What is a transgenic organism? ~ a transgenic, or genetically modified, organism is one that has been altered through recombinant DNA technology, which involves either the combining of DNA from different genomes or the insertion of foreign DNA into a genome GloFishhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GloFish.jpg
How transgenic organismswork…Three Main Methods… DNA Microinjection A foreign gene is directly injected into a fertilized egg that is put into a female animal that acts as a surrogate mother for the egg. Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer A retrovirus is a virus that attaches to an organism’s DNA and changes it to include a new characteristic. Scientists expose ordinary cells to a retrovirus when they are trying to create transgenic animals. Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer Stem cells are blank cells that can turn into any type of cell. Scientists modify these cells, and then add them to an embryo, which is a fertilized egg that develops and grows until it hatches or is born.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Agriculture Breeding Quickly produce animals with desired traits Quality Cows that produce more milk, pigs and cattle that have more meat, sheep that grow more wool, etc. Disease Resistant Medicine Xenotransplantation Animals produce organs that can be used in transplants Nutritional Supplements Pharmaceuticals Human Gene Therapy Industry Production of useful materials Ex] Spider Goat ~ makes silk
Spider GoatThe spider goat produces large amounts of silk, with this silk industriesare able to create light, tough, flexible material that can be used in suchapplications as military uniforms, medical microstructures, and tennisracket strings.