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Nontraditional Applications of XRF for Quality Assurance and Quality Control

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- Basics of XRF
- Case Studies in XRF
- Future Advances in XRF

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Nontraditional Applications of XRF for Quality Assurance and Quality Control

  1. 1. 1 Nontraditional Applications of XRF for Quality Assurance and Quality Control XRF beyond Alloy PMI Olympus ASNT | Houston | 29 October 2018 Michael W. Hull, PhD | Applications Scientist
  2. 2. Future Advances in XRF Basics of XRF Case Studies in XRF Pipeline of this Talk
  3. 3. Basics of XRF Pipeline of this Talk
  4. 4. XRF Physics Grade MatchingCalculationMeasurementRe-EmissionExcitationX-Ray Emission Mn FeNi Cr
  5. 5. Grade Matching Process
  6. 6. XRF Physics Grade MatchingCalculationMeasurementRe-EmissionExcitationX-Ray Emission Mn FeNi Cr
  7. 7. XRF Physics Grade MatchingCalculationMeasurementRe-EmissionExcitationX-Ray Emission Mn FeNi Cr
  8. 8. XRF Physics ChemistryCalculationMeasurementRe-EmissionExcitationX-Ray Emission Mn FeNi Cr
  9. 9. Thinking Beyond PMI to QA/QC
  10. 10. XRF: An Elemental Science Image Source: Library of Congress - http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b12511/ Dalton’s Atomic Theory • All matter is made of extremely tiny particles called atoms • All atoms of a given element are identical to one another • Atoms cannot be divided, created, or destroyed • Atoms of different elements combine in simple, whole- number ratios to form various chemical compounds • In chemical reactions, atoms can be combined, separated, or rearranged, but neither created nor destroyed Atoms make up everything… …so what’s the signature element?
  11. 11. • Element • “Compound” • Ratio • Mathematical function, ƒ(E1, E2, En)
  12. 12. Basics of XRF Case Studies in XRF Pipeline of this Talk
  13. 13. 1. E.g. composite decking, solid- surface countertop, or sink basin 2. Variegated material 3. Goal: Batch consistency for resin & filler material, color, etc. Case #1: Composite Building Material
  14. 14. Case #1: Composite Building Material 0% 10% 20%
  15. 15. Case #1: Composite Building Material
  16. 16. Proxy values Case #1: Composite Building Material Grit% Loading Level
  17. 17. QA/QC Principle #1: Representative Sampling • Multiple tests (6x, 2–3 secs) Case #1: Composite Building Material
  18. 18. QA/QC Principle #2: Consistency in Testing • Multiple tests (6x, 2–3 secs) Case #1: Composite Building Material Align to Corner
  19. 19. QA/QC Principle #1: Representative Sampling • Multiple tests (6x, 2–3 secs) • Panning test (10–12 seconds) • Inline integration Case #1: Composite Building Material
  20. 20. • Silver nanoparticles have antimicrobial properties • Commonly applied to fabric and garments • Loading & retention Case #2: Antibacterial Fabric Sample Ag Conc. (ppm) Precision (+/-) LB4 7.4 0.6 LB4 6.1 0.5 LB4 6.1 0.5 LB4 6.4 0.5 Average 6.5 ppm TH 2.7 0.6 TH 3.1 0.6 TH 2.8 0.6 TH 2.9 0.6 Average 2.9 ppm 0001 0055 A 2.1 0.5 0001 0055 B 2.2 0.5 0001 0055 C 1.6 0.5 0001 0055 D 1.5 0.5 Average 1.9 ppm 0002 0055 A 10.2 0.5 0002 0055 B 7.4 0.5 0002 0055 C 6.2 0.5 0002 0055 D 11.6 0.5 Average 8.9 ppm 0003 0055 A 3.1 0.5 0003 0055 B 1.5 0.4 0003 0055 C 1.6 0.4 0003 0055 D 2.2 0.5 Average 2.1 ppm
  21. 21. • Fuel cells provide clean energy from hydrogen • Platinum serves a central catalytic role • Catalyst membranes are loaded with colloidal platinum • Integration into production line Case #3a: Coatings — Fuel-Cell Membrane
  22. 22. Location Pt (mg/cm 2 ) Origin 0.428 QI 0.431 QII 0.434 QIII 0.441 QIV 0.443 • Coatings often show loading variations across the surface • QA/QC Principle #3: Instrument precision should exceed process variation Case #3a: Coatings — Fuel-Cell Membrane QIQII QIII QIV O Process Variation
  23. 23. • Coating weight is related to dwell time in the coating bath Case #3b: Coatings – Ceramics
  24. 24. Goldilocks Principle: Not too much, not too little! QA/QC Principle #4: Don’t waste the expensive stuff! Case #4: “Active” Ingredient – Formulation Control
  25. 25. • Additives affect plastics properties • Pigments/color intensity • XRF is tied to sample density Case #5: Plastics Additive Reading # Test Label Bi Conc ±σ Nb Conc ±σ Sb Conc ±σ S Conc ±σ 1 1-RP1 <LOD 0.0186 0.0003 0.0000 <LOD 0.0460 0.0347 0.0013 1 1-RP2 <LOD 0.0180 0.0003 0.0000 <LOD 0.0454 0.0349 0.0013 1 1-RP3 <LOD 0.0181 0.0003 0.0000 <LOD 0.0461 0.0310 0.0013 1 1-RP4 <LOD 0.0185 0.0003 0.0000 <LOD 0.0455 0.0351 0.0013 1 1-RP5 <LOD 0.0186 0.0003 0.0000 <LOD 0.0457 0.0329 0.0013 1 1-RP6 <LOD 0.0183 0.0003 0.0000 <LOD 0.0458 0.0333 0.0013 Average <LOD 0.0184 0.0003 0.0000 <LOD 0.0458 0.0338 0.0013 3 3-RP1 19.4136 0.2550 0.0108 0.0008 0.0725 0.0016 5.0014 0.0657 3 3-RP2 19.1715 0.2517 0.0097 0.0007 0.0705 0.0016 4.9635 0.0652 3 3-RP3 18.9926 0.2524 0.0093 0.0007 0.0706 0.0016 5.1646 0.0687 3 3-RP4 19.7717 0.2644 0.0106 0.0008 0.0727 0.0017 5.1473 0.0689 3 3-RP5 18.6864 0.2429 0.0094 0.0007 0.0692 0.0015 4.9865 0.0648 3 3-RP6 19.1825 0.2551 0.0106 0.0007 0.0676 0.0016 5.1647 0.0687 Average 19.2331 0.2538 0.0102 0.0007 0.0708 0.0016 5.0613 0.0668 5 5-RP1 24.6089 0.3377 0.0043 0.0010 0.0722 0.0019 11.4055 0.1564 5 5-RP2 24.4812 0.3357 0.0048 0.0010 0.0718 0.0019 11.4309 0.1566 5 5-RP3 24.7353 0.3390 0.0047 0.0010 0.0731 0.0019 11.4474 0.1568 5 5-RP4 25.5074 0.3564 0.0039 0.0010 0.0763 0.0020 11.6307 0.1624 5 5-RP5 25.5384 0.3528 0.0059 0.0011 0.0800 0.0020 11.6592 0.1609 5 5-RP6 25.2726 0.3508 0.0049 0.0010 0.0773 0.0020 11.5855 0.1607 Average 24.9647 0.3443 0.0047 0.0010 0.0747 0.0019 11.5092 0.1586 Santoprene Extruded Pellets (loose) Product (solid)
  26. 26. Case #6: Construction Aggregates – Materials Science Image Source: Creative Commons, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limestone#/media/File:Limestone_Mines_at_Cedar_Creek.jpg • Lime (stone) [CaO] • Clay [(Al2Si2O5(OH)4] • Iron-rich (Fe2O3) Controls for Concrete Raw Materials Lime Saturation Factor !"# = %&' (2.8 ∗ "-'. + 1.2 ∗ 12.'3 + 0.65 ∗ #7.'3) Alite [Ca3SiO5] Belite [Ca2SiO4]
  27. 27. Case #6: Construction Aggregates – Materials Science • Lime(stone) [CaO] • Clay [(Al2Si2O5(OH)4] • Iron-rich (Fe2O3) Controls for Concrete Raw Materials Lime Saturation Factor !"# = %&' (2.8 ∗ "-'. + 1.2 ∗ 12.'3 + 0.65 ∗ #7.'3) Image Source: Creative Commons, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limestone#/media/File:Limestone_Mines_at_Cedar_Creek.jpg "9 = "-'. 12.'3 + #7.'3 19 = 12.'3 #7.'3 Silica Ratio Alumina Ratio 0. %
  28. 28. • Sulfur content • Ash content • Caloric value Case #7: Coal Lifecycle – Energy Science
  29. 29. Case #7: Coal Lifecycle – Ash Content Ash Content ∝ (Mg+Al+Si+P+S+K+Ca+Ti+Fe)
  30. 30. Case #7: Coal Lifecycle – Caloric Value Caloric Value ∝ Ash Content
  31. 31. Case #7: Coal Lifecycle – Caloric Value Caloric Value ∝ (Mg+Al+Si+P+S+K+Ca+Ti+Fe)
  32. 32. Alternative to fire assay Fire assay is: • Labor-intensive • Time-intensive • Energy-intensive Case #8: Gold on Carbon
  33. 33. Future Advances in XRF Basics of XRF Case Studies in XRF Pipeline of this talk
  34. 34. Advanced Testing Wireless Bluetooth® Cloud Connectivity IoT Manufacturing 4.0 Inline Testing XRF Integrations What property do you want to measure? What’s your signature element?
  35. 35. The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are registered trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc. and any use of such marks by Olympus Corporation is under license. Olympus is a registered trademark of Olympus Corporation.

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