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Beyond the Elements XRD Mineralogy & XRF Analysis for Advanced Mud Logging

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More information on Olympus XRF and XRD solutions: http://bit.ly/1pZ3zBo

A presentation from the webinar Beyond the Elements XRD Mineralogy & XRF Analysis for Advanced Mud Logging.

Learn how XRD and XRF analyzers help maximize the efficiency of drilling operations by quickly finding commercially viable target zones for better production and improved ROI.

Understand rock type indicating oil and gas bearing zones and identify mineralogical trends to keep the drill in the shale pay zone with real-time XRD and XRF analysis.

On-site analysis provides faster results and reduces costs from sending fewer samples to the outside lab. We will review techniques for on-site analysis to make informed geo-steering decisions.

Watch the webinar associated with this presentation: http://bit.ly/1ohxid8
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Beyond the Elements XRD Mineralogy & XRF Analysis for Advanced Mud Logging

  1. 1. Beyond the Elements: XRD Mineralogy & XRF Analysis for Advanced Mud Logging
  2. 2. Agenda Meet the Speakers  Jose Brum, Field Sales Engineer, Olympus  Dawn Snyder, Geologist, Diversified Well Logging Topics  XRF & XRD Basics  X-ray technology in oil & gas drilling  Advanced mud logging techniques  On-site XRF and XRD  Q&A Session
  3. 3. Save Time  Easy sample prep  On-site analysis  Fast results Reduce Costs  Send fewer samples to outside lab  Avoid downtime waiting for results  Prevent re-drilling with real-time data Be Decisive  Continuously test while drilling  Geosteering without guesswork  View drill depth vs mineralogy comparison plots Benefits of on-site XRD & XRF analysis
  4. 4. What is X-ray fluorescence?  Quantitative elemental analysis Mg - U  Measures ppm - % for most elements
  5. 5. What is X-ray fluorescence? Typical XRF Spectra
  6. 6. What is X-ray diffraction?  Direct mineralogy with XRD  Quantitative mineral phase analysis  Rough range of analysis is ~ 2% - 100%
  7. 7. What is X-ray diffraction? Typical XRD Patterns Quartz Dolomite Gypsum Illite 2650 ft 6250 ft
  8. 8. XRD vs XRF?  Both use an X-ray source and detector  Both measure the response to X-rays interacting with a substance  Both provide a measurement to help identify a substance XRF XRD Elemental Analysis Compound Analysis Contains Fe Contains Fe2O3 vs Fe3O4 Contains Ca Polymorphs: CaCO3 calcite vs aragonite vs vaterite
  9. 9. Unconventional resources CHALLENGE: Majority of wells being drilled in N.A. are in unconventional resource plays SOLUTION: Advancements in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made production from unconventional resources commercially viable
  10. 10. Finding the sweet spot CHALLENGE: Geology, geochemistry, geo-mechanical properties can vary significantly throughout the play within visually homogenous shales SOLUTION: XRD & XRF shows molecular level to identify areas with more carbonates, areas that are more siliceous, and places of changes in the clay
  11. 11. Monitoring mineralogy trends with XRD
  12. 12. Monitoring mineralogy trends with XRD
  13. 13. Brittle zones CHALLENGE: Brittle zones necessary to pinpoint sweet spots for fracking can appear and disappear quickly in horizontal sections SOLUTION: XRD data can be used to derive the brittleness of the shales within reservoirs
  14. 14. Rock type CHALLENGE: Need to identify oil & gas bearing zones, permeability and porosity for optimum production SOLUTION: XRD can identify the rock types that indicate oil & gas bearing zones
  15. 15. Marker elements CHALLENGE: Finding boundary layers and staying in the pay zone while drilling SOLUTION: XRF can identify upper and lower marker elements to indicate when you have entered the pay zone or if you have left it
  16. 16. Monitoring elemental composition with XRF
  17. 17. Elemental composition vs drilling depths
  18. 18. Downhole vs surface techniques CHALLENGES: Downhole measurements such as gamma, resistivity or wireline tools can fail due to temperature, pressure or vibration in the wellbore SOLUTION: Surface-based data from XRD and XRF have little to no impact on the drilling operations and can provide the mineralogy data regardless of downhole conditions
  19. 19. Compatible Fluids CHALLENGE: Drilling and injection fluids can interact with the formation in undesirable ways SOLUTION: XRD can analyze the mineralogy so the compatible fluid can be used
  20. 20. Scaling CHALLENGE: Scaling can block wells and reduce permeability of the formation SOLUTION: XRD can identify the type of scaling so you can choose the right treatment chemicals Common oilfield scales
  21. 21. Optimizing Production CHALLENGE: Typical well has between 25-50 stages, costing close to $250k per stage, with a typical production rate of 2% SOLUTION: Placing stages in the most brittle areas of the formation will help to optimize production, reduce cost and minimize environmental impact of fracturing
  22. 22. Advanced Mudlogging CHALLENGE: Surface-based measurements need to provide a detailed and reliable view of what is happening sub- surface SOLUTION: Field XRD and XRF combined with the mud logger and the microscope provides detailed results using visual and analytical techniques
  23. 23. Advanced Mudlogging CHALLENGE: Problems such as wellbore stability and fluid losses can arise while drilling SOLUTION: If pilot well cuttings were logged, subsequent cavings can be immediately identified with on-site XRD and XRF to pinpoint the location of losses. Used with permission from Aaron Watkins
  24. 24. Advanced Mudlogging
  25. 25. XRD Data - Pattern Comparison Waterfall plot of 13 samples showing change in mineralogy through depth of several thousand feet of drilling with intensities normalized to 100% for visualization Range = Red at 2350 – Blue at 6250
  26. 26. XRD Data - Pattern Comparison Comparisons show visual changes in the diffraction pattern that do not require technical training to notice
  27. 27. XRD Data - Pattern Comparison Quartz Dolomite Gypsum Illite 2650 ft 6250 ft
  28. 28. XRD Data - Pattern Comparison 3400 ft 3870 ft Illite Illite Chlorite
  29. 29. XRD Data - Analysis Speed secondary peaks clear 1 min / 4 exposures 3 min / 11 exposures 10 min / 36 exposures For identifiable peaks, quantification stabilizes very quickly secondary peaks visible primary peaks visible - likely identifiable
  30. 30. XRD Quantification  Quick Semi-Quant (XPowder) can be set-up with a few patterns and turned into a push-button operation  Select phases visually from a small database  Setting up reference files for future quantification of similar matrices
  31. 31. Field XRD vs lab XRD
  32. 32. XRF Analysis Output Depth Al Si P S K Ca Ti V Mn Fe Ni Cu Zn Zr 12430 4.04 13.7 0.17 0.24 2.31 2.05 0.44 0 0.03 5.11 0.02 12450 2.82 13.3 0.14 0.29 1.33 3.27 0.34 0.04 0.03 4.39 0.01 0.03 12470 3.31 14.2 0.2 0.33 1.38 3.34 0.35 0.04 4.53 0.03 12490 3.53 12.1 0.2 0.74 1.57 4.29 1.78 1.03 0.22 5.15 0.01 0.01 0.03 12510 3.39 11.8 0.17 0.5 1.64 4.37 1.03 0.6 0.12 4.8 0.03 12530 3.77 11.2 0.26 0.38 1.36 7.95 1.28 0.75 0.18 4.45 0.02 0.02 12550 3.44 10.9 0.15 0.41 1.46 7.3 1.21 0.55 0.14 4.28 0.03 12570 2.77 9.38 0.18 0.26 1.27 8.26 0.75 0.26 0.08 3.87 0.01 0.03 12590 3.11 10.5 0.17 0.62 1.42 6.16 1.88 1.19 0.34 4.78 0.02 0.01 0.03 12610 3.07 9.91 0.15 0.26 1.34 7.82 0.58 0.17 0.09 3.82 0.01 0.01 0.02 12630 3.19 10.7 0.17 0.33 1.59 5.29 0.5 0.11 0.08 4.52 0.01 0.03
  33. 33. On-site XRD & XRF Analysis CHALLENGE: Samples sent to lab for XRD & XRF analysis can take days/wks for results SOLUTION: Advances in XRD & XRF units have made them accessible for use in mobile labs Inside the Diversified Well Logging Trailer
  34. 34. Your Mobile Lab Starts with Olympus X5000 Portable XRF BTX-II Benchtop XRD TERRA Portable XRD Submit your questions now!

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