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Xi'an Chang'an invited conference: Transportation system complexity, optimal driving strategies

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This presentation has been done in Xi'an Chang'an University and is a slight improvement of the Chengdu one . It concerns the application of transportation complexity theory to optimal driving strategy.

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Xi'an Chang'an invited conference: Transportation system complexity, optimal driving strategies

  1. 1. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux Transportation system complexity : Optimal driving strategies Olivier Orfila TongJi University (High End Foreign Expert) IFSTTAR-COSYS-LIVIC (Senior Researcher) olivier.orfila@ifsttar.fr
  2. 2. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr What are our objectives? • We want to mitigate a wide range of transportation issues (congestion, pollution, safety, etc) • In our case: Reduce the negative impact of road transport on health and environnement: • Reduce greenhouse gases emissions (GHG); • Reduce pollutants emissions; • Reduce energy use; • All of this without increasing travel time nor road insecurity.
  3. 3. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Regulation is pressing! • Emissions standards: • Increasing constraints • COP21 : • Limit global warming to 2°C targetting 1.5°C Historical fleet CO2 emissions performance and current or proposed passenger vehicle standards (ICCT, International Council on Clean Transportation):
  4. 4. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr What about passenger cars? • Fuel use data in the US (IEA) • In France, 55% of GHG emissions are due to light duty vehicles (source : MEEM, french ministry of ecology)
  5. 5. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Role of infrastructure, vehicles and drivers Drivers : •Driving •Use choice, maintenance, client choices Vehicle : •Mass, aérodynamics •Engine •ADAS •Tires,… Infrastructure : •Geometry •Road texture •Urban planning •ITS
  6. 6. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr USE CASE OF OPTIMAL DRIVING: ECODRIVING First part
  7. 7. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr A few energy reach the wheel and we are still spoiling it! Ecodriving = cooking leftovers Ecodriving definition proposal
  8. 8. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Ecodriving history Toyota, Glass of water BMW, econometer
  9. 9. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Ecodriving definition « Ecodriving is a strategy to reduce fuel use by following several advice: do not accelerate strongly, reduce speed, keeping low RPMs, anticipate traffic. » M. Barth, K. Boriboonsomsin, 2009. Energy and emissions impacts of a freeway-based dynamic eco-driving system « Ecodriving should not be confused with hypermiling wich neglects safety to reduce fuel use while ecodriving has no trade- off » J. N. Barkenbus, 2010. Eco-driving: An overlooked climate change initiative « Ecodriving aims at following a vehicle safely in order to reduce energy use on the long term » M.A.S. Kamal, M. Mukai, J. Murata and T. Kawabe, 2010. On board eco-driving system for varying road-traffic environments using model predictive control
  10. 10. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Ecodriving definition proposal • Ecodriving is a set of driving technics, dealing with all driving tasks, aiming at minimizing the energy losses and/or emissions rate of the driven vehicle, from an origin to a destination, without trading-off safety nor total travel time. • Note: Ecodriving is a real time multi objective optimization process.
  11. 11. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Is ecodriving efficient? Wengraf I.: Easy on The Gas, The effeciteveness of ecodriving, RAC Foundation, London, 2012, pp.16-17 Experimental : 20 weeks before and after ecodriving training (golden rules) Isuzu Motors: Fuel economy challenge: One trip before and one after
  12. 12. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Some ecodriving research questions • Can ecodriving famous golden rules, taken one by one: • Reduce the energy used by the concerned vehicle? • Reduce the emissions rates of the concerned vehicle? • Improve road safety for the concerned vehicle? • Reduce congestions? • Increase comfort? • Reduce traffic noise? • And what about a whole network?
  13. 13. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr IFSTTAR ecodriving research methodology • Ecodriving optimization• Ecodriving modelling • Ecodriving assistance systems • Impact of ecodriving Smart and Green ACC ddriver Tdriver V d Vi g SAGA Mode Target Speed Target Acc. ErrorFlag Accuracy Dyn. Limit Func. Limit 70 Vdriver eHorizon Fuel use in congested urban traffic Fuel use in nearly congested interurban roads δ ωmax2 Olivier Orfila, Guillaume Saint Pierre, Cindie Andrieu. (2012) « Gear Shifting Behavior Model for Ecodriving Simulations Based on Experimental Data », EWGT2012 H. T. Luu, 2011, Développement de méthodes de réduction de la consommation en carburant d’un véhicule dans un contexte de sécurité et de confort : un compromis entre économie et écologie. Thèse de doctorat, Université d’Evry Orfila O., Saint Pierre G., Messias M. (2014), « Development of an ecodriving assistance application for nomadic devices performing real-time and post trip coaching for road vehicles », TRA 2014, Paris, La Défense. O. Orfila, 2011, Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriver on traffic and fuel consumption, YR2011, Copenhaguen
  14. 14. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Methodology: an ecodriving modelling Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion Ecodriving parameters Ecodriven vehicles Normally driven vehicles Traffic demand Road network Traffic micro simulation Fuel consumption Traffic indicator (mean speed) % •IDM (Intelligent Driver Model) Treiber, 2000 •Gipps model 1981 (AIMSUN) •Interurban •Urban •Free traffic state •Intermediate traffic state •Congested traffic state 2 types of roads x 3 traffic states x 11 proportions of ecodrivers x 10 replications = 660 numerical tries
  15. 15. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Traffic micro simulation on urban roads • Gipps model (Gipps, 1981) with Aimsun (TSS) Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion 0% 50% 100% Free Intermediate Congested
  16. 16. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr RESULTS: Interurban roads Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion
  17. 17. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Results : interurban road – free traffic • Fuel consumption • Slight and steady decrease • Fuel consumption reduces by 7.7% • Traffic indicator • Slight decrease (9.1%) • 2 minutes lost on a 20 minutes travel Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion Optimal proportion of ecodrivers : 100%
  18. 18. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Results : interurban road – intermediate traffic • Fuel consumption • Non linear variation • From 0 to 20% of ecodrivers : -8.5% • From 0 to 100% : +2.4 % • Traffic indicator • Sharp decrease : -38% Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion Optimal proportion of ecodrivers : 20%
  19. 19. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Results : interurban road – congested traffic • Fuel consumption : • Strong reduction : -35.8% • Traffic indicator • Sharp decrease : -55% Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion Optimal proportion of ecodrivers : 30%
  20. 20. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr RESULTS: Urban roads Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion
  21. 21. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Results : urban road – free traffic • Fuel consumption • Slow decrease : -9.8 % • Traffic indicator • Strong decrease : -19.7% Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion Optimal proportion of ecodrivers : not defined
  22. 22. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Results : urban road – intermediate traffic • Fuel consumption • Non linear variations : -7.6% • Traffic indicator • Non linear variations : - 32.3% Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion Optimal proportion of ecodrivers : not defined but 80% should be avoided
  23. 23. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Results : urban road – congested traffic • Fuel consumption • Strong effect: -19.6% • Traffic indicator • Nearly steady Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion Optimal proportion of ecodrivers : 100%
  24. 24. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Conclusions • Ecodriving is efficient at a global point of view for energy use only. • The optimal proportion of ecodrivers varies with the situation. • In some situations, the fuel consumption increases with the proportion of ecodrivers Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion
  25. 25. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Proposed solutions for ecodriving • Short term: promote ecodriving on identified situations • Middle term: giving real time advice to the driver • Long term: develop a strategy to manage a whole network. • Change subsystem definition Impact of the penetration rate of ecodriving on fuel consumption and traffic congestion
  26. 26. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr STUDYING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM COMPLEXITY Second part
  27. 27. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Transportation system and life cycle Automotive industry energy production infrastructure construction multimodality recycling depolluting maintenance highways – periurban roads urban networks rural networks Usage
  28. 28. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Decomposing the transportation system • Structural analysis: • Physical structures • Administrative structures • Studying interaction between elements
  29. 29. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Road transportation system Physical • Infrastructure: • Road, power supplies, power stations, public transport stations, ITS,… • Vehicles: • Private cars, shared cars, trucks, buses, bikes, motorbikes,… • Users: • drivers, pilots,… Administrative • Government • Local collectivities: • Province, City, District, • Private companies: • vehicle sharing, vehicle renting, infrastructure managers • Associations: • User association, road association, vehicle manufacturers association • Laboratories: • Resaerch centers, universities We should think about interactions and scales!
  30. 30. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr HOW TO DEFINE A SUBSYSTEM LIMITS Third part
  31. 31. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Defining the subsystem limits • Selecting a subsystem is a complex task that generally consists in finding the good study scale (select the right numbers of actors, select the right study area such as a street, a quarter, a city, a province or a country). • A wrong selection leads to suboptimal solutions or cons-productive results.
  32. 32. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Isolated system, closed system, opened system? • Isolated system: that is totally separated from other systems and that does not interact with others. • Closed system: system exchanging energy with other systems • Opened system: system exchanging energy and matter with other systems
  33. 33. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Co-evolution • Host, parasitic co-evolution: metaphoric, Road (host) and car (parasitic) • Combined co-evolution: • Antagonistic : Taxis and private cars service, buses and trains. • Symbiosis : commercial centers and cars, thermal engine and fuel. • Diffuse co-evolution: ITS, as related to several transportation means.
  34. 34. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr Conclusion • When trying to mitigate very important issues we might first have to: • have a good overall vision of the global tranportation system and subsystems and their interactions • define the subsystem in accordance with transportation system decomposition and by interacting with transportation actors. • make research studies to proove the concept efficiency
  35. 35. Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux www.ifsttar.fr THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

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