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Case Studies—Innovative Use of pXRF in Southern and Eastern Europe

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pXRF Case Studies:
- Tethyan Resources — Serbia
- Eldorado Gold — Greece
- Mineco — Bosnia
- Ariana Resources — Turkey

For more information, visit: https://www.olympus-ims.com/en/xrf-xrd/xrf-handheld/

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Case Studies—Innovative Use of pXRF in Southern and Eastern Europe

  1. 1. Olympus Scientific Solutions Analytical Instruments Todd Houlahan Minex Europe 6/26/19 Case Studies— Innovative Use of pXRF in Southern and Eastern Europe
  2. 2. Agenda 2 1 About Olympus 2 pXRF Case Studies Tethyan Resources — Serbia Eldorado Gold — Greece Mineco — Bosnia Ariana Resources — Turkey (time permitting)
  3. 3. Olympus and Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas (OSSA) 3 § Olympus has a long history in optics, imaging, and sensor technology – 40,000 employees, market cap ~US $12B, founded in Japan in 1919 – Core Businesses: – Cameras and audio – Medical, surgical, and life sciences (End, GI, Gyn, Urol, etc.) – Industrial = OSSA (HQ: Boston and Quebec) » Nondestructive Testing (NDT) » Ultrasonic » Phased array » Eddy current » Advanced NDT solutions and systems » Industrial borescopes and videoscopes » Microscopy and optical metrology » Analytical Instruments » X-ray fluorescence (XRF) » X-ray diffraction (XRD)
  4. 4. Physics 101—X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) 4 XRF Provides Elemental Chemistry (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) § XRD Provides Quantitative Mineralogy (Fundamental Crystallography)
  5. 5. Tethyan Resources Serbia Pb Zn Vein Mineralization Cu Au Porphyry pXRF Case Study 1
  6. 6. • Cost-effective analytical tool in early stage exploration • No requirement to send 100s of soil samples to the laboratory for preparation and analysis • Rapid decision-making almost in real time • Allows design and implementation of follow-up programs without delay • Zones with strongly anomalous pathfinder elements are submitted for verification at the laboratory, as well as analyses of other pathfinder elements that require lower detection limits Charts show correlation between pXRF and ICP-MS and AES analyses from a recent soil sampling campaign targeting Pb-Zn vein mineralization. pXRF results are reliable and consistent enough for definition of anomalies, which guides further, more detailed follow-up field work. Advantages of pXRF in Early Stage Exploration
  7. 7. Identification of Soil Anomalies for Follow Up Map A pXRF data (Mo ppm) on 200 m by 50 m grid Rudnica Cu-Au Porphyry • Historic Pb-Zn vein targets and limited drilling for porphyry mineralization in the early 2000s • Tethyan conducted a first-pass pXRF soil survey that identified a large Mo anomaly (Map A) • Follow-up soil testing using the ICP analytical method confirmed the Mo anomaly coincident with gold and other pathfinder elements (Map B) • Mapping and later drilling confirmed the presence of porphyry mineralization at two prospects Map B ICP data (Mo ppm) on 100 m by 50 m grid Rudnica North Rudnica
  8. 8. • Daily drill reports to directors are supplemented by summary charts displaying downhole copper, molybdenum, lead, and zinc pXRF analyses as indicative results • The above provides reliable, consistent data and easy-to- understand visual output • pXRF data is essential in planning and prioritizing the next holes without waiting for drill assays • pXRF data also assists logging/mapping geologists in differentiating between basement ophiolite rocks and younger igneous rocks in zones of strong texture destructive alteration and/or weathering Intrusive rocks Basement Preliminary Drill Data from pXRF
  9. 9. | Ariana Resources Plc | March 20159 Eldorado Gold Greece Au pXRF Case Study 2
  10. 10. www.eldoradogold.com 10 § Historic coarse rejects and pulps were previously only analyzed for Cu and Au § pXRF and Terraspec used to extract new geochemistry and mineralogy Extracting More Out of Historic Data — Skouries, Greece Historic pulps/coarse rejects Sorted/cataloged Reflex press pellet to produce homogenous sample Data into Reflex HUB – QA/QC Direct link iogas/Leapfrog Tim Baker|ChiefGeoscientist|EldoradoGoldCorporation P: +1.604.601.6674| Email:timb@eldoradogold.com 1188 Bentall 5 - 550 Burrard Street,VancouverB.C.V6C2B5 CANADA
  11. 11. Mineco Bosnia and Herzogovina Pb pXRF Case Study 3
  12. 12. OLOVO — Cerussite Mine Bosnia • Narrow-vein cerussite (deposit PbCO3) • Variable deposit, size/geometry, alteration, mineralization style • Mostly high-grade ore (>30% Pb) in narrow structures • Target production: 150,000 tpa (6-8% Pb ROM) • Gravity processing method • Long-hole underhand stoping mining Exploration Phase 2013 – 2017 UG Mine Development 2016 – 2019 Processing Construction 2018 – 2019
  13. 13. OLOVO — On-Site Geochemical Capabilities Analytical Instrument Requirements: • Low-cost, simple, highly accurate equipment • High sample throughput • Repeatable results • Dependable manufacturer support Operation: • High-quality results that match the performance of our other mine-site laboratories in internal testing • OEM support in staff training, establishment of lab SOPs, and problem solving • Up to 50 samples per shift (prep and assay) • Laboratory now also serving other MINECO exploration projects in BiH Outlook: • Incorporation of Olympus XRF into the processing operations and metallurgical accounting during plant commissioning Q3 2019
  14. 14. Elatzite Bulgaria Cu Grade More pXRF Case Studies Eldorado Gold Turkey Au Concentrates Georgian Copper and Gold Georgia Cu /Au First Quantum Las Cruces, Spain Cu / Si
  15. 15. Questions? Thank you for your attention Olympus is a registered trademark of Olympus Corporation. First Quantum Minerals is a trademark of First Quantum Minerals, Ltd. Geotechmin is a registered trademark of Geotechmin Group.
  16. 16. Appendix (time permitting)
  17. 17. Ariana Resources Turkey Au pXRF Case Study 4
  18. 18. Ariana Resources PLC – September 2016 pXRF Pathfinder Geochemistry • pXRF soil geochemistry conducted across the deposit area to identify pathfinders to Au-Ag mineralization • Arsenic is the primary vector to mineralization from pXRF • Other vectors include: • Potassium and calcium are good for mapping alteration zones • Manganese depletion typically occurs in zones of more intense alteration and higher grade Au-Ag mineralization
  19. 19. Ariana Resources PLC – September 2016 pXRF Lithogeochemistry • Major lithologies can be mapped using pXRF geochemistry • Strontium, rubidium, and calcium key elements used in distinguishing volcanic units • Iron, chromium, and copper identify basement ophiolites and associated unconformity sediments • ‘Breaks’ in mineralization trends and lithological units identified from geochemistry show strong correlations to major structural corridors • pXRF geochemistry adds confidence to prospect scale and regional mapping and helps identify structural blocks
  20. 20. Ariana Resources PLC – September 2016 2014 XRF Lithology XRF data can be used for mapping!
  21. 21. Ariana Resources PLC – September 2016 Ginguro Texture Analysis In 2013, pXRF was used to understand various textures within drill core, consisting of quartz vein material from the Kiziltepe deposit in Western Turkey. Analysis of various styles of greyish banding and spotting resulted in the identification of high-grade ginguro. The type of low- temperature quartz associated with the high- grade ginguro resulted in a significant understanding in the mineralization event environment.
  22. 22. Ariana Resources PLC – September 2016 Kepez — High-Grade Ginguro The results from the detailed textural analysis were later applied to in-field exercises, which then led to the discovery of the Kepez Main Prospect. It sits in an area previously intensely sampled by Newmont with no significant results (because they were sampling the wrong type of quartz material). Right — actual photos from in-field discovery (note the exceptional Ag and Au readings, as well as the ginguro banding).

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