Value based leadership


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Value Based Leadership is a big concept that has deserved to be explored and thought about in a broad view

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Value based leadership

  1. 1.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  1  of  15       Essay     What  is  Value  Based  Leadership?     Introduction   Value  Based  Leadership  is  a  big  concept  that  has  deserved  to  be  explored  and  thought  about  in   a  broad  view.  I  choose  this  topic  because  it  is  very  broad.  I  think  I  can  explain  my  thoughts  and   learned  insights  best  within  this  topic.  I  consider  myself  more  as  a  generalist  than  a  specialist  at   this  time  of  my  life.  Of  course,  I  will  become  more  a  specialist  in  my  future  job.  Nevertheless,  I   will  always  want  to  keep  a  broad  view  over  everything,  I  think  this  is  a  very  important  quality   for  every  leader.  They  cannot  do  every  little  job,  they  need  to  have  the  overview  so  that  they   can  delegate  and  let  the  company  strive  for  a  higher  goal.     To   use   a   metaphor:   A   leader   is   like   the   captain   on   a   boat,   sometimes   there   are   storms,   sometimes  the  sea  is  quieter  and  the  sun  is  shining.  The  leader,  however,  always  need  to  have   the  vision  to  reach  the  goal  and  has  to  lead  the  whole  boat  crew  and  the  passengers  to  the  next   destination.  His  goal  is  (or  at  least  should  be  in  my  opinion)  to  reach  this  next  destination  with   the   best   possible   outcome   for   everybody   on   the   boat   and   the   environment.   That   is   why   I   choose  this  topic  and  not  one  of  the  other  ones,  even  though  they  are  very  interesting  too.   However,  I  don´t  want  to  lose  myself  in  just  a  very  specific  part  of  Value  Base  Leadership,  I  want   to  try  to  present  a  whole  picture  over  this  big  topic  in  this  essay.  
  2. 2.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  2  of  15       Main  body   Value  Based  Leadership  can  be  divided  in  two  different  parts:  The  first  part  is  “Value  Based”   and  the  second  part  is  “Leadership”.  “Values  are  assumptions  about  how  things  ought  to  be  in   the   society.   There   are   broad   tendencies   to   prefer   certain   states   of   affairs   over   others”.   But   which  states  are  preferred  by  which  people  at  which  times  in  which  situation?  That  is  a  very   difficult   question,   which   is   almost   impossible   to   answer.   At   least   there   is   no   right   or   wrong   answer,   there   are   only   some   attempts   to   come   as   close   to   an   answer   as   possible.   It   is   a   question  of  culture,  of  the  company,  of  the  goals  and  visions  you  have,  of  every  individual  and   much  more.  I  will  try  to  explain  these  aspects,  what  value  based  means  or  can  mean,  later  in   this  essay.   The  second  part  of  the  whole  expression  is  leadership  which  is  by  itself  already  a  very  complex   concept  and  combined  with  the  words  “value  based”,  even  more.  Leadership  involves  always  at   least  one  or  several  leaders  and  his  followers.  Without  followers,  there  is  no  leadership  (see   Grint  2005,  p.19).  I  will  explain  this  later  too  (see  page  6).   First,  I  want  to  try  to  give  a  personal  definition  of  Value  Based  Leadership:  In  my  opinion,  Value   Based  Leadership  means  to  strive  for  excellence  in  every  situation,  to  act  as  a  role  model  in   following   your   own   set   of   principles   with   the   ability   to   react   with   flexibility   to   situational   circumstances.  It  is  also  about  empathy  and  emotional  intelligence,  the  feeling  for  others  and   the   art   to   treat   every   individual   differently,   so   that   at   the   end   everybody   feels   threatened   correctly  and  will  be  motivated.  This  varies  from  person  to  person.  The  goal  is  to  reach  a  better   situation  for  every  individual  so  that  at  the  end  the  whole  community  reaches  an  improvement  
  3. 3.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  3  of  15       to   a   higher   level   which   means   progress.   To   go   back   to   the   boat-­‐captain   metaphor   of   the   introduction,   the   goal   would   be   to   reach   the   next   destination   which   will   be   a   progress   for   everybody  on  the  boat  (see  introduction,  p.1).     Leadership  is  also  GLOCAL  which  means  thinking  globally  and  acting  locally.  It  is  about  acting  as   a  leader  in  every  possible  and  small  situation,  creating  trust  to  all  the  people  around  you,  and  it   does  not  matter  if  it  is  the  cleaning  people  or  your  boss.  “Leadership  is  a  consequence  of  many   small  decisions  and  acts”(see  Grint,  2005,  p.39).  This  big  concept  includes  a  lot  of  tiny  things  like   just  having  a  positive  aura,  looking  into  the  eyes  of  the  people,  having  a  smile  on  your  face,   being  confident  in  what  you  are  doing  and  having  goals,  visions  and  values  that  you  will  follow.   It  requires  open-­‐mindedness,  responsibility  (for  yourself  first  and  then  for  others),  humility  and   RESPECT!  But  never  forget  the  broad  picture,  the  stakeholders,  environment  and  so  on.   I  think  the  following  quote  of  Harry  Truman  is  a  very  good  one:  “A  leader  is  a  man  who  has  the   ability  to  get  other  people  to  do  what  they  don’t  want  to  do  and  like  it”  (see  Truman,  slides   session  1,  slide  20).  This  stresses  the  quality  to  motivate  people.  They  should  start  to  like  what   they  do,  even  though  they  did  not  like  it  at  the  beginning.  That  will  lead  to  more  fun  at  work   and   that   to   more   success.   My   definition   of   leadership   goes   even   further   than   the   Truman   quote.  I  think  a  really  good  leader  can  create  a  working  environment  in  which  not  the  leader   himself  get  other  people  to  do  what  they  do  not  want  to  do  and  like  but  where  the  people   themselves  will  start  to  motivate  themselves.  The  leader  only  creates  the  right  circumstances;   at  the  end  the  people  themselves  are  responsible  for  their  motivation.  
  4. 4.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  4  of  15       Value  Based  Leadership  is  also  an  art  of  living;  it  is  finding  the  right  balance  in  every  situation.   This  is  very  difficult  because  nobody  is  perfect.  “…  -­‐  omniscient  leaders  doesn´t  exist  but  we   seem   to   need   them”   (Grint   2005,   p.   34).   That   means   that   the   followers   sometimes   expect   leaders  to  be  omniscient  but  nobody  is.  It  is  important  to  get  stick  in  the  people´s  heads  that   nobody   can   be   omniscient.   In   my   opinion   it   is   more   important,   and   that   is   what   is   what   motivates   me   most,   when   a   leader   strives   to   be   as   perfect   as   possible   but   never   loses   the   quality  of  easiness.  This  is  the  art  of  living;  this  is  real  Value  Based  Leadership  for  me.   One  of  the  best  examples  of  a  situation  in  which  I  experienced  real  value  based  leadership  was   in  a  football  team  at  the  age  of  18.  I  played  for  a  football  club  called  FC  Aarau  in  Switzerland  in  a   selection  that  played  a  championship  in  whole  Switzerland.  The  team  I  was  in,  played  together   in  the  same  constellation  for  approximately  one  year.  The  trainer,  in  my  eyes  one  of  the  best   leaders   I’ve   ever   seen,   was   called   Walter   Iselin.   He   used   to   be   a   very   good   football   player   himself;  he  has  been  a  professional  when  he  was  younger.  So  he  had  already  the  respect  of  all   of  us  because  everybody  in  the  team  wanted  to  reach  at  least  the  level  on  which  he  had  played.   Actually,  he  did  not  need  this  basic  respect  in  advance  because  from  the  first  moment  you  felt   that  he  is  totally  a  person  you  will  respect.  He  had  this  charisma,  this  energy,  empathy  and  he   felt  how  to  react  in  every  situation.  I  can  remember  that  once  we  were  out  in  the  forest  running   very  early  in  the  morning  and  everybody  was  not  motivated  at  all  and  he  was  full  of  energy,   smiling  and  said  there  is  nothing  more  beautiful  for  him  than  being  here  right  now.  He  had  a   friend  who  had  cancer  and  he  told  us  this  story  and  I  think  afterwards  everybody  was  more   motivated   to   run   for   hours   in   the   forest.   He   also   knew   how   to   treat   every   special  
  5. 5.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  5  of  15       character/person  in  our  team.  Our  characteristics  from  person  to  person  were  so  different  but   he  managed  to  treat  everybody  a  little  bit  differently  so  that  it  was  totally  ok  for  everybody.  He   made  that  everybody  felt  comfortable  and  wanted  to  give  his  best  for  the  team.  I  think  our   football  skills  were  not  the  best  in  whole  Switzerland  but  with  this  coach,  the  energy  he  gave  us   and  also  the  self-­‐confidence  we  got  that  we  are  good  if  we  help  each  other  on  the  field  and  are   a  team,  were  the  key  factors  that  we  had  chances  to  win  the  Swiss  Championship  till  almost  the   end.   Another  example  for  person  with  high  value  based  leadership  qualities  is  Nelson  Mandela.  For   me,  Nelson  Mandela  (as  far  as  I  know  him),  implements  most  of  the  most  important  qualities,   which   a   leader   needs   to   have.   It   is   very   important   to   have   a   role   model   in   your   life   which   inspires  you  and  which  help  you  to  develop  your  own  qualities.  I  think  Nelson  Mandela  is  a  role   model  of  this  kind  for  me.   He  was  the  first  black  President  of  South  Africa  and  was  in  charge  between  1994  and  1999.   Recently,  I  watched  the  movie  “Invictus”  in  which  Morgan  Freeman  plays  the  role  of  Nelson   Mandela.  I  think  he  is  the  perfect  role  model  as  a  leader  because  he  acts  in  every  situation  like  a   leader   should   act.   He   respects   everybody,   from   the   cleaning   lady   over   co-­‐workers   to   other   presidents.   It   does   not   matter   if   people   are   black   or   white,   tall   or   small,   or   whatever,   he   respects   everybody   how   he   is   and   that   is   how   it   should   be.   If   everybody   would   act   in   this   manner,  the  world  would  be  a  better  place  than  right  now,  where  some  extremists,  radicals  and   dictators   try   to   rule   the   world.   He   shows   a   huge   amount   of   self-­‐awareness,   trust   and   knowledge.  His  wisdom  is  obvious  and  he  shares  it  with  the  people  around  him.  He  tries  not  
  6. 6.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  6  of  15       only  to  teach  but  also  to  learn  in  every  situation  and  that  is  very  impressive,  especially  for  a   man  in  his  age.   I  would  love  to  work  for  him  or  with  him  because  I  think  I  would  trust  him.  I  know  that  he  would   accept  and  respect  me  how  I  am.  He  would  try  to  share  his  wisdom  with  me  and  I  would  want   to  reach  his  level  of  wisdom  that  would  be  a  good  combination.  I  also  think  that  he  would  try  to   learn  something  from  me  and  I  think  I  could  show  him  some  different  points  of  view  of  life.     Especially  his  background  and  the  experiences  he  made  are  impressive.  He  was  in  prison  for  a   long  time  and  I  think  that  formed  him  as  a  person.      A  very  good  quality  he  has  is  that  he  has  visions,  big  visions.  Nevertheless  he  always  tries  to  live   for  the  vision  and  to  fulfill  his  dreams.  He  is  a  thinker  and  an  actor  at  the  same  time.  The  very   best  example  for  this  is,  of  course,  his  vision  of  freedom  in  South-­‐Africa  between  the  white  and   black  people,  the  fight  against  the  Apartheid.     He  is  very  clever  and  smart  as  well.  He  completed  his  junior  certificate  in  two  years,  instead  of   the  usual  three  years.  What  impresses  me  more  than  just  a  certificate  is  that  he  thinks  in  the   long-­‐term   and   not   in   the   short-­‐term   like   a   lot   of   people   do   nowadays   (it’s   all   about   money   making,  shareholder  maximizing  etc.).     He  also  has  this  certain  charisma  which  makes  you  trust  him.  He  acts  in  a  particular  way,  is  calm   and  does  not  get  crazy  when  something  special  happens.  He  shows  responsibility  and  nothing   can  really  get  him  out  of  control.    
  7. 7.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  7  of  15       He  also  shares  the  interest  for  sports.  In  the  movie  “Invictus”  he  supported  the  national  team  of   South  Africa  in  a  special  way,  talked  with  the  captain  and  motivated  the  whole  team  and  at  the   end  they  succeeded  at  the  World  Cup.  His  intention  was  to  bring  together  all  the  people  from   the  different  races  through  this  sport  event.  So  he  is  also  very  creative  and  really  tries  to  fulfill   his   mission.   His   will   is   very   strong,   that   is   another   very   important   quality   for   a   leader   (see   Collins,  2001).  I  think  I  would  be  very  motivated  by  him  and  would  like  to  be  his  follower  in  a   way,  maybe  his  co-­‐worker  or  something  like  that.     Another  leader,  which  is  actually  not  really  a  leader  in  the  traditional  way,  I  would  like  to  follow   is  the  Swiss  tennis  player  Roger  Federer.  He  is  probably  the  most  famous  tennis  player  ever  and   holds  a  lot  of  records  and  is  still  one  of  the  best  players  right  now.  He  is  more  a  role  model  than   a  leader  for  me  because  he  plays  a  one  man  and  not  a  team  sport.  However,  also  in  tennis  you   have  a  team  around  you  with  the  coach,  physiotherapist,  training  partners  etc.  And  he  has  a   family  and  twin  daughters  in  which  situation  he  has  to  act  as  a  leader  as  well.   The  two  most  fascinating  things  about  Roger  Federer  for  me  personally  are  the  following:  First,   his  development  which  was  amazing.  When  you  compare  him  how  he  acted  when  he  was  at  the   age  of  19  or  20  and  now  (I  think  he  is  now  31),  he  is  a  totally  different  person.  He  acts  much   calmer,  has  more  experience,  never  loses  the  view  over  the  situation  and  makes  the  big  points.   That  means  he  is  best  when  he  is  under  pressure.  Second,  he  is  a  frontrunner.  A  frontrunner  is   somebody  who,  as  soon  as  he  is  leading  in  a  game,  it  gets  almost  impossible  to  beat  him.  That  is   for  me  a  very  good  quality.  It  is  easier  to  be  motivated  when  you  see  somebody  in  front  of  you   who  you  can  beat  than  the  situation  where  you  are  already  leading  and  should  not  lose  the  
  8. 8.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  8  of  15       nerves.  I  think  this  is  a  key  factor  to  have  success.  There  are  a  lot  of  examples  of  people  who   reached  something  and  then  suddenly  they  lose  everything  because  their  characters  are  not   strong  enough  or  they  did  not  plan  in  the  long  run.     You  can  apply  this  metaphor  from  Roger  Federer  as  a  frontrunner  in  tennis  to  companies  and   business   in   general.   Companies   should   also   plan   in   the   long-­‐term.   I   prefer   companies   with   basics  and  a  solid  background,  which  stay  and  produce  at  a  high  level  for  decades  and  not  only   some  years.  In  general,  I  think  that  sports  is  a  very  good  field  for  observation  of  leaders  and  for   most  people  it  is  the  first  practical  experience  in  leadership  they  do.  For  me  personally,  sports  is   the   best   school   of   live   you   can   have   at   a   young   age,   especially   team   sports.   There   you   are   leader  and  follower  at  the  same  time!   That   leads   me   to   the   discussion   of   Value   Based   Leadership   and   Value   Based   Followership.   Leadership   and   followership   belong   totally   together.   Without   followers   there   would   be   no   leader,  without  a  leader,  followers  would  not  be  followers  (see  Grint  2005,  p.19).  They  stick   together.  There  is  a  leader  in  every  group;  mostly  there  are  several  leaders  at  the  same  time  in   the  same  group.  So,  Leadership  is  a  concept  of  the  whole  community,  it  is  more  a  collective   than   an   individual   phenomenon   (see   Grint   2005,   p.19).   The   importance   of   followers   and   especially  their  commitment  to  sense-­‐making  is  crucial  (see  Grint,  p.33).  And  Popper  says:  “It  is   the   responsibility   of   the   followers   to   inhibit   leaders’   errors   and   to   remain   as   Constructive   Dissenters,   helping   the   organization   to   achieve   its   goals   but   not   allowing   any   leaders   to   undermine  this”  (see  Popper  in  Grint,  2005,  p.35).  What  leaders  need  to  posses  is  Charisma:  the   ability  to  mobilize  followers  (see  Grint,  2005,  p.6)  
  9. 9.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  9  of  15       Another  view  is  Distributed  Leadership:  “A  system  of  leadership  enabling  control  that  facilitates   distributed  leadership  and  the  ability  of  local  ground  commanders  to  seize  the  initiative  rather   than   wait   for   order”   (see   Grint,   2005,   p.38).   I   support   this   kind   of   leadership,   I   think   it   is   appropriate  to  these  days  and  will  be  even  more  important  in  the  future.  Because  everything  is   getting  more  and  more  complex,  leadership  has  to  be  distributed.   To  go  back  to  the  term  “Value  Based”  it  is  very  important  to  consider  the  ethical  aspects.  Is   there  a  right  or  wrong  way  to  act  as  a  leader?  Let´s  consider  Machiavelli´s  point  of  view  in  this   topic:  “…,  he  should  not  stray  away  from  the  good,  but  he  should  know  how  to  enter  into  evil   when  necessity  commands”  (see  Machiavelli,  p.60).  So,  Machiavelli  claims  that  leaders  does  not   have  to  be  nice  all  the  time,  they  can  also  turn  into  evil  if  necessary.  Machiavelli  uses  here  the   comparison  that  leaders  (in  his  case  the  prince)  have  to  be  “the  fox  and  the  lion”  at  the  same   time.  That  means  he  has  to  be  clever,  smart  and  strong  at  the  same  time.  But  is  that  really  still   an  actual  approach?  I  do  not  think  so.  Nowadays,  leaders  have  still  to  be  strong  but  not  in  the   same  way  like  earlier.  They  do  not  have  to  be  conquerors;  they  have  to  be  more  the  first  among   equals  (see  Gandhi,  1927).     For  me  ethical  leadership  goes  one  in  one  with  moral  leadership.  “Ethical  and  moral  leadership;   leadership  which  is  necessarily  moral,  is  also  necessarily  tied  to  democracy”  (see  Grint,  2005,   p.12).  But  at  the  end  it  lies  always  in  the  perspective  of  the  perceiver,  what  ethical  or  moral   leadership   really   is   (see   Grint,   2005,   p.73).   For   example,   from   culture   to   culture,   moral   leadership  can  mean  something  totally  different.  
  10. 10.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  10  of  15     This  leads  me  to  the  discussion  of  the  cultural  aspects  of  leadership.  Culture  and  leadership  are   highly  connected.  Leadership  styles  can  differ  from  culture  to  culture  as  also  values  can  differ.   What  is  accepted  and  expected  in  one  culture  can  be  very  rude  in  another  one.  Some  cultures   are  more  individualistic  and  others  are  exactly  the  opposite.     Under   culture   I   share   almost   the   same   opinion   like   Hans   Gullestrup.   I   define   culture   as   the   rituals,  values  and  beliefs  a  certain  group  shares  which  are  different  to  other  cultures.  I  support   Hofstede’s  quote:  “Culture  is  not  something  you  are  born  with,  it’s  learned.”    That  means  that   you  learn  this  rituals,  values  and  beliefs  from  your  birth  till  you’re  grown  up  and  can  make  your   own   opinion.   Family,   school,   the   whole   environment   you   grow   up,   friends,   peers   and   even   strangers  in  your  area  help  to  create  this  culture.   There  are  certain  core  values  which  exist  in  every  culture  like  you  should  not  hurt  somebody.   However,   on   a   higher   level   the   values   can   have   a   very   big   variety   from   culture   to   culture.   Everybody   has   a   different   cultural   background,   everybody   is   individual   and   that   is   good   so.   Otherwise,  if  we  would  be  all  the  same,  that  would  be  kind  of  boring.  Especially  nowadays,   immigrant   rates   are   quite   high   and   the   different   culture   get   more   and   more   mixed.   It   can   happen   that   a   person   has   four   or   more   cultural   backgrounds.   We   are   also   influenced   from   different  cultures  through  the  globalization.  TV  shows,  food,  social  media  and  the  easiness  of   travelling  nowadays  are  factors  which  strengthen  this  influence.   In  my  opinion,  the  most  important  point  between  different  cultures  is  respect.  If  everybody   respects  the  other  cultures,  can  adapt  and  assimilate  in  a  certain  way  when  you  are  travelling,  
  11. 11.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  11  of  15     working  or  living  in  another  culture  than  the  one  you  are  grown  up,  then  the  world  can  be  a   better,  nicer  and  friendlier  place.  This  process  is  called  acculturation  and  everybody  has  to  go   through  this  process  .   In  my  culture,  Swiss  culture  or  more  general  middle  European  culture,  a  leader  is  expected  to   have  the  ability  to  build  good  relationships,  networks  and  trust.  A  leader  is  a  connector  which  is   approachable   for   everybody.   He   should   be   honest   and   trustworthy   as   well,   of   course.   Switzerland  is  a  very  low  context  country  after  Hall.  That  means  that  people  in  Swiss  culture  are   very  precise  and  direct  and  they  don  not  speak  an  hour  about  the  same  thing.  They  want  to   point  out  what  they  want  to  say  and  you  do  not  have  to  read  between  the  lines  like  in  other,  for   example  the  Asian,  cultures.  This  differentiation  between  high  and  low  context  cultures  may   lead  to  misunderstandings.  That’s  why  you  have  to  be  aware  with  whom  you  are  talking  or   making  a  deal  and  you  should  also  be  aware  of  the  values  which  are  common  in  this  culture.   Another   important   point   in   my   opinion   lies   in   the   quote   of   Hans   Gullestrup   who   says   that   cultures  undergo  a  constant  change.  That  means  that  also  values  undergo  a  constant  change.  I   think  this  is  totally  true.  If  you  compare  the  values  of  a  culture  some  hundred  or  maybe  only   some  years  ago,  then  you  see  that  they  mostly  differ.    
  12. 12.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  12  of  15     Conclusion   “We  are  what  we  repeatedly  do.  Excellence,  then,  is  not  an  act,  but  a  habit”  (see  Aristotle  in   Illes,  2010a,  p.14).  Value  Based  Leadership  includes  striving  for  excellence,  excellence  in  every   situation,  so  that  it  will  be  a  habit  some  when,  that  is  true  leadership  in  my  eyes.  This  is  the   shortest   possible   explanation   what   Value   Based   Leadership   means   for   me.   If   you   strive   for   excellence   so   that   it   becomes   a   habit   for   you,   people   will   follow   you   for   sure.   Excellence,   mastery,  all  this  big  words  include  value  based  behavior  and  leadership  as  well.     But  that  you  can  strive  for  excellence  you  have  to  be  content  with  yourself  first.  The  following   quote  supports  this:  “A  person  who  is  fully  differentiated  and  integrated  becomes  a  complex   individual  –  one  who  has  the  best  chance  at  leading  a  happy,  vital  and  meaningful  life”  (see   Csikszentmihalyi  in  Illes,  2010b,  p.9).  I  think  only  if  you  are  that  far  in  your  life,  if  you  have   reached   this   level   of   wisdom,   then   you   are   really   ready   to   be   a   good   leader.   This   is   a   long   process   which   takes   many   years   and   many   hard   and   maybe   painful   experiences   (like   for   example   Nelson   Mandela   had   when   he   was   in   prison   or   Roger   Federer   when   he   lost   an   important  match).  But  at  the  end,  I´m  sure,  everybody  who  wants  and  strives  for  this  can  reach   a  certain  leadership  level.  So  the  will  is  also  very  important  (see  Collins,  2001).     As  I  already  mentioned:  “Leadership  is  a  consequence  of  many  small  decisions  and  acts”  (see   Grint,  2010,  p.39)  and  it  has  an  impact  on  all  different  (also  non-­‐business  related)  subjects  (see   Cambridge   Business,   Q2,   2010,   p.   56-­‐57).   I   think   these   two   insights   are   also   worth   to   be   mentioned  in  the  conclusion.  
  13. 13.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  13  of  15     At  the  end,  it  is  often  the  gut  feeling  which  decides  and  leaders  with  the  right  values  (whatever   that   means   lies   in   the   perspective   of   the   perceiver)   will   have   this   right   gut   feeling   in   most   situations,  are  flexible,  self-­‐confident  and  self-­‐aware.  All  this  factors  and  many  others  more  like   finding  the  right  balance  in  every  situation,  are  crucial  for  Value  Based  Leaders.  That  is  what  I   am  striving  for,  to  improve  and  posses  all  these  qualities!        
  14. 14.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  14  of  15     List  of  references   Grint  K.,  2005,  Leadership:  Limits  and  Possibilities   Machiavelli  N.,  The  Prince   Handouts  2010  (Session  1-­‐10)   Illes  K.,  2010a,  Personal  Leadership   Illes  K.,  2010b,  Trust  and  Maturity   Collins  J.,  2001,  Level  5  Leadership   Cambridge  Business,  Q2,  2010,  Judge  for  yourself      
  15. 15.     Oliver  Kuhn       July  2013         based  on  version  August  2010     Page  15  of  15                 Since  September  2012  Oliver  Kuhn  works  for  SBB  in  the  E-­‐Business/E-­‐Marketing  departement.     Prior  to  that  he  was  a  Marketing  Student  at  the  University  of  Berne,  where  he  wrote  his  master  thesis   about  Swiss  SMEs  and  Social  Media.   During   his   studies   he   worked   1.5   years   as   a   part-­‐time   Management   Assistant   for   Vujàdé   Ltd,   a   innovation  consultancy  in  Biel,  he  successfully  completed  a  6-­‐month  internship  at  Scintilla  AG  (subsidiary   of  Bosch)  in  the  field  of  controlling,  worked  as  a  freelancer  for  Adidas,  accomplished  a  10  week  English   language   exchange   in   Canada   and   took   summer   courses   in   consumer   behavior,   leadership   and   innovation  at  the  Copenhagen  Business  School  (2010,  2011).   Contact:   Twitter:   Xing:     LinkedIn:     Further  reading: