G&P US Constitution Key Points

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G&P US Constitution Key Points

  1. 1. A2 G&P US Government and Politics The Constitution
  2. 2. Objectives today • Challenge George! • Re-cap the following points: Creation of the constitution Amendments and the Bill of Rights Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Federalism • FACE OFF : UK vs US constitution
  3. 3. Challenge George! • George, you have to name all of the US Presidents since 1932. • Don’t forget to include their dates, parties and nicknames • The others will check your progress!
  4. 4. Creation of the constitution • 4th July 1776: Declaration of independence • 17th Sept 1787: End of Philadelphia Convention Article 1: Congress Article 2: President Article 3: Supreme Court Article 4: Federal-state relationships Article 5: Amendment procedures
  5. 5. Amendments • Two stage process 1 Proposal by Congress 2 Ratification by states => 2/3 majority need in Congress => ¾ of states to ratify 27 amendments in total Only 17 since Bill of Rights in December 1791
  6. 6. Some Amendments Amen dment Ratified Description 1st 1791 Rights to Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition 2nd 1791 Right to Bear Arms 3rd 1791 Quartering of Soldiers 4th 1791 Search and Seizure 5th 1791 Grand Jury, Double Jeopardy, Self- Incrimination, Due Process 6th 1791 Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions: Rights to Jury Trial, to Confront Opposing Witnesses and to Counsel 7th 1791 Jury Trial 8th 1791 Protections against Excessive Bail, Cruel and Unusual Punishment 9th 1791 Non-Enumerated Rights 10th 1791 Rights Reserved to States 13th 1865 Slavery Prohibited 15th 1880 Blacks given vote 16th 1913 Federal Income Tax 22nd 1951 2 term limit for President 26th 1971 Voting age at 18
  7. 7. Separation of Powers Checks and Balances
  8. 8. Checks and Balances: Political Impact 1969-2009: for only 10.5 years have the same party controlled the Presidency and both houses of Congress = more effective or less effective government?
  9. 9. Federalism in theory • A theory of government by which political power is divided between a national government and state governments, each having their own area of substantive jurisdiction. = decentralisation • Not clearly defined in the constitution. • Federal government and Supreme Court has ‘enumerated’ powers • 10th Amendment reserved all remaining powers ‘to the states and the people’ • Supreme Court is the umpire! • Not a fixed idea. Has changed and developed over time.
  10. 10. Federalism in practice • ‘Dual Federalism’ from 1780s to 1920s = state governments has most political power and focus on states rights • Effect of Wall Street Crash and Depression saw greater involvement and spending by central government => categorical grants • But, last 3 decades of 20th century saw 4 republican Presidents and shift back towards state power. • What do you think happened under George W Bush?
  11. 11. Federalism in practice He presided over the largest increase in inflation- adjusted federal government spending since Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society in 1960s 1. Education 2. War in Iraq 3. Homeland security 4. Spending on Medicare 5. Banking collapse in 2008
  12. 12. Federalism in practice Legal Consequences • Huge variety in state laws (marriage / drive cars / attend school / drugs / assisted suicide) • Federal and state courts Political Consequences • All elections state based and state run • Each state decides: how candidates chosen and elected • Political parties decentralised and state based Economic Consequences • Huge federal grants • Complex tax system => federal and state income tax Regionalism • Racial, religious and ideological differences between areas of US • Conservatism of the Deep South vs liberalism of Northeast
  13. 13. Federalism pros and cons
  14. 14. Objectives today • Challenge George! • Re-cap the following points: Creation of the constitution Amendments and the Bill of Rights Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Federalism • FACE OFF : UK vs US constitution
  15. 15. Constitution Face off! vs
  16. 16. Objectives today • Challenge George! • Re-cap the following points: Creation of the constitution Amendments and the Bill of Rights Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Federalism • FACE OFF : UK vs US constitution
  17. 17. Your textbook: buy it now! http://www. amazon.co.u k/A2-US- Government -Politics- Textbook/dp /034098660 3 Deadline: Friday 13th September

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