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To Read or Not to Read                  That is the questionNILE TESOL 2013                  Omar Al Noursi
Institute of Applied TechnologyUnited Arab Emirates
British CouncilPresenter scholarship
Agenda1.Decline in reading2.NeedTESOL 2013  NILE for improving reading comprehension3.Sources of reading comprehension dif...
Introduction  The purpose of learning to readNILE TESOL 2013
READING ABILITIES ARE IN DECLINE.∗ the British Council’s 2010 report on IELTS .NILE TESOL 2013∗ Marsden (2002)∗ Marsden an...
The need for improving reading             comprehension∗ Much of a student’s success is based on reading  comprehension s...
The need for improving reading           comprehension∗ reading also enhances learning English in multiple ways :NILE TESO...
Approaches to dealing with a          reading text ∗ A.TESOL 2013NILE      The Bottom-Up Approach ∗ B- The top–down approa...
Do These Approaches Really ‘Teach’Reading?∗ Can you ‘teach’ reading in limited class time?∗ Don’t we sometimes teach how t...
Sources of Comprehension Difficulties                      a. Lack of motivation Motivation is critical for reading in a ...
Sources of Comprehension Difficulties                   b. Difficulty of the text:  mismatch between the text selected an...
Sources of Comprehension Difficulties               c. Misunderstanding of the               reading process  reading pro...
NILE TESOL 2013Fcrr.org
Sources of Comprehension DifficultiesFor comprehension to occur, the reader shouldodecode the words,oattach the meaning to...
Sources of Comprehension Difficulties                    4. Weak first language basis   “ the L2 user does not switch off...
Sources of Comprehension Difficulties       5.Writing style and text organizationWriting style and structure are also bel...
Sources of Comprehension Difficulties                     6.Teaching practices: Teachers use the transmission model to de...
Sources of Comprehension Difficulties∗ Cont….Teaching practices:Read and answer the question.  NILE TESOL 2013“ She gronke...
Sources of Comprehension Difficulties        7. Students While-Reading Behavior Word-by-word reading, pointing Regressio...
Improving Students’ Reading Abilities1.Text Readability    make sense of the information in a passage:      Measure text ...
Improving Students’ Reading Abilities2.Better Text selection   ∗ students’ interest   ∗ great pleasure and fill students’ ...
Improving Students’ Reading Abilities3. Teaching Strategies   ∗ Teacher preparation   ∗ TESOL 2013 NILEattractive teaching...
Agree/ Disagree WhyA. Comprehension occurs naturally after a studentlearns to decode, thus comprehension just needsto be t...
Improving Students’ Reading Abilities3. Teaching Strategies    Developing      vs                  Testing    Comprehensio...
…a growing body of research hasdemonstrated that students can be taught NILE TESOL 2013the strategies that good readers us...
Improving Students’ Reading Abilities4. Building a solid repertoire of words: NILE TESOL 2013 ∗ word knowledge is the key ...
Improving Students’ Reading Abilities5. Using the Library      ∗ Libraries are poorly equipped and rarely visited      ∗ R...
Improving Students’ Reading Abilities6. Using technology    Technology has undoubtedly changed what people read, how     ...
Improving Students’ Reading Abilities7.Involve content teachers in teaching Reading   NILE TESOL 2013Conte nt-a re a te a...
READING IS NOT MAGIC                IT REQUIRES: ∗ The desire to improve your students reading skills ∗ The willingness to...
NILE TESOL you want children to read well,        “If 2013   they must read a lot.      If you want children to read a lot...
Thank YouNILE TESOL 2013    omar.alnousri@aths.ac.ae
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To Read or Not to Read that is the nation question

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Nile tesol2013 dr.omar

  1. 1. To Read or Not to Read That is the questionNILE TESOL 2013 Omar Al Noursi
  2. 2. Institute of Applied TechnologyUnited Arab Emirates
  3. 3. British CouncilPresenter scholarship
  4. 4. Agenda1.Decline in reading2.NeedTESOL 2013 NILE for improving reading comprehension3.Sources of reading comprehension difficulties4.Improving reading comprehension
  5. 5. Introduction The purpose of learning to readNILE TESOL 2013
  6. 6. READING ABILITIES ARE IN DECLINE.∗ the British Council’s 2010 report on IELTS .NILE TESOL 2013∗ Marsden (2002)∗ Marsden and Wallace (2001)∗ O’Sullivan (2004)
  7. 7. The need for improving reading comprehension∗ Much of a student’s success is based on reading comprehension skills. NILE TESOL 2013reading failure can last an entire lifetime and make higher education and higher earnings out of reach∗ literacy is also seen as essential for success in the workplace.
  8. 8. The need for improving reading comprehension∗ reading also enhances learning English in multiple ways :NILE TESOL 2013 grammar and sentence structures as Absorb Vocabulary, they occur in authentic contexts building solid information about different topics reading boosts analytical thinking insights into the lives and worldview of those who speak the target language
  9. 9. Approaches to dealing with a reading text ∗ A.TESOL 2013NILE The Bottom-Up Approach ∗ B- The top–down approach ∗ C- The Interactive Approach
  10. 10. Do These Approaches Really ‘Teach’Reading?∗ Can you ‘teach’ reading in limited class time?∗ Don’t we sometimes teach how to ‘avoid’ NILE TESOL 2013 actually reading?∗ Is there ever going to be one method that suits all our diverse learners?
  11. 11. Sources of Comprehension Difficulties a. Lack of motivation Motivation is critical for reading in a second/foreign language. NILE TESOL 2013 learners view reading in English as a school subject and academic task,“Motivated students usually want to understand text content fully and therefore, process information deeply. As they read frequently with these cognitive purposes, motivated students gain in reading comprehension proficiency” John Guthrie
  12. 12. Sources of Comprehension Difficulties b. Difficulty of the text:  mismatch between the text selected and students’ language level. NILE TESOL 2013  Unfamiliar vocabulary, grammar and sentence structure hamper students’ understanding. (Fecteau, 1999).  The gap between the student general and cultural knowledge and that found in the authentic text was reported to undermine the activation of global strategies t. (AL-Mahrooqi,2012)
  13. 13. Sources of Comprehension Difficulties c. Misunderstanding of the reading process reading process is a highly personal activity and hence NILE TESOL 2013and monitor. difficult to observe quite often the reader may not be in a position to explain the process Rumelhart (1977) points out, reading involves the reader, the text and the interaction between the reader and the text.
  14. 14. NILE TESOL 2013Fcrr.org
  15. 15. Sources of Comprehension DifficultiesFor comprehension to occur, the reader shouldodecode the words,oattach the meaning to words and sentences,oconnect text information to relevant background NILE TESOL 2013knowledge,omaintain a mental representation of what thereader has already read,oform hypotheses about upcoming information andomake decisions based on the reader’s purposefor reading – all at the same time. Carlisle and Rice, 2002
  16. 16. Sources of Comprehension Difficulties 4. Weak first language basis  “ the L2 user does not switch off the L1 while processing the L2, but has it constantly available” NILE TESOL 2013 (Cook,1992 p. 571).  Higher level readers transfer their L1 reading ability more successfully than lower level readers.
  17. 17. Sources of Comprehension Difficulties 5.Writing style and text organizationWriting style and structure are also believed to pose a problemforNILE TESOL 2013 comprehend texts (Davis et al, 1992; Al- students in trying toMahrooqi, 2012).Some passages of the IELTS tests, for example, are widelydisliked due to an abundance of metaphorical language andimagery that students fail to interpret (Kamariah, 2009).
  18. 18. Sources of Comprehension Difficulties 6.Teaching practices: Teachers use the transmission model to deliver information. 90% of teachers see reading as a pronunciation exercise and NILE TESOL 2013 teach only one strategy that enables students to obtain explicit information from a graded passage. (Mustafa,2002)
  19. 19. Sources of Comprehension Difficulties∗ Cont….Teaching practices:Read and answer the question. NILE TESOL 2013“ She gronked the floobe” Question: what did she gronk?
  20. 20. Sources of Comprehension Difficulties 7. Students While-Reading Behavior Word-by-word reading, pointing Regression: Needless or unconscious rereading, habitual and signals lack of concentration Moving lips while reading (Vocalization)NILE TESOL 2013 Talking to oneself in as s/he reads silently (Sub-vocalization) translate the whole text Physical habits: Tapping foot, pencil Watching TV, eating, interruptions, etc.(Distractors)∗ These behaviors are believed to reduce reading speed, comprehension and recall.
  21. 21. Improving Students’ Reading Abilities1.Text Readability  make sense of the information in a passage: Measure text readability ? NILE TESOL 2013 Teacher intuition , handy tools  Simplified (bridged)text  Nativized text  gradual introduction of authentic materials (Al Mahrooqi, 2012)
  22. 22. Improving Students’ Reading Abilities2.Better Text selection ∗ students’ interest ∗ great pleasure and fill students’ curiosity to know more NILE TESOL 2013 Effectiveness of reading instructions depends not only on students’ linguistic and literacy skills but also on the level of interest, (Guthrie, et, al 2004)
  23. 23. Improving Students’ Reading Abilities3. Teaching Strategies ∗ Teacher preparation ∗ TESOL 2013 NILEattractive teaching strategies ∗ conducive “reading” environment ∗ motivate students to read. ∗ Understand students reading behavior
  24. 24. Agree/ Disagree WhyA. Comprehension occurs naturally after a studentlearns to decode, thus comprehension just needsto be tested. NILE TESOL 2013 B. Comprehension will improve through isolated teaching of specific comprehension skills (e.g. sequence, cause and effect, main idea).C. Students must be taught to flexibly use arepertoire of strategies for text comprehension.
  25. 25. Improving Students’ Reading Abilities3. Teaching Strategies Developing vs Testing Comprehension Comprehension Process-Oriented Product-Oriented NILE TESOL 2013 Modeling Testing Grading Guided Practice Evaluating Independence Adapted by Dr. Lois Huffman from (Richardson & Morgan, 2000)
  26. 26. …a growing body of research hasdemonstrated that students can be taught NILE TESOL 2013the strategies that good readers usespontaneously and that when students aretaught those strategies, both their recall andtheir comprehension of text improve. (Pressley, 2002; Stahl, 2004)
  27. 27. Improving Students’ Reading Abilities4. Building a solid repertoire of words: NILE TESOL 2013 ∗ word knowledge is the key ingredient in successful reading (Cobb,1999)  vocabulary sufficiency in facilitating reader autonomous abilities. (Al Mahrooqi,2012)
  28. 28. Improving Students’ Reading Abilities5. Using the Library ∗ Libraries are poorly equipped and rarely visited ∗ Role of school librarians NILE TESOL 2013 ∗ collaboration between the classroom teacher and the librarian
  29. 29. Improving Students’ Reading Abilities6. Using technology  Technology has undoubtedly changed what people read, how they read, and when they read. NILE TESOL 2013  Features of eBook  Internet
  30. 30. Improving Students’ Reading Abilities7.Involve content teachers in teaching Reading NILE TESOL 2013Conte nt-a re a te a che rs ne e d to be e nga ge d in a unifie da pproa ch to lite ra cy ins truction in which the y a cquireproficie ncy in two to four high-impa ct s tra te gie s /pra ctice s tha tthe y the n us e cons is te ntly within the ir a re a s of ins truction.”(S ha ron Va ughn)
  31. 31. READING IS NOT MAGIC IT REQUIRES: ∗ The desire to improve your students reading skills ∗ The willingness to try new techniques in teachingNILE TESOL 2013 reading ∗ The motivation to practice reading
  32. 32. NILE TESOL you want children to read well, “If 2013 they must read a lot. If you want children to read a lot, they must read well.”
  33. 33. Thank YouNILE TESOL 2013 omar.alnousri@aths.ac.ae

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