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CardiomyopathyCardiomyopathy
PRESENTED BY
MR. OM VERMA
Msc LECTURER
MEDICAL SURGICAL
NURSING
DEFINITIONDEFINITION
Cardiomyopathy is a type of heart
disease in which the heart muscle is
abnormal enlarge thickened and
stiffened as a result the heart
muscle ability to pump blood is usually
impaired .
JOYCE M BLACK
Cardiomyopathy is a wakening of heart
muscle or a change in heart muscle
structure ,it is often associated with
inadequate heart pumping or other
function heart problem .
BRUNNER AND SIDDHARTH
Cardiomyopathy is a define as
structural and functional abnormality
of the heart muscle
 disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to
pump blood effectively
 the heart muscle becomes enlarged or abnormally thick or rigid.
 In rare cases, the muscle tissue in the heart is replaced with scar
tissue.
 As cardiomyopathy progresses  the heart becomes weaker and
less able to pump blood through the body  to heart failure,
arrhythmias, systemic and pulmonary edema and, more rarely,
endocarditis
The 3 main types of Cardiomyopathy are:
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Restrictive cardiomyopathy
CardiomyopathyCardiomyopathy
DILATEDDILATED
CARDIOMYOPATHYCARDIOMYOPATHY
most common form of cardiomyopathy
generally occurs in adults aged 20 to 60 years
more common in men
 the heart muscle begins to dilate or stretch and become thinner

 Ventricular chamber size

over time, the heart becomes weaker  heart failure
 symptoms of heart failure: fatigue, edema, and SOB
 can also lead to heart valve problems (regurgitation),
arrhythmias, and blood clots in the heart (poor blood flow),
emboli formation
 a common reason for needing a heart transplant.
It refers to overall enlargement of
the heart chamber especially the
ventricles and increase atrial
chamber size and weakness of heart
muscle and poor pumping .
Types and Causes:Types and Causes:
Ischemic cardiomyopathy - caused by CAD & MI , w/c leave
scars in the heart muscle
Idiopathic cardiomyopathy - the cause is unknown.
Hypertensive cardiomyopathy - seen in people who have high BP
for a long time, particuarly when it has gone untreated for
years.
Infectious cardiomyopathy - HIV, viral myocarditis
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy - usually begins about 10 years after
sustained, heavy alcohol consumption.
Toxic cardiomyopathy – due to cocaine, amphetamines, and some
chemotherapy drugs (doxorubicin, daunorubicin)
Peripartum cardiomyopathy: This type appears in women during
the last trimester of pregnancy or after childbirth.
Radiotherapy (cobalt)
diabetes and thyroid disease
HYPERTROPHICHYPERTROPHIC
CARDIOMYOPATHYCARDIOMYOPATHY
Is an overgrowth of heart muscle that can
impair blood flow both in to and out of the
heart and thickened inter ventricular
septum and left ventricular hypertrophy
HypertrophicHypertrophic
CardiomyopathyCardiomyopathy
 occurs when the heart muscle thickens abnormally (left
ventricle)
 1.) obstructive type - the septum thickens and bulges into the
left ventricle blocks the flow of blood into the aorta  the
ventricle must work much harder to pump blood past the
blockage and out to the body
- symptoms can include chest pain, dizziness, shortness of
breath, or fainting.
- can also affect the mitral valve, causing blood to leak
backward through the valve.
2.) non-obstructive type - the entire ventricle may become
thicker (symmetric ventricular hypertrophy) or it may
happen only at the bottom of the heart (apical hypertrophy).
The right ventricle also may be affected.
Pathophysiology:
 Left ventricular hypertrophy (thick ventricular wall)  
ventricular chamber size  hold less blood   CO
  pressure in the ventricles and lungs
 changes in the cardiac muscles  interfere with the heart's
electrical signals, leading to arrhythmias  sudden cardiac arrest
Causes:
inherited because of a gene mutation
develop over time because of high blood pressure or aging
often, the cause is unknown.
Hypertrophic CardiomyopathyHypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
RESTRICTIVERESTRICTIVE
CARDIOMYOPATHYCARDIOMYOPATHY
The ventricles become stiff and rigid due to replacement of the
normal heart muscle with abnormal tissue, such as scar tissue.
As a result, the ventricles cannot relax normally and expand to fill
with blood, which causes the atria to become enlarged.
Eventually, blood flow in the heart is reduced, and complications
such as heart failure or arrhythmias occur.
Causes:
radiation treatments, infections, or scarring after surgery
Hemochromatosis - a condition in which too much iron is deposited
into tissues, including heart tissue
Amyloidosis, a disease in which abnormal proteins are deposited into
heart tissue
Sarcoidosis, a disease in which inflammation produces tiny lumps of
cells in various organs in the body, including the heart
RESTRICTIVERESTRICTIVE
CARDIOMYOPATHYCARDIOMYOPATHY
Is the common type of
Cardiomyopathy I n this condition
the heart muscle is too stiff
ARRHYTHMOGENIC RIGHTARRHYTHMOGENIC RIGHT
VENTRICLE HYPERTROPHYVENTRICLE HYPERTROPHY
Fibrous scar And adipose tissue
covering the right ventricle .
ETIOLOGYETIOLOGY
Chronic excessive alcohol consumption
INFECTION= viral endocarditis and
myocardaties
Adenovirus
Parvovirus
Human immune deficiency virus
Parasites
protozoa
THIAMINE DEFICIENCY
Thiamine (vitamin B1) serves as an
important cofactor ( help) in body
metabolism and energy production. a lack
of thiamine affects several organ
systems, in particular the cardiovascular
and nervous system. 
ZINC DEFICIECYZINC DEFICIECY
Zinc is a vital element in maintaining
the normal structure and physiology
of cells. ... to have protective effects
in coronary artery disease
and Cardiomyopathy.
COLLEGEN VASCUL DISEASECOLLEGEN VASCUL DISEASE
 increase connective tissue growth
AUTO IMMUNE DISEASE
GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE
 
Glycogen storage disease type II, also
called Pompe disease, is an 
autosomal recessive metabolic
 disorder which damages muscle and nerve
cells throughout the body. It is caused by
an accumulation of glycogen in the lysosome
 due to deficiency of the lysosomal 
acid alpha-glucosidase enzyme. It is the
only glycogen storage disease with a defect
in lysosomal metabolism,
Con……………………………………………………..plto
The build-up of glycogen causes
progressive muscle weakness (
myopathy) throughout the body and
affects various body tissues,
particularly in the heart, 
skeletal muscles, liver and the 
nervous system.
AMYLOIDOSISAMYLOIDOSIS
Cardiac Amyloidosis ("stiff heart
syndrome") occurs when amyloid deposits
take the place of normal heart muscle. It
is the most typical type of 
restrictive cardiomyopathy. Cardiac
Amyloidosis may affect the way electrical
signals move through the heart
(conduction system). This can lead to
abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias) and
faulty heart signals (heart block).
STRESSSTRESS
is a condition in which intense emotional
or physical stresscan cause rapid and
severe heart muscle weakness
(cardiomyopathy).
Other drugsOther drugs
Exposure to heavy metals such as lead,
arsenic, cobalt, or mercury
Cocaine
Cobalt
Emetine ( amebic dysentery)
Anthracyclines ( antibiotics )
Major Risk FactorsMajor Risk Factors
Having a family history of cardiomyopathy, heart failure, or sudden
cardiac death
Having a disease or condition that can lead to cardiomyopathy, such
as:
Coronary artery disease
A previous heart attack
Myocarditis
Diseases that can damage the heart (for example, hemochromatosis,
sarcoidosis, or amyloidosis)
Long-term alcoholism
Long-term high blood pressure
Diabetes and other metabolic diseases
PATHOPHYSIOLOGYPATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Due to etiological factors
Impaired cardiac output
Decrease stroke volume
( amount of b/d ejected per beat by the lift
ventricle in to arota )
Stimulate the sympathetic nervous system
renin angiotension and aldosterone
response
Result increase systemic valular resistance
Na increase and fluid retention
Increase workload of heart
Then lead to Cardiomyopathy
Signs and SymptomsSigns and Symptoms
some have no symptoms in the early stages of the disease
as cardiomyopathy progresses and the heart weakens, signs and
symptoms of heart failure usually appear.
These signs and symptoms include:
Tiredness
Weakness
Shortness of breath after exercise or even at rest
Swelling of the abdomen, legs, ankles, and feet
Other signs and symptoms: dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting during
exercise, abnormal heart rhythms, murmurs
common symptoms are:
Chest pain or pressure (more likely with
exercise)
Cough
Fatigue, weakness, faintness
Irregular or rapid pulse
Loss of appetite
Shortness of breath with activity or
after lying down (or being asleep) for
a while
Swelling of feet and ankles
InterventionsInterventions
The main goals of treating cardiomyopathy are to:
Manage any conditions that cause or contribute to the
cardiomyopathy
Control symptoms so that the person can live as normally as possible
Stop the disease from getting worse
Reduce complications and the chance of sudden cardiac death
Medications:
Diuretics, which remove excess fluid and sodium from the body.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which lower blood
pressure and reduce stress on the heart.
Beta-blockers, which slow the heart rate by reducing the speed of
the heart's contractions. These medicines also lower BP
Calcium channel blockers, which slow a rapid heartbeat by reducing
the force and rate of heart contractions, decrease BP
MedicationsMedications
Digoxin - increases the force of heart contractions and slows
the heartbeat.
Anticoagulants, which prevent blood clots from forming.
Anticoagulants are often used in the treatment of dilated
cardiomyopathy.
Antiarrhythmia medicines, which keep the heart beating in a
normal rhythm.
Antibiotics, which are used before dental or surgical procedures.
Antibiotics help to prevent endocarditis, an infection of the heart
walls, valves, and vessels.
Corticosteroids, which reduce inflammation.
SurgerySurgery
Septal myectomy
- also called septal myomectomy
- is open-heart surgery for hypertrophic obstructive
cardiomyopathy
- generally used in younger patients and when medicines aren't
working well.
Procedure:
1. a surgeon removes part of the thickened septum that is bulging
into the left ventricle  this widens the pathway in the
ventricle that leads to the aortic valve and improves blood flow
through the heart and out to the body
2. If necessary, the mitral valve can be repaired or replaced at the
same time. This surgery is often successful, and the person can
return to a normal life with no symptoms.
Surgery (cont.)Surgery (cont.)
Surgically implanted devices.
- Surgeons can place several different types of devices in the
heart to help it beat more effectively.
1. A left ventricular assist device (LVAD)
- helps the heart pump blood to the body
- LVAD can be used as a long-term therapy or as a short-term
treatment for people who are waiting for a heart transplant.
2. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
- is used in people who are at risk of life-threatening arrhythmia
or sudden cardiac death.
- This small device is implanted in the chest and connected to
the heart with wires. If the ICD senses a dangerous change in
heart rhythm, it will send an electric shock to the heart to
restore a normal heartbeat.
Heart Transplant
LeftLeft
VentricularVentricular
Assist DeviceAssist Device
(LVAD)(LVAD)
Lifestyle ChangesLifestyle Changes
The doctor may recommend lifestyle changes to manage a condition
that is causing the cardiomyopathy. These changes may help reduce
symptoms. Lifestyle changes may include:
Quitting smoking
Losing excess weight
Eating a low-salt diet
Getting moderate exercise, such as walking, and avoiding strenuous
exercise
Avoiding the use of alcohol and illegal drugs
Getting enough sleep and rest
Reducing stress
Treating underlying conditions, such as diabetes and high blood
pressure
Heart TransplantHeart Transplant
an operation in which the diseased heart in
a person is replaced with
a healthy heart from a deceased donor.
90% of heart transplants are performed
on patients with end-stage
heart failure ---.
Patients who might not be candidates for heart transplant
surgery, because the procedure is less likely to be successful.
Advanced age - most transplant surgery isn't performed on
patients older than 70 years.
Poor blood circulation throughout the body, including the brain.
Diseases of the kidney, lungs, or liver that can't be reversed.
History of cancer or malignant tumors.
Inability or unwillingness to follow lifelong medical instructions
after a transplant.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (high blood pressure in the
lungs) that can't be reversed.
Active infection throughout the body.
Heart Transplant (cont.)Heart Transplant (cont.)
Organs are matched for blood type and size of donor and recipient.
The Donor Heart
Guidelines on how a donor heart is selected :
 the donor meet the legal requirement for brain death
 consent forms are signed
 younger than 65 years of age
 have little or no history of heart disease or trauma to the chest
 not exposed to hepatitis or HIV
 donor heart must be transplanted w/in 4 hrs. after removal from
the donor
Heart Transplant (cont.)Heart Transplant (cont.)
Heart Transplant (cont.)Heart Transplant (cont.)
A bypass machine is hooked up to the arteries and veins of the
heart. The machine pumps blood through the patient's lungs and
body while the diseased heart is removed and the donor heart is
sewn into place.
Preventing Rejection
Immunosuppressants used: cyclosporine, tacrolimus, MMF
(mycophenolate mofetil), and steroids such as prednisone.
Watching for Signs of Rejection
Shortness of breath
Fever
Fatigue
Weight gain
Reduced amounts of urine
Preventing Infection
Heart Transplant (cont.)Heart Transplant (cont.)
What Are the Risks of a HeartWhat Are the Risks of a Heart
Transplant?Transplant?
Failure of the donor heart
Primary Graft Dysfunction
Rejection of the Donor Heart
Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy - the walls of the new heart's
coronary arteries become thick, hard, and lose their elasticity.
- can cause heart attack, heart failure, dangerous arrhythmias,
and sudden cardiac arrest
Complications from medicines - risk of infection, diabetes,
osteoporosis , high blood pressure, kidney damage, and cancer
Infection
Cancer – lymphoma and skin cancer (due to suppression of the
immune system)
COMPLICATIONCOMPLICATION
Heart failure. Heart failure means
your heart can't pump enough blood
to meet your body's needs. The
thickened, stiffened or weakened
heart muscle due to cardiomyopathy
can become unable to pump or can
stop blood from flowing out of the
heart
Valve problems. Because people with
Cardiomyopathy have an enlarged
heart, the heart valves may not close
properly, leading to a backward flow
of blood.
Cardiac arrest and sudden death.
Cardiomyopathy 1223958636063843-9

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Cardiomyopathy 1223958636063843-9

  • 1. CardiomyopathyCardiomyopathy PRESENTED BY MR. OM VERMA Msc LECTURER MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING
  • 2. DEFINITIONDEFINITION Cardiomyopathy is a type of heart disease in which the heart muscle is abnormal enlarge thickened and stiffened as a result the heart muscle ability to pump blood is usually impaired . JOYCE M BLACK
  • 3. Cardiomyopathy is a wakening of heart muscle or a change in heart muscle structure ,it is often associated with inadequate heart pumping or other function heart problem . BRUNNER AND SIDDHARTH
  • 4. Cardiomyopathy is a define as structural and functional abnormality of the heart muscle
  • 5.  disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively  the heart muscle becomes enlarged or abnormally thick or rigid.  In rare cases, the muscle tissue in the heart is replaced with scar tissue.  As cardiomyopathy progresses  the heart becomes weaker and less able to pump blood through the body  to heart failure, arrhythmias, systemic and pulmonary edema and, more rarely, endocarditis The 3 main types of Cardiomyopathy are: Dilated cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy CardiomyopathyCardiomyopathy
  • 6.
  • 7. DILATEDDILATED CARDIOMYOPATHYCARDIOMYOPATHY most common form of cardiomyopathy generally occurs in adults aged 20 to 60 years more common in men  the heart muscle begins to dilate or stretch and become thinner   Ventricular chamber size  over time, the heart becomes weaker  heart failure  symptoms of heart failure: fatigue, edema, and SOB  can also lead to heart valve problems (regurgitation), arrhythmias, and blood clots in the heart (poor blood flow), emboli formation  a common reason for needing a heart transplant.
  • 8. It refers to overall enlargement of the heart chamber especially the ventricles and increase atrial chamber size and weakness of heart muscle and poor pumping .
  • 9.
  • 10. Types and Causes:Types and Causes: Ischemic cardiomyopathy - caused by CAD & MI , w/c leave scars in the heart muscle Idiopathic cardiomyopathy - the cause is unknown. Hypertensive cardiomyopathy - seen in people who have high BP for a long time, particuarly when it has gone untreated for years. Infectious cardiomyopathy - HIV, viral myocarditis Alcoholic cardiomyopathy - usually begins about 10 years after sustained, heavy alcohol consumption. Toxic cardiomyopathy – due to cocaine, amphetamines, and some chemotherapy drugs (doxorubicin, daunorubicin) Peripartum cardiomyopathy: This type appears in women during the last trimester of pregnancy or after childbirth. Radiotherapy (cobalt) diabetes and thyroid disease
  • 11. HYPERTROPHICHYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHYCARDIOMYOPATHY Is an overgrowth of heart muscle that can impair blood flow both in to and out of the heart and thickened inter ventricular septum and left ventricular hypertrophy
  • 12. HypertrophicHypertrophic CardiomyopathyCardiomyopathy  occurs when the heart muscle thickens abnormally (left ventricle)  1.) obstructive type - the septum thickens and bulges into the left ventricle blocks the flow of blood into the aorta  the ventricle must work much harder to pump blood past the blockage and out to the body - symptoms can include chest pain, dizziness, shortness of breath, or fainting. - can also affect the mitral valve, causing blood to leak backward through the valve. 2.) non-obstructive type - the entire ventricle may become thicker (symmetric ventricular hypertrophy) or it may happen only at the bottom of the heart (apical hypertrophy). The right ventricle also may be affected.
  • 13.
  • 14. Pathophysiology:  Left ventricular hypertrophy (thick ventricular wall)   ventricular chamber size  hold less blood   CO   pressure in the ventricles and lungs  changes in the cardiac muscles  interfere with the heart's electrical signals, leading to arrhythmias  sudden cardiac arrest Causes: inherited because of a gene mutation develop over time because of high blood pressure or aging often, the cause is unknown. Hypertrophic CardiomyopathyHypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • 15.
  • 16. RESTRICTIVERESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHYCARDIOMYOPATHY The ventricles become stiff and rigid due to replacement of the normal heart muscle with abnormal tissue, such as scar tissue. As a result, the ventricles cannot relax normally and expand to fill with blood, which causes the atria to become enlarged. Eventually, blood flow in the heart is reduced, and complications such as heart failure or arrhythmias occur. Causes: radiation treatments, infections, or scarring after surgery Hemochromatosis - a condition in which too much iron is deposited into tissues, including heart tissue Amyloidosis, a disease in which abnormal proteins are deposited into heart tissue Sarcoidosis, a disease in which inflammation produces tiny lumps of cells in various organs in the body, including the heart
  • 17. RESTRICTIVERESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHYCARDIOMYOPATHY Is the common type of Cardiomyopathy I n this condition the heart muscle is too stiff
  • 18. ARRHYTHMOGENIC RIGHTARRHYTHMOGENIC RIGHT VENTRICLE HYPERTROPHYVENTRICLE HYPERTROPHY Fibrous scar And adipose tissue covering the right ventricle .
  • 19. ETIOLOGYETIOLOGY Chronic excessive alcohol consumption INFECTION= viral endocarditis and myocardaties Adenovirus Parvovirus Human immune deficiency virus Parasites protozoa
  • 20. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY Thiamine (vitamin B1) serves as an important cofactor ( help) in body metabolism and energy production. a lack of thiamine affects several organ systems, in particular the cardiovascular and nervous system. 
  • 21. ZINC DEFICIECYZINC DEFICIECY Zinc is a vital element in maintaining the normal structure and physiology of cells. ... to have protective effects in coronary artery disease and Cardiomyopathy.
  • 22. COLLEGEN VASCUL DISEASECOLLEGEN VASCUL DISEASE  increase connective tissue growth AUTO IMMUNE DISEASE GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE  
  • 23. Glycogen storage disease type II, also called Pompe disease, is an  autosomal recessive metabolic  disorder which damages muscle and nerve cells throughout the body. It is caused by an accumulation of glycogen in the lysosome  due to deficiency of the lysosomal  acid alpha-glucosidase enzyme. It is the only glycogen storage disease with a defect in lysosomal metabolism, Con……………………………………………………..plto
  • 24. The build-up of glycogen causes progressive muscle weakness ( myopathy) throughout the body and affects various body tissues, particularly in the heart,  skeletal muscles, liver and the  nervous system.
  • 25. AMYLOIDOSISAMYLOIDOSIS Cardiac Amyloidosis ("stiff heart syndrome") occurs when amyloid deposits take the place of normal heart muscle. It is the most typical type of  restrictive cardiomyopathy. Cardiac Amyloidosis may affect the way electrical signals move through the heart (conduction system). This can lead to abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias) and faulty heart signals (heart block).
  • 26. STRESSSTRESS is a condition in which intense emotional or physical stresscan cause rapid and severe heart muscle weakness (cardiomyopathy).
  • 27. Other drugsOther drugs Exposure to heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, cobalt, or mercury Cocaine Cobalt Emetine ( amebic dysentery) Anthracyclines ( antibiotics )
  • 28. Major Risk FactorsMajor Risk Factors Having a family history of cardiomyopathy, heart failure, or sudden cardiac death Having a disease or condition that can lead to cardiomyopathy, such as: Coronary artery disease A previous heart attack Myocarditis Diseases that can damage the heart (for example, hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, or amyloidosis) Long-term alcoholism Long-term high blood pressure Diabetes and other metabolic diseases
  • 29. PATHOPHYSIOLOGYPATHOPHYSIOLOGY Due to etiological factors Impaired cardiac output Decrease stroke volume ( amount of b/d ejected per beat by the lift ventricle in to arota )
  • 30. Stimulate the sympathetic nervous system renin angiotension and aldosterone response Result increase systemic valular resistance Na increase and fluid retention
  • 31. Increase workload of heart Then lead to Cardiomyopathy
  • 32. Signs and SymptomsSigns and Symptoms some have no symptoms in the early stages of the disease as cardiomyopathy progresses and the heart weakens, signs and symptoms of heart failure usually appear. These signs and symptoms include: Tiredness Weakness Shortness of breath after exercise or even at rest Swelling of the abdomen, legs, ankles, and feet Other signs and symptoms: dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting during exercise, abnormal heart rhythms, murmurs
  • 33. common symptoms are: Chest pain or pressure (more likely with exercise) Cough Fatigue, weakness, faintness Irregular or rapid pulse Loss of appetite Shortness of breath with activity or after lying down (or being asleep) for a while Swelling of feet and ankles
  • 34. InterventionsInterventions The main goals of treating cardiomyopathy are to: Manage any conditions that cause or contribute to the cardiomyopathy Control symptoms so that the person can live as normally as possible Stop the disease from getting worse Reduce complications and the chance of sudden cardiac death Medications: Diuretics, which remove excess fluid and sodium from the body. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which lower blood pressure and reduce stress on the heart. Beta-blockers, which slow the heart rate by reducing the speed of the heart's contractions. These medicines also lower BP Calcium channel blockers, which slow a rapid heartbeat by reducing the force and rate of heart contractions, decrease BP
  • 35. MedicationsMedications Digoxin - increases the force of heart contractions and slows the heartbeat. Anticoagulants, which prevent blood clots from forming. Anticoagulants are often used in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. Antiarrhythmia medicines, which keep the heart beating in a normal rhythm. Antibiotics, which are used before dental or surgical procedures. Antibiotics help to prevent endocarditis, an infection of the heart walls, valves, and vessels. Corticosteroids, which reduce inflammation.
  • 36. SurgerySurgery Septal myectomy - also called septal myomectomy - is open-heart surgery for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy - generally used in younger patients and when medicines aren't working well. Procedure: 1. a surgeon removes part of the thickened septum that is bulging into the left ventricle  this widens the pathway in the ventricle that leads to the aortic valve and improves blood flow through the heart and out to the body 2. If necessary, the mitral valve can be repaired or replaced at the same time. This surgery is often successful, and the person can return to a normal life with no symptoms.
  • 37. Surgery (cont.)Surgery (cont.) Surgically implanted devices. - Surgeons can place several different types of devices in the heart to help it beat more effectively. 1. A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) - helps the heart pump blood to the body - LVAD can be used as a long-term therapy or as a short-term treatment for people who are waiting for a heart transplant. 2. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) - is used in people who are at risk of life-threatening arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death. - This small device is implanted in the chest and connected to the heart with wires. If the ICD senses a dangerous change in heart rhythm, it will send an electric shock to the heart to restore a normal heartbeat. Heart Transplant
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. Lifestyle ChangesLifestyle Changes The doctor may recommend lifestyle changes to manage a condition that is causing the cardiomyopathy. These changes may help reduce symptoms. Lifestyle changes may include: Quitting smoking Losing excess weight Eating a low-salt diet Getting moderate exercise, such as walking, and avoiding strenuous exercise Avoiding the use of alcohol and illegal drugs Getting enough sleep and rest Reducing stress Treating underlying conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure
  • 42. Heart TransplantHeart Transplant an operation in which the diseased heart in a person is replaced with a healthy heart from a deceased donor. 90% of heart transplants are performed on patients with end-stage heart failure ---.
  • 43. Patients who might not be candidates for heart transplant surgery, because the procedure is less likely to be successful. Advanced age - most transplant surgery isn't performed on patients older than 70 years. Poor blood circulation throughout the body, including the brain. Diseases of the kidney, lungs, or liver that can't be reversed. History of cancer or malignant tumors. Inability or unwillingness to follow lifelong medical instructions after a transplant. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs) that can't be reversed. Active infection throughout the body. Heart Transplant (cont.)Heart Transplant (cont.)
  • 44. Organs are matched for blood type and size of donor and recipient. The Donor Heart Guidelines on how a donor heart is selected :  the donor meet the legal requirement for brain death  consent forms are signed  younger than 65 years of age  have little or no history of heart disease or trauma to the chest  not exposed to hepatitis or HIV  donor heart must be transplanted w/in 4 hrs. after removal from the donor Heart Transplant (cont.)Heart Transplant (cont.)
  • 45. Heart Transplant (cont.)Heart Transplant (cont.)
  • 46. A bypass machine is hooked up to the arteries and veins of the heart. The machine pumps blood through the patient's lungs and body while the diseased heart is removed and the donor heart is sewn into place. Preventing Rejection Immunosuppressants used: cyclosporine, tacrolimus, MMF (mycophenolate mofetil), and steroids such as prednisone. Watching for Signs of Rejection Shortness of breath Fever Fatigue Weight gain Reduced amounts of urine Preventing Infection Heart Transplant (cont.)Heart Transplant (cont.)
  • 47. What Are the Risks of a HeartWhat Are the Risks of a Heart Transplant?Transplant? Failure of the donor heart Primary Graft Dysfunction Rejection of the Donor Heart Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy - the walls of the new heart's coronary arteries become thick, hard, and lose their elasticity. - can cause heart attack, heart failure, dangerous arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac arrest Complications from medicines - risk of infection, diabetes, osteoporosis , high blood pressure, kidney damage, and cancer Infection Cancer – lymphoma and skin cancer (due to suppression of the immune system)
  • 48. COMPLICATIONCOMPLICATION Heart failure. Heart failure means your heart can't pump enough blood to meet your body's needs. The thickened, stiffened or weakened heart muscle due to cardiomyopathy can become unable to pump or can stop blood from flowing out of the heart
  • 49. Valve problems. Because people with Cardiomyopathy have an enlarged heart, the heart valves may not close properly, leading to a backward flow of blood. Cardiac arrest and sudden death.