorders of heart function and muscular weakness.
  13. 13. Toxicity: The major symptoms of overdose are griping and severe diarrhoea with consequent losses of fluid and electrolytes. Treatment should be supportive with generous amounts of fluid. Electrolytes, particularly potassium, should be monitored, especially in children and the elderly.
  14. 14. Overview of Clinical trials: Well-designed clinical studies are available for combination products for occasional constipation and for high doses of senna preparations for bowel cleansing and they clarify the pharmacodynamics. Furthermore pharmacological studies in humans are available. The results of the most recent studies are inconsistent. However, a risk was also revealed for constipation itself and underlying dietary habits.
  15. 15. The use in children under 12 years of age is contraindicated and use during lactation is not recommended. During pregnancy only a specified extract (as described above) can be regarded as safe, but with the advice that the use is to be avoided during the first trimester. Senna leaves should only be used intermittently and if other actions like behavioural modification, dietary changes and use of bulk forming agents failed. Up to now there is no clear evidence to recommend a specific dose nor a specific combination of different bowel cleansing methods.

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