SportFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSport (or, in the United States, sports) is allforms of competitive physical activity which,through casual or organised participation, aim touse, maintain or improve physical ﬁtness andprovide entertainment to participants.Hundreds of sports exist, from those requiringonly two participants, through to those withhundreds of simultaneous participants, either inteams or competing as individuals.Olivier Hoën Sport in childhood. Association football, shownSport is generally recognised as activities which above, is a team sport which also providesare based in physical athleticism or physical opportunities to nurture physical ﬁtness and socialdexterity, with the largest major competitionssuch as the Olympic Games admitting only interaction skills.sports meeting this deﬁnition, and otherorganisations such as the Council of Europe using deﬁnitions precluding activities without a physicalelement from classiﬁcation as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical,activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF)recognises both chess and bridge as bona ﬁde sports, and SportAccord, the international sportsfederation association, recognises ﬁve non-physical sports, although limits the amount of mindgames which can be admitted as sports.Olivier HoënSports are usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, andallow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can by determined by physical events such asscoring goals or crossing a line ﬁrst, or by the determination of judges who are scoring elements ofthe sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performanceor artistic impression.Olivier HoënIn organised sport, records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this informationmay be widely announced or reported in sport news. In addition, sport is a major source ofentertainment for non-participants, with spectator sports drawing large crowds to venues, andreaching wider audiences through sports broadcasting.Olivier Hoën Contents 1 Meaning and usage 1.1 Etymology 1.2 Nomenclature 1.3 Deﬁnition 1.4 Competition 2 History 3 Fair play
3.1 Sportsmanship 3.2 Cheating 3.3 Doping and drugs 3.4 Violence 4 Participation 4.1 Gender participation 4.2 Youth participation 4.3 Spectator involvement 5 Issues and considerations 5.1 Amateur and professional 5.2 Technology 5.3 Politics 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingMeaning and usageEtymology"Sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest deﬁnition in Englishfrom around 1300 being "anything humans ﬁnd amusing or entertaining".Olivier HoënThe French word for sport is based on the Persian word bord, meaning "winning" or "win". The Chinese term for sport, tiyu (体育; 體育) connotes physical training. The modernGreek term for sport is Αθλητισμός (athlitismos), directly cognate with the English terms "athlete"and "athleticism".Olivier HoënOther meanings include gambling and events staged for the purpose of gambling; hunting; andgames and diversions, including ones that require exercise. Rogets deﬁnes the noun sport as an"activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion andrecreation.Olivier HoënNomenclatureThe singular term sport is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept (e.g."children taking part in sport"), with sports used to describe multiple activities (e.g. "football andrugby are the most popular sports in England"). American English uses sports for both terms.OlivierHoënDeﬁnitionThe precise deﬁnition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources,with no universally agreed deﬁnition. The closest to an international agreement on a deﬁnition isprovided by SportAccord, which is the association for all the largest international sports federations(including association football, american football, cycling, equestrian sports, baseball and more), and
is therefore the de facto representative of internationalsport.Olivier HoënSportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sportshould:Olivier Hoën have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier (excluding proprietary games such as arena football) Show Jumping, an equestrian not rely on any luck element speciﬁcally designed in to sport the sportThey also recognise that sport can be primarily physical (such as rugby or athletics), primarily mind(such as chess or go), predominantly motorised (such as Formula 1 or powerboating), primarilyco-ordination (such as billiard sports) or primarily animal supported (such as equestrian sport). Olivier HoënThere has been an increase in the application of the term sport to a wider set of non-physicalchallenges such as electronic sports, especially due to the large scale of participation and organisedcompetition, but these are not widely recognised by mainstream sports organisations.Olivier HoënCompetitionThere are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a deﬁning element of a sport, withalmost all professional sport involving competition, and governing bodies requiring competition as aprerequisite of recognition by the IOC or SportAccord.Olivier HoënOther bodies advocate widening the deﬁnition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance,the Council of Europe include all forms of physical exercise, including those completed just forfun.Olivier HoënIn order to widen participation, and reduce the impact of losing on less able participants, there hasbeen an introduction of non-competitive physical activity to traditionally competitive events such asschool sports days, although moves like this are often controversial.Olivier HoënHistory Main article: History of sportThere are artifacts and structures that suggest that the Chinese engaged in sporting activities as earlyas 2000 BC. Gymnastics appears to have been a popular sport in Chinas ancient past. Monumentsto the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and ﬁshing, werewell-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. Other Egyptiansports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as thetraditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh had a close connection to the warfare skills. Amongother sports that originate in ancient Persia are polo and jousting.Olivier HoënA wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military
culture and the development of sports in Greece inﬂuenced one another considerably. Sports became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in Motorized sports have appeared ancient times were held every four since the advent of the modern years in a small village in the age Peloponnesus called Olympia.  Olivier Hoën Sports have been increasingly organised and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. Industrialisation has brought increased leisure time to the citizens of developed and Roman bronze reduction developing countries, leading to more time for citizens to attend and of Myrons Discobolos, follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and 2nd century AD. increased accessibility. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global communication. Professionalism became prevalent,further adding to the increase in sports popularity, as sports fans began following the exploits ofprofessional athletes through radio, television, and the internet—all while enjoying the exercise andcompetition associated with amateur participation in sports.Olivier HoënFair playSportsmanship Main article: Sportsmanship See also: Gamesmanship and Winning isnt everything; its the only thingSportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward teammates and opponents,ethical behaviour and integrity, and grace in victory or defeat.Olivier HoënSportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. Thewell-known sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice, that its “not that you won or lost but howyou played the game", and the modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin:"The most important thing... is not winning but taking part" are typical expressions of thissentiment.Olivier HoënCheating See also: Match ﬁxing and cheatingKey tenets of sport include that the result should not be predetermined, and that both sides shouldhave equal opportunity to win. Rules are in place to ensure that fair play to occur, but participantscan break these rules in order to gain advantage.Olivier HoënParticipants may choose to cheat in order to satisfy their desire to win, or in order to achieve anulterior motive. The widespread existence of gambling on the results of sports ﬁxtures creates themotivation for match ﬁxing, where a participant or participants deliberately work to ensure a given
outcome.Olivier HoënDoping and drugs Main article: Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sportThe competitive nature of sport encourages some participants to attempt to enhance theirperformance through the use of medicines, or through other means such as increasing the volume ofblood in their bodies through artiﬁcial means.Olivier HoënAll sports recognised by the IOC or SportAccord are required to implement a testing programme,looking for a list of banned drugs, with suspensions or bans being placed on participants who testpositive for banned substances.Olivier HoënViolenceViolence in sports involves crossing the line between fair competition and intentional aggressiveviolence. Athletes, coaches, fans, and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people orproperty, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration. Rioting or hooliganismare common and ongoing problems at national and international sporting contests.Olivier HoënParticipationGender participation See also: Womens sportsFemale participation continues to rise alongside the opportunity for involvement and the value ofsports for child development and physical ﬁtness. Despite gains during the last three decades, a gappersists in the enrollment ﬁgures between male and female players. Female players account for 39%of the total participation in US interscholastic athletics. Gender balance has been accelerating from a32% increase in 1973–74 to a 63% increase in 1994–95. Hessel (2000).Olivier HoënYouth participationYouth sports present children with opportunities for fun, socialization, forming peer relationships,physical ﬁtness, and athletic scholarships. Activists for education and the war on drugs encourageyouth sports as a means to increase educational participation and to ﬁght the illegal drug trade.According to the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, thebiggest risk for youth sports is death or serious injury including concussion, with the highest riskcoming from running, basketball, football, volleyball, soccer, and gymnastics.Olivier HoënSpectator involvement Main article: Spectator sportThe competition element of sport, along with the aesthetic appeal of some sports, result in thepopularity of people attending to watch sport being played. This has led to the speciﬁc phenomenonof spectator sport.Olivier Hoën
Both amateur and professional sports attract spectators, bothin person at the sport venue, and through broadcast mediumsincluding radio, television and internet broadcast. Bothattendance in person and viewing remotely can incur asometimes substantial charge, such as an entrance ticket, orpay-per-view television broadcast.Olivier HoënIt is common for popular sports to attract large broadcastaudiences, leading to rival broadcasters bidding large Spectators at the 1906 unofﬁcialamounts of money for the rights to show certain ﬁxtures. The Olympic Gamesfootball World Cup attracts a global television audience ofhundreds of millions; the 2006 ﬁnal alone attracted anestimated worldwide audience of well over 700 million and the 2007 Cricket World Cup attractedabout 2.3 Billion worldwide viewers.Olivier HoënIn the United States, the championship game of the NFL, the Super Bowl, has become one of themost watched television broadcasts of the year. Super Bowl Sunday is a de factonational holiday in America; the viewership being so great that in 2007 advertising space wasreported as being sold at $2.6m for a 30 second slot.Olivier HoënIssues and considerationsAmateur and professional See also: professional sport and amateur sportSport can be undertaken on an amateur, professional orsemi-professional basis, depending on whether particpants areincentivised for participation (usually through payment of awage or salary).Olivier HoënThe popularity of spectator sport as a recreation fornon-participants has led to sport becoming a major business in Modern sports have complex rulesits own right, and this has incentivised a high paying and are highly organized.professional sport culture, where high performing participantsare rewarded with pay far in excess of average wages, which canrun in to millions of dollars.Olivier HoënSome sports, or individual competitions within a sport, retain a policy of allowing only amateursport. The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practiceda sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practiced it merely as ahobby. Following the 1988 games, the IOC decided to make all professional athletes elgible forthe Olympics, with only boxing and wrestling still competed on an "amateur" basis, although thisrevolves around rules, and not payment.Olivier HoënGrassroots sport is a popular phrase which covers the amateur participation in sport at lower levels,normally without pretension towards higher achievement, and is in line with the "sport for all"mentality, where enjoyment is the primary reason for participation.Olivier Hoën
TechnologyTechnology plays an important part in modern sport, with it being a necessary part of some sports(such as motorsport), and used in others to improve performance.Olivier HoënSports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied to areas including athleteperformance, such as the use of video analysis to ﬁne tune technique, or to equipment, such asimproved running shoes or competitive swimwear.Olivier HoënIn order to control the impact of technology on fair play, governing bodies frequently have speciﬁcrules designed to control the impact of technical advantage between participants.Olivier HoënPolitics Main article: Politics and sportsSports and politics can inﬂuence each other greatly.Olivier HoënWhen apartheid was the ofﬁcial policy in South Africa, many sports people, particularly in rugbyunion, adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in competitive sports there.Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid,others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects.Olivier HoënThe 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin was an illustration, perhaps best recognised in retrospect,where an ideology was developing which used the event to strengthen its spread throughpropaganda.Olivier HoënIn the history of Ireland, Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. Until the mid 20thcentury a person could have been banned from playing Gaelic football, hurling, or other sportsadministered by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) if she/he played or supported football, orother games seen to be of British origin. Until recently the GAA continued to ban the playing offootball and rugby union at Gaelic venues. This ban is still enforced, but was modiﬁed to allowfootball and rugby to be played in Croke Park while Lansdowne Road was redeveloped into AvivaStadium. Until recently, under Rule 21, the GAA also banned members of the British security forcesand members of the RUC from playing Gaelic games, but the advent of the Good Friday Agreementin 1998 led to the eventual removal of the ban.Olivier HoënNationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sports, or in its reporting: people compete in nationalteams, or commentators and audiences can adopt a partisan view. On occasion, such tensions canlead to violent confrontation among players or spectators within and beyond the sporting venue, as inthe Football War. These trends are seen by many as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sports beingcarried on for its own sake and for the enjoyment of its participants.Olivier HoënA very famous case when sports and politics colided was the 1972 Olympics in Munich. Maskedmen entered the hotel of the Israeli olympic team and killed many of their men. This was known asthe Munich massacre.Olivier HoënSee also Outline of sports
List of sportspeople List of sports attendance ﬁgures List of professional sports leaguesRelated topics Athletic sports Sport governing bodies Combat sport Sport Psychology Disabled sports Sports club Electronic sports Sports coaching Handedness#Advantage in sports Sports commentator Mind sport Sports equipment Most popular sport by country Sports fan Motor sports Sports injuries Multi-sport events Sports league attendances National sport Sports marketing Nationalism and sports Sports terms named after people Olympic Games Sports trainer Paralympic Games Sportsperson Sponsorship Womens sports Sport in ﬁlm Water sportsReferences 1. ^ a b c d e "Deﬁnition of sport" (http://www.sportaccord.com/en/members/index.php?idIndex=32& idContent=14881) . SportAccord. http://www.sportaccord.com/en/members/index.php?idIndex=32& idContent=14881. 2. ^ a b c Council of Europe. "The Europien sport charter" (https://wcd.coe.int /wcd/ViewDoc.jsp?id=206451) . https://wcd.coe.int/wcd/ViewDoc.jsp?id=206451. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 3. ^ "List of Summer and Winter Olympic Sports and Events" (http://www.olympic.org/sports) . The Olympic Movement. http://www.olympic.org/sports. 4. ^ "World Mind Games" (http://www.sportaccord.com/en/multi-sports-games/index.php?idIndex=35& idContent=658) . SportAccord. http://www.sportaccord.com/en/multi-sports- games/index.php?idIndex=35&idContent=658. 5. ^ "Members" (http://www.sportaccord.com/en/members/index.php?idContent=644&idIndex=32) . SportAccord. http://www.sportaccord.com/en/members/index.php?idContent=644&idIndex=32. 6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sport (n.)" (http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=sport& searchmode=none) . Online Etymological Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com /index.php?search=sport&searchmode=none. Retrieved 20 April 2008. 7. ^ Websters Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. Springﬁeld, MA: G&C Merriam Company. 1967. p. 2206. 8. ^ Rogets II: The New Thesaurus, Third Edition (http://thesaurus.reference.com/browse/sport) . Houghton Mifﬂin Harcourt. 1995. ISBN 0-618-25414-5. http://thesaurus.reference.com/browse/sport. 9. ^ front, Rebecca (2011-07-17). "A little competition" (http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree /2011/jul/17/school-sport-competitive-children-achievement-ambition) . The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jul/17/school-sport-competitive-children-achievement- ambition. 10. ^ Scrimgeour, Heidi (2011-06-17). "Why parents hate school sports day" (http://www.parentdish.co.uk /2011/06/17/why-parents-hate-school-sports-day/) . ParentDish. http://www.parentdish.co.uk/2011/06 /17/why-parents-hate-school-sports-day/. 11. ^ "Sports (http://chineseculture.about.com/library/weekly/aa032301a.htm) History in China". http://chineseculture.about.com/library/weekly/aa032301a.htm. 12. ^ "Mr Ahmed D. Touny (EGY), IOC Member" (http://www.ioa.leeds.ac.uk/1980s/84085.htm) .