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WIPAC Monthly - September 2017


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WIPAC Monthly is the monthly magazine from the LinkedIn Group Water Industry Process Automation & Control.

In this month's edition we have articles on the process control of activated sludge plants by using the Specific Oxygen Utilisation Rate as this month's feature article. In addition to this the "Focus on" article which takes things back to the basic principles is on Level Based Flow, Primary Devices and Secondary Instruments.

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WIPAC Monthly - September 2017

  1. 1. Page 1 WIPAC MONTHLYThe Monthly Update from Water Industry Process Automation & Control Issue 9/2017 - September 2017
  2. 2. Page 2 In this Issue From the Editor.................................................................................................................... 3 Industry News................................................................................................................. 4 - 9 Highlights of the news of the month from the global water industry centred around the successes of a few of the companies in the global market. Measuring & Control of Activated Sludge: Specific Oxygen Utilisation Rate........................ 10-14 The amount of dissolved oxygen that is used in the Activated Sludge Process is often overlooked. We tend to overdose on the amount of actual oxygen required and maintain an excess. In this month’s feature article Michael Dooley of Strathkelvin Instruments discusses the use of the specific oxygen utilisation rate or SOUR in the control of activated sludge plants Focus on: Level based flow................................................................................................... 15-18 In wastewater one of the most common types of flow measurement is the use of level based flow using a primary and secondary device. These techniques are often used without understanding their uses and sensitivity. In this month’s “Focus On” article we go through some of the basics associated with the use of level based flow, Workshops, Conferences & Seminars................................................................................... 19-20 The highlights of the conferences and workshops in the coming months WIPAC Monthly is a publication of the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group. It is produced by the group manager and WIPAC Monthly Editor, Oliver Grievson. This is a free publication for the benefit of the Water Industry and please feel free to distribute to any who you may feel benefit. All enquires about WIPAC Monthly, including those who want to publish news or articles within these pages, should be directed to the publications editor, Oliver Grievson at
  3. 3. Page 3 From the Editor Collaboration and the use of data were the two key themes of the Sensing in Water Conference that I attended this month and it was noticeable that through working together and trusting each other that the water industry and indeed the wider environment can be in a much better place if we collaborate. The theme of the conference was getting “Meaningful Measurement from the Micro to the Macro scale” and various technologies were presented to help the industry to measure what they need to measure and there was some interesting technological developments such as the use of Boron Doped Diamond for the measurement of pH and the use of nano-pore sensors for the detection of metals. All of this was very interesting even though some of it was a little bit overwhelming at times but one of the stars of the show for me was when end user and supplier collaborated and it is a message that the water industry is, hopefully, taking on board. The particular case study was the collaboration between water company and supplier in putting together an onsite measurement technique for the detection of metaldehyde. Its a collaboration that has been widely reported in the trade press but it was not until the presentation that I saw this month that the sheer scale and importance of what was done was highlighted. It was a situation where something had to be done and under these sort of pressures the trust that was developed through the situation brought spectacular results as engineer met engineer to basically provide what was in essence a portable laboratory in a container. The methods developed, the fall-back and the faill-safes thought about and the result is something that is truly spectacular. It wasn’t the only example of what the industry can do if we can do what we can do best. The examples of the factory approach and the gathering of data into usable intelligence was presented and to see what was being done and examples of the empowerment of the technical and operational people in the industry made me think that there is hope yet for the industry and what we are doing on a technical basis. This empowerment is something that is rare and unusual and to see the case studies of it happening was something that any technical person in the industry can’t help but breathe a sigh of relief over as for those of us in a technical position it has been something that has been a very long time coming. What was also highlighted was that the Water Industry isn’t alone in the world it is part of a much wider environmental whole and really the water industry as a whole gives only a small part of a much wider, much larger environmental picture. One of the key-note speeches highlighted that the “environmental” industries must collaborate, it is not a case that the individual part of the wider environmental industry can do their own analysis in isolation it is through the sharing of information and not duplicating analysis of what we are doing that we can get a much better picture of what is going on in the environment both spatially and temporally. Efficiency in the monitoring in not just the water industry but the wider environmental industry is of vital importance to protect the environment we live in. This of course brings up a whole raft of issues ranging from data standards, data quality, data protection and of course the fear that data that is shared isn’t necessarily going to be used in the altruistic spirit that it is intended. This is of course a major barrier to a collaborative approach being taken. Of course a collaborative approach is possible and huge data resources are available and are being used. The example of flooding data in satellite navigation systems was highlighted as just one aspect of what “Open Data” has achieved. What was clear was there is a lot more that we can do from an environmental point of view if we can overcome the barriers. However, the rewards for overcoming these barriers should outweigh the risks as the result of what can happen if we develop a trust and an altruism is something that has the potential of being truly spectacular and in time is going to have to come whatever we do for the benefit of the “wider self” Have a good month Oliver
  4. 4. Water expert warns over tight timescale for water firms to put systems approach in place for PR19 A leading water sector expert is warning that it will be “a real challenge” for the water companies to create a systems based approach from scratch in time for business plan submissions in September 2018, following the publication of Ofwat’s report on resilience yesterday. Richard Khaldi, water sector expert at PA Consulting Group and previously Executive Board member and senior director at Ofwat, said that the report asks companies to be ambitious and thorough in building and demonstrating their approaches to resilience. It also reconfirms the PR19 consultation methodology’s requirements for water companies to focus on corporate, financial and operational resilience. However, anyone looking for further detailed guidance on how companies should tackle resilience and articulate it in their PR19 plans would be disappointed. Ofwat highlights approaches and best practice from other sectors and makes suggestions, but does not give water companies much more, he added. In the report, the regulator suggests a systems thinking based approach to enable them to see the bigger picture and advocates extensive customer engagement. In Khaldi’s view, it will be a real challenge to create an all-encompassing systems based approach from scratch, along with a suitable level of customer engagement, in time for business plan submissions in September 2018. “That task is made harder because most water companies will have traditionally focused on asset and catchment resilience and not resilience in the round, which Ofwat’s report suggests should cover cyber security threats, supply chain risks, workforce challenges and formal business continuity management systems.” “We will have to wait and see how Ofwat benchmarks water companies’ performance on both assessing and planning enhancements to their resilience in the round. The report it has issued this month makes it clear that it is a long term goal, both for PR19 and beyond and that it wants assessing and measuring water company resilience to be an ongoing obligation.” He added that how much Ofwat will allow companies to grow and mature their approaches over time is unclear. “The hope must be that it will find the right balance in allowing companies to start well through the PR19 process and demonstrate a long term commitment to mature their resilience approaches, and not judge the next 20 years just by what they do in the coming 12 months.” Chelsea Technologies Group launch a new fluorometer The new V-Lux Multi-parameter fluorometer from leading water quality sensor designer Chelsea Technologies Group (CTG) will be launched at WEFTEC 2017 on 2nd October The V-Lux Fluorometer is configured to provide high quality in situ detection of either Algae, Aromatic Hydrocarbons or Tryptophan like fluorescence. “Field fluorometers have traditionally been challenged by interfering fluorescence from non-target compounds, high turbidity levels and high concentrations which can directly impact the accuracy of the readings obtained,” said CTG Sales Manager, Justin Dunning. “This new fluorometer includes 3 fluorescence channels as well as absorption, turbidity and temperature channels which allow corrections from these potential interferences, providing unambiguous data of the target compounds and providing range levels previously unobtainable from field fluorometers.” V-Lux is ideally suited for monitoring within both water and waste water processes, as well as environmental monitoring for pollution within both river and marine environments. Applications include monitoring of road and airport apron run-off, bathing waters and shellfish waters monitoring, and discharge monitoring within the oil and gas sector. The new fluorometer is packaged within a small 50mm diameter housing of 158mm length, is rated to 6000 metres, and has integrated anti-biofouling protection. It comes with an internal logger and provides real time data in a choice of data output protocols including MODBUS, SDI-12 and other digital formats and includes quality control channels. It can be used as a hand-held instrument, part of a flow-through system or deployed from gliders or underwater vehicles. V-Lux Fluorometer: Deployment of the new miniature multi-parameter fluorometer configured to provide high quality in situ detection of either Algae, Aromatic Hydrocarbons or Tryptophan like fluorescence. Page 4 Industry News
  5. 5. The UK Government has announced details of a new national innovation centre to put the UK at the forefront of big data, saying the UK economy will benefit from big data with potential growth of up to £241 billion. The £15 million Government funding for the National Innovation Centre for Data, which will be managed through the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), will be matched by £15 million from Newcastle University. The Centre, which will be based in Newcastle, aims to link up leading academic talent in universities with industry and the public sector to help them develop the skills they need to solve real world problems using advances in data science This forms part of the Government’s Digital Strategy which set out plans to boost the nation’s digital skills, infrastructure and innovation, including measures to support Britain’s world-leading artificial intelligence (AI) sector with an industry-led review. Newcastle has one of the largest and fastest growing digital clusters in the country with multi-national companies including Sage - the UK’s largest software company - Hewlett Packard and Accenture, as well as significant public sector IT facilities, including the HMRC Digital Delivery Centre, and major commercial data centres. Newcastle University has a core group of specialists who have expertise in working closely with a wide range of industrial organisations through its Cloud Innovation Centre, and it also hosts the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Cloud Computing for Big Data Analytics at Newcastle University. Announcing the new investment, Minister for Digital Matt Hancock said: “We’re determined to unlock the huge potential of big data which could add billions of pounds to our economy - from powering price comparison sites to improving the flow of transport around cities. “Our new National Innovation Centre for Data will help us achieve this aim by making sure the skills and talent in our universities is being transferred into industry and the public sector. “It will not only spark innovation among the next generation of tech experts but also help businesses across the whole country capitalise on the immense value of data.” According to independent research, companies using data science are 10 per cent more productive on average than those that do not, and companies that exploit data can reduce costs, innovate and develop new goods and services faster than those that do not and make faster and better decisions. Studies by Nesta, the innovation foundation, show UK firms who use data most effectively are 40 per cent more likely to launch new products and services ahead of their competitors. The centre will have a programme of projects where academics and industry can share and develop their data skills to solve challenges - for example, industry wanting advice on how to develop the data analysis skills to predict when a machine may stop working to prevent costly breakdowns. Professor Nick Wright, PVC Innovation and Business, Newcastle University, said: “NICD will help to address the data skills gap by taking a practical hands-on approach. We will work with organisations on their domain related problems, transferring the skills into the organisation that will enable them to innovate through data. “By providing world-class facilities and services under one roof, the NICD building will act as a ‘beacon’ for Data Innovation. It will accelerate innovation by delivering key technical and practical data skills into organisations, enabling them to improve their competitiveness and grow their business. Its activities will deliver economic growth and enable the UK to become a global leader in innovation through data.” A 2016 report by SAS estimated that from 2015 to 2020 the total benefit to the UK economy of big data analytics amounts to £241 billion, or £40 billion on average per year. New £30m National Innovation Centre for Data to put UK at forefront of big data Page 5 13th - 14th March 2018 Circular Solutions for Water & Energy for the 4th Industrial Revolution
  6. 6. Ordnance Survey is supporting a new project for accurately locating and mapping the Kingdom of Bahrain’s underground utilities. The Survey and Land Registration Bureau (SLRB) has partnered with the Electricity and Water Authority (EWA) and the Ministry of Works, Municipalities Affairs, and Urban Planning (MWMAUP) to improve the accurate location of underground utilities in the Kingdom. SLRB is the authority for land and property registration and national mapping for the Kingdom of Bahrain. His Excellency Shaikh Salman Bin Abdullah Al Khalifa, President of SLRB said: “For decades SLRB has mapped and charted the natural and built environment ‘on the land’ and ‘below the waters’ of Bahrain. This is the first time that we are working to better record the location of features ‘under the land’. “SLRB is working to support our sisterly agencies and the private sector in their respective business of locating and recording underground utilities by sharing our geospatial knowledge and skills and our international networks of partners.” Global specialists in positioning and mapping technologies, Ordnance Survey International (OSI), are working with the partner ministries to study current management of underground utilities information. OSI will then set out a roadmap for the future precise positioning and improved recording of the location of Bahrain’s national underground utility assets. Eng. Naji Sabt, SLRB’s General Director of Survey, added: “It’s about linking the best and latest available technologies with strong information management procedures to ensure the right people have the right information on which to make good decisions, be it new developments or infrastructure.” “In Bahrain, we have all experienced the inconvenience of utilities works investigating underground assets; we hope to minimise the significant costs and delays involved and particularly reduce the impacts on major infrastructure projects and improving sustainability. In fact, improving the recording of their [underground utilities] precise location when installed and inspected during maintenance – better information for better decisions and planning.” From July to December 2017, OSI will be consulting stakeholders on the current state of underground utilities information management. Key experts representing OS from the United Kingdom will hold stakeholder workshops to share their international experiences and explore international and industry standards and practices. Advanced and industry accepted technologies, such as Electromagnetic Profiling Locators and Ground Penetrating Radar, will be tested in the field at key sites to identify the best tools to locate and map the corresponding existing utilities. Within Bahrain both private consultants and surveying firms play a key role. Firms responsible for installation or maintenance of underground assets must ensure utilities, such as pipes or cables, are placed in the correct location and their position accurately recorded to the agreed standards and specification when installed or inspected. They will also benefit from better information and records with reduced need for digging trial holes, reducing hazards involved and cost over-runs. The project plays an important role in achieving the objectives of the Bahrain Economic Vision 2030 which establishes a roadmap for economic and societal growth across the Kingdom and a progressive development agenda towards a globally competitive economy. OSI will provide recommendations aimed at generating efficiencies across the utilities sector by directly supporting utility owners with better information about the 3D position and attributes of their aboveground and underground assets. Ordnance Survey to locate and map Bahrain’s underground utilities Faulty control valve lands Water Company with £666k fine after raw sewage pollution In a prosecution brought by the Environment Agency, a UK Water Company has been fined £666,000 after pleading guilty to polluting a river with untreated sewage effluent in Greater Manchester. The water company was prosecuted following a pollution incident which saw an estimated 21,700 cubic metres of sewage discharged into the River Medlock A member of the public initially reported the pollution on 14 October 2014 to the Environment Agency’s incident hotline. Staff were attending a high-level alarm at the sewage tank and had identified a fault which meant the tank was not emptying to the foul sewer network as quickly as it should have been when the pollution was first reported. Environment Agency officers found that the pollution had deposited grey sludge on the River Medlock’s bed over four kilometres resulting in significant impact on fish population and water quality. The Water Company admitted that their control centre had received an alarm about the discharge three days before, but the fault had not been recognised. In the three years since the incident the water company has upgraded alert systems, introduced new alarm procedures and enhanced the control valve. It is also investing a further £50 million in improvements along the River Medlock. Page 6
  7. 7. Optimising energy usage in the water industry – Unlocking the potential of demand side response opportunities Water companies are some of the largest consumers of energy in the UK. The processes of treating water, pumping clean water to homes and businesses and managing waste are energy intensive and the greenhouse gas emissions from this intensive energy consumption add up. Government scrutiny on power-intensive industries, such as water, is intense as the UK faces a potential energy-gap-crisis as fossil-fuelled power stations are closed amid plans to end all coal-fired generation by 2025. Among rising demand for electricity, the UK’s own natural reserves are dwindling, increasing reliance on imported sources and interconnections with other European countries during politically uncertain times. As the water sector is one that requires a lot of power, but is flexible about when it is used, water companies are ideal candidates for demand modelling. This is a practice which helps suppliers schedule energy-intensive operations to take place when demand and prices are at their lowest, therefore helping reduce the country’s peak energy consumption. Making use of the demand-side response options available such as Frequency Response and adjusting consumption in real-time to help balance the grid carries significant financial incentives for water companies, such as lower energy prices. “The various demand-side response mechanisms provided by suppliers in conjunction with National Grid present both financial and environmental benefits to water suppliers” explains Mark Hinton, Business Optimisation Director at Servelec Technologies. “Aside from being good global citizens, water companies can generate lower prices for themselves by automatically adjusting their consumption in real-time or avoiding operations that require most energy during peak times. By using an optimising system to determine energy usage and automatically schedule operations to avoid peak times water companies can save money by exploiting dynamic flexible tariffs while ensuring security of supply and regulatory compliance. “Participating in demand-side response makes perfect sense for any business that is serious about being environmentally responsible and with the scrutiny placed on emissions by the Government and regulators, UK water companies must consider the options available, while balancing their security of supply.” One of the options suitable to water companies is Frequency Response. National Grid is regulated to maintain a frequency of +/- 1% of 50Hz at all times, which is a considerable challenge when frequency is a continuously changing variable determined and controlled by the second-by-second balance between system demand and total energy generation. If demand is greater than generation, the frequency falls, while if generation is greater than demand, the frequency rises. As water companies are demanding of the energy within the grid, understanding their usage and being able to act on the information in near real-time is hugely beneficial. Mark added: “To be able to understand a complex network of assets, such as those operated by a water company, specialist tools are required. Water companies produce terabytes of telemetry data every hour, but without the tools to harness and act on the data, much of its value is lost. “At Servelec Technologies we specialise in providing end-to-end telemetry hardware and software solutions which collect and exploit data. OptiMISER, our real-time automated water network control system is one solution that can enable water companies to take advantage of demand-side response mechanisms. OptiMISER is proven to reduce operating costs by using the latest tariff information and optimises network operations in near real-time. As energy tariffs become more and more dynamic, changing on a daily or even hourly basis, water companies will need a solution that instantaneously reacts to price changes to generate the most benefit from the flexibility in their network.” OptiMISER is embedded into a water company’s control room environment and integrates with existing SCADA top-end systems such as Servelec’s SCOPE platform, which in turn collects telemetry data from and passes control instructions to outstations such as Servelec’s range of Seprol RTUs. “OptiMISER doesn’t just review current energy prices to make decisions,” comments Hinton, “it continually reviews all available network data and makes forecasts using predictive modelling, managing supply and ensuring that water quality targets and network constraints are met, ultimately improving the service to customers.” Putting customers first is at the heart of Ofwat’s PR19 methodology, which defines a clear requirement for suppliers to seek innovations in order to deliver better customer service and affordable prices for all. Aside from the obvious potential efficiencies that innovative practice brings, those companies whose business plans show significant ambition and innovation for customers will be awarded ‘exceptional status’ and a financial reward of 0.2% of return on regulatory equity (RORE). Servelec Technologies believes adopting an end-to-end approach to automated water network control will be the cornerstone of water companies’ approach during PR19 as they strive to realise business plan incentives provided by regulator Ofwat. Page 7
  8. 8. New code of practice for recording data on underground utilities BSI, the business standards company, has launched a new code of practice aimed at transforming the way data on underground utilities is captured, recorded, maintained and shared. Accurate mapping of underground utilities is vital for organisations undertaking excavations in order to maintain service, minimize costs and comply with health and safety legislation. There are in excess of 3 million highway excavations each year – however, BSI says there is little industry guidance for asset owners on how they might best manage and maintain data records which can result in unnecessary excavations. PAS 256, Buried assets – Capturing, recording, maintaining and sharing of location information and data – Code of practice, was created to address the variable quality, reliability and availability of existing data. The vast network of buried assets in the UK, typically owned by utility companies and local authorities, form a key part of the UK’s critical national infrastructure. Sponsored by the Institution of Civil Engineers, the PAS provides recommendations and guidance to improve the capturing, recording and maintaining of data related to buried assets, and the security-minded sharing of asset information relating to utilities, local authorities and other providers’ infrastructure. The PAS applies to buried assets located in private and public land, and the code of practice covers: • transition of spatial data, using relative accuracy as a minimum and moving towards absolute accuracy, (including depth) together with supporting evidence such as photographs or tagging • inclusion of decommissioned or abandoned assets when sharing data • the use of warning and protection devices to aid the final location of the buried asset • a target number of days to make data available for sharing from installation • the capture of data emanating from works carried out under s50 license or equivalent • compatibility with Geography Markup language (GML) • the inclusion of local authority and other organizations’ buried assets • movement from paper or microfiche records to a structured, accessible digital format • symbology, typology, colour coding and layering • a data glossary Ant Burd, Head of Market Development for Built Environment at BSI, said: “Needless digging wastes time and money. PAS 256 was created to make it easier for organizations to capture, record, maintain and share the location of their excavation work. Access to data is a win-win for the industry, the environment, and local residents subjected to repeated digging outside their homes or businesses.” PAS 256 is intended to be used alongside PAS 128, Specification for underground utility detection, verification and location. PAS 128 applies to active, abandoned, redundant or unknown underground utilities and the location of their associated surface features. It specifies requirements for the detection, verification and location of existing and new underground utilities. In addition to the Institution of Civil Engineers, other organizations involved in the development of PAS 256 include the Civil Engineering Contractors Association, National Joint Utilities Group, Ordnance Survey Ltd and Thames Water. One way that utilities can meet increasing demands from a growing population, is data based automation that makes production more energy efficient. This will cut costs and make production more environmentally friendly. “Many American utilities operate with outdated equipment that is very energy consuming and hard to maintain. Often American water treatment-plants operate on full capacity 24/7, even though they may only need to use three quarters of this capacity. This results in an inefficient and costly operation,” says Ilse Korsvang, Head of Danish Water Technology Group, Denmark’s largest network for suppliers to the water industry and organizer of the Pavilion of Denmark at WEFTEC. “By investing in new equipment, that can regulate capacity according to demand, American utilities will be able to cut energy consumption and thereby costs – and become more environmentally friendly at the same time,” she continues. One of the companies is LINAK, a Danish supplier of actuators. LINAK provides actuators that can automatically open and close valves while collecting data at water treatment facilities. “As of now, American utilities have equipment for opening and closing valves, but it is large and bulky. Our actuators are smaller and more energy efficient, which makes them easier to maintain. Case studies in Denmark has shown that our actuators can provide savings on control systems of up to 50 percent,” says Jordan Emily, Marketing Specialist at LINAK U.S. Inc. “Furthermore, our actuators are operated automatically as opposed to manually, which is what most utilities do now. This is an important step towards automation, where valves are operated centrally to make all systems cooperate better and thus save energy and cost on the entire operation,” Jordan Emily says. Automation Can Cut Costs On US Water Treatment Page 8
  9. 9. New acquisition expands Jacobs’ data analytics and cybersecurity services Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. has acquired Blue Canopy, a data analytics, cybersecurity and application development firm, as part of ongoing investments to expand Jacobs Connected Enterprise (JCE) solutions. JCE offers digital solutions to connect critical infrastructure, analyze data to optimize operations and protect that data and associated infrastructure from internal and external threats. The terms of the acquisition were not disclosed. Blue Canopy’s data analytics solutions have received top awards from the US Department of Homeland Security and National Science Foundation. The firm specializes in customized cybersecurity, data analytics and application development solutions for the US Federal civilian financial, education, and healthcare sectors as well as the defence and intelligence communities. Commenting on the deal, Jacobs Aerospace and Technology Senior Vice President Darren Kraabel said: “When discussing digital solutions with our public and private sector clients, we encounter two recurring themes. First, the need to deliver data visualization and analytic solutions that allow operators to quickly identify areas for improvement and unlock the power of the data. “ Second, the need for comprehensive cybersecurity solutions that span the spectrum of compliance to managed services to forensics and resiliency. Blue Canopy brings solutions in all these areas to expand Jacobs’ capabilities. “Blue Canopy also expands our client base into the federal civilian financial and healthcare sectors, as well as broadening our market penetration across the intelligence community. Every element of this investment supports our growth strategy.” CEO of Blue Canopy Brad Schwartz added: “Combining Blue Canopy’s technology enabled solutions with the Jacobs Connected Enterprise will accelerate client adoption around automation, analytics and innovation in commercial, civilian and national security markets.” “Our complementary capabilities in cybersecurity, data analytics and cloud practice will make us a driving force in the market and allow us to bring new solutions to Jacobs’ existing customer base. Without a doubt, the combination is both compelling and powerful.” New global initiative will help harness 4IR technologies tackle environmental issues A new initiative to help harness Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) technologies to transform how the world tackles environmental issues has been launched this week at the World Economic Forum’s first Sustainable Development Impact Summit. The 4IR for the Earth initiative to identify, fund and scale innovative new ventures, partnerships and business models is a collaboration between the World Economic Forum, Stanford University and PwC, with funding from the Mava Foundation. This includes identifying the investment opportunities for commercial, impact and blended finance; supporting governments to develop policies; and assisting entrepreneurs to implement innovative solutions at scale. Dr Celine Herweijer, partner, sustainability & climate change, PwC UK, commented: “Companies are still in the early stages of grappling with what the 4th industrial revolution’s technological advances means for their business.” “The challenge for investors, entrepreneurs and governments is not just to help unlock technology breakthroughs for urgent challenges like climate change, but to mainstream the environmental and social impact considerations into wider technological advances. This means the positive impacts on people and the planet can be maximised.” The initiative comes as technology companies come under increasing scrutiny and the realization that some advances could also have unintended negative consequences for the environment and society. These include e-waste, the energy consumption of the vast and rapidly growing network of energy-consuming devices, and unsustainable demand for materials like cobalt, nickel, and lithium, through to the impacts of automation on jobs, data privacy, cyber security, and bio-technology. The PwC report Innovation for the Earth published earlier this year examined how ten technological innovations including artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain, robots, Internet of Things (IoT), cloud technology and advanced materials could come together to enable the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; clean power, smart transport systems, sustainable production and consumption, sustainable land use, smart cities and homes. The 4IR Initiative will also facilitate new networks of practitioners to co-design and innovate for action on the environment in each of these areas, together with developing a public-private accelerator for action to identify and accelerate a portfolio of innovative ventures, partnerships and finance instruments. Page 9
  10. 10. Feature Article: Monitoring and Control of the Activated Sludge Process - Oxygen Uptake Rate 1. Introduction The Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) by the bacteria in Activated Sludge is one of the most significant measures available in wastewater management and a new generation of sophisticated online OUR multi-parameter instruments linked to Plant Control Systems and the Internet of Things is planned to deliver the next step change in Environmental excellence. These devices have the capability to radically reduce operating costs while reducing loads on the receiving environment. This document is intended to give a basic understanding of OUR in wastewater applications, interpretation of test outputs and to give some case studies of applying advanced techniques to control and optimise the Activated Sludge Process. 2. The Science behind Oxygen Uptake Rate. The bacteria in the Aerobic zone of an Activated Sludge Plant biodegrade the waste materials in the influent stream. Viewing this very simplistically the biodegradable waste materials can be broken into organic Carbon-based compounds such as sugars (C6H12O6) or Ammoniacal Compounds (NH3). The biodegradation process for each is represented in Figures 1 & 2 In each case we can see that if we can measure the rate of Oxygen consumption in the reaction, then we can measure the rate of biodegradation of the waste materials. Dissolved Oxygen measurement in Activated Sludge mixed liquor is now a well-established technique and modern Luminescent Dissolved Oxygen Sensors are highly stable and have been on the market in demanding applications for many years. A new generation of closed cell Respirometry Chambers (which seal the measuring environment from external oxygen sources) allow the measurement of the decline in Dissolved Oxygen levels in real time and hence the Oxygen Uptake rate. The fact that this equipment can self-clean and self-calibrate means hitherto unrealisable levels of accuracy and reliability can be achieved. Figure 3 is a simplified model of the Activated Sludge Biodegradation process. C6 H12 06 +6O2 → 6CO2 +6H2 0 Figure 1 – Visual and Stoichiometric Representation of BOD Biodegradation Process. Figure 2 – Visual and Stoichiometric Representation of Nitrification Process. 2NH3 +3O2 → 2NO2- +H2 0+H+2N02 - +O2 → 2NO3 Page 10
  11. 11. The Endogenous (or starving) OUR rate is the oxygen consumption rate when there is no Biodegradable material available. This correlates to a BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) of 0 mg/l and an Ammonia level of 0 mg/l. Adding a food source to mixture leads to a rapid increase in Bacterial activity and an instantaneous increase in OUR. The rate of OUR is now maximised as the bacteria will consume the Readily Bio- degradable (rbCOD) food. In an Activated Sludge plant, this is analogous to the time when the Influent Flow mixes with the Return Activated Sludge flow in the presence of Oxygen. As time passes and the readily biodegradable fractions are consumed, the OUR will reduce as only more difficult to digest or recalcitrant (sbCOD) is available and the biodegradation process slows down. Finally, only the fraction of Nitrogen compounds not consumed as a nutrient balance in the BOD removal process are consumed – this OUR rate is much slower as the proportion of Nitrifying bacteria is normally much lower than Carbonaceous types. Once biodegradation is completed, the OUR rate will return to Endogenous levels. The treatment plant design intention is that this occurs before the mixture leaves the aeration zones, as were this not the case untreated wastes would be discharged to the receiving waters. Figure 4 is known as a Respirograph and if we know the shape and values on the Respirograph we can begin to design an activated sludge process to properly biodegrade the waste. Figure 5 is an online Respirograph produced by an ASP-Con system on a sewage treatment plant in Scotland. I We can see in Figure 5 that it took an additional 3 hours of treatment to fully biodegrade the contamination present in the sample, that the OUR maximum rate was 40mg/l/hr and the Endogenous rate is 22mg/l/hr. 3. Practical Applications of OUR in Activated Sludge Management Figure 6 shows an ASP-Con device specifically designed to measure OUR (as well as other parameters) continuously in an Activated sludge plant. More details are available by clicking the link here We will now consider practical applications of this instrument in various applications. The case studies below are intentionally brief. For more details please contact the author. 3.1 Discharge Compliance Monitoring One of the biggest challenges facing the operator of an Activated Sludge plant is that they never truly know, in real time, if the plant is compliant or not. Most plants are regulated for BOD5 in the discharge and this test takes 5 days to complete in a laboratory. Measuring discharge COD, pseudo BOD5 and Ammonia give some comfort but not enough to give certainty, thereby leading to inefficient processing as the operator over treats significantly rather than risk non-compliant discharge. However, an automatic OUR measurement at the end of the treatment process quickly picks up if the mix has returned to the endogenous level. The example below is from an ASP-Con installed at approximately 70% of the treatment lane footprint . Here Ammonia and OUR are both measured to give confidence in treatment completion. Locating the compliance tracker at this point allows the control system time to respond if high Ammonia or high OUR is detected in the outlet. In this example, we can see that the plant is generally compliant at this early stage but there are significant occasions when the OUR trace is indicating that biodegradable load remains to be treated. Figure 3 – OUR model of Biodegradation. Figure 4 – Assessment of COD fractions. Figure 5 – Online Respirograph Figure 6 – ASP-Con installed in treatment works in Northern Ireland. Page 11
  12. 12. Figure 7 – OUR / NH4 as discharge compliance tracking. 3.2 Plant Treatment Profiling. Similarly, few operators truly know the full extent of where and when the load is being removed in the treatment process or what residual load is left at each stage. Using a portable respirometer (OUR measuring device) such as the AS-Bioscope (Figure 8 inset), allows a determination of the OUR profile of an operational Activated Sludge Plant. Shown below is a real-life example of one such profile undertaken by Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd in the UK. Figure 8 - Bioscope load survey (UK 2013) The OUR profile can give a lot of information about the treatment process. In this example, we can see that the OUR has returned to the endogenous rate at approximately 60% of the treatment lane footprint, indicating spare capacity in the system. The OUR profile indicates possibilities for different Dissolved Oxygen, Feeding, MLSS and Blower set point strategies to give more efficient treatment while assuring compliance is not compromised. 3.3 Aeration System Sizing. Figure 9 is the output from an ASP-Con system measuring the OUR, Ammonia and pH in the Anoxic (Inlet) Zone of a municipal treatment works. Figure 9 - Feed-forward lane profile OUR Page 12
  13. 13. While the Ammonium and pH measures are continuous, the samples for OUR are taken and automatically analysed online every 20 minutes. The OUR measured at this point in the treatment process represents the maximum oxygen demand per litre of Activated Sludge. Knowing the treatment plant aeration lane volume allows the engineer to calculate the maximum aeration system oxygen demand. The graph below shows the maximum and normalised air supply requirement measured on an Activated Sludge plant in Scotland. Figure 10 – Predicted and Maximum Airflow calculated from Anoxic Zone OUR monitoring. The normalised calculation of predicted air demand is explained as follows. As the biodegradation process proceeds, the system oxygen demand will reduce as the biodegradable load is removed and the Respirograph taken for an influent sample allows the engineer to optimise the overall oxygen supply sizing and to profile the proportion of oxygen supplied at each zone of the aeration system. The actual aeration sizing process is complex, with a requirement to consider Standard Oxygen Transfer efficiencies, mixed liquor alpha and beta factors, basin geometries and the Aeration System Control Strategies. However, many engineers are completing system designs without accurately knowing the actual incoming load commonly leading to oversized and therefore inefficient systems, leading to increased Carbon Footprint of the treatment system. 3.4 Activated Sludge Plant Control The use of self-cleaning and self-calibrating feed forward and feedback control systems are now within the Operators grasp. Figure 11 shows an example for feed-forward and feed-back OUR and Ammonia control strategy proposal for a treatment works. In this example if the inlet OUR and Ammonia loads are at or close to discharge compliance and this is confirmed at the outlet then the Aeration blowers can be run at optimum energy efficiency strategies. Depending on plant engineering design intermittent aeration strategies can be deployed. Conversely if a high load is detected at the plant inlet then Blower and Dis- solved Oxygen set-points can be raised in advance of the load arriving in the aeration zones. In this manner, the PLC can be programmed with load and compliance risk managed control strategies, to fully treat the incoming load, while optimising energy consumption, costs and greenhouse gas emissions. 3.5 Toxicity Analysis. The example below shows toxicity analysis from a multi-cell laboratory respirometer. Similar processes can be applied to online units such as the ASP-Con. The laboratory respirometer measures the OUR under increasing concentrations of the influent under test. If the OUR decreases under standardised feed conditions then the influent is having a toxic effect. The system software Automatically calculates Inhibition rates and depending on the test protocol followed can distinguish between Carbonaceous and Nitrifying Toxicity. Figure 11. Plant Control Look-up table for Feed-Forward / Feed-Back Control. Figure 12 – Test design and sample output from laboratory respirometer. Figure 13 – Toxicity Report automatically generated from laboratory respirometer Page 13
  14. 14. 3.6 Critical Oxygen Point Determination. Measurement of this process is unique to Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. The software can automatically detect the Dissolved Oxygen Levels at which BOD (Carbon) and Ammonia removal is maximised. This allows experimental data based decisions on plant operating set points rather than simply applying rules of thumb. The theoretical explanation for this technical advancement is shown in figure 14 Once the dissolved oxygen level goes above the critical point there is no increase in OUR (Biodegradation Rate) but the oxygen transfer efficiency reduces meaning expensive oxygen is being lost to the atmosphere. The most efficient DO operating set-point is as close as possible to the critical oxygen point (allowing for system dynamics and plant geometry). Nitrifying plants where 2 points of inflexion will appear on the graph – the first for Carbonaceous Bacteria and the second for Nitrifying bacteria as seen in Figure 16 4. Conclusion This article has outlined some of the more straightforward applications of OUR measurement in the Activated Sludge Process. Several other application areas are available such as. • Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate – Bacterial Health. • Activated Sludge Nitrification Capacity. • Online Toxicity. • Online influent treatability. Adoption of OUR as a control strategy has applications in all Activated Sludge plants. When combined with Ammonia sensing it is the only real-time measurement which can give full visibility of all aspects of the Aerobic Treatment Process. Combining this data with online bacterial measures of performance such as MLSS and SVI can facilitate optimisation of the Activated Sludge Process to give Aeration Energy Consumption reduction in excess of 40% whilst assuring and in most cases improving discharge compliance performance. Figure 14 – Explanation of critical oxygen points theory. Figure 15 – Actual critical oxygen point determination (0.56mg/l) from UK WWTW. Figure 16 – Critical oxygen points and % Nitrification – WWTW in Portugal. About the Author Michael Dooley is a chartered Mechanical Engineer with 24 years experience in Process Equipment Design, Operation and maintenance. He has been managing Director and part owner of Strathkelvin Instruments Limited and is considered one of the foremost experts in Biological Wastewater treatment in the UK and Ireland. He regularly consults for companies such as Calachem, Northern Ireland Water, Veolia, Scottish Water and many others. He specialises in reducing aeration energy costs of Wastewater treatment. Strathkelvin Instruments was founded in 1981, to develop instruments based upon precision dissolved oxygen measurement, for use in the biomedical research field. This remains a significant part of the company’s instrumentation range. In 1998, the opportunity arose to exploit the technology of a respirometer designed for biomedical research, for use in activated sludge respirometry. Initially the respirometry product development was directed towards toxicity testing, since there was no method anywhere in the world that would measure and calculate toxicity of wastewater to the actual activated sludge of the receiving works, in as little as 5-10 mins. Subsequently it became clear that, since respirometry is one of the 3 major processes in biological treatment (biodegradation, growth and respiration), by adding additional software, the respirometer could be used as a major tool in process control in treatment works. Page 14
  15. 15. Focus on: Level Based Flow Measurement Introduction Level based flow is arguably one of the most common-types of flow measurement in use in the Global wastewater. It is one of the suite of methods in open channel flow measurement and the basics of the methodology of the flow measurement technique will be discussed in this article. Level based flow – a game of two halves To measure flow using level based flow techniques in the wastewater industry there are necessarily two elements or two devices that make up the measurement technique. These are called, logically the primary and the secondary devices. Primary devices consist of a flow measurement structure of some sort and are used to control the flow causing it to rise up in a controlled way so that the flow rate is proportional to the rise in flow. Let’s look at the universal flow equation to see how this is done. In its simpliest form the universal flow equation is equal to Q = A x V Where: Q is equal to the flow rate in m3/s A is equal to the area or in the case of the channel the width multiplied by the height V is equal to the velocity of the water in m/s Now in order to solve the equation we have to take away some of the unknowns. For example in a normal situation we know what the channel width is and its going to be fixed so within the “A” bit of the universal flow equation we have one element of the equation that is no longer a variable. If we re-arrange the equation and expand the A to include the width and the height Q/V = W x H Now as Q is what we are trying to find and we know what W is our only variables are V and H. The job of the primary device is actually to regulate V so that the only variable that we have is the height and this is the thing that we measure to discover what the flow rate is by creating a table of Q at different heights through the primary measurement device. Of course this equation is overly simplistic and for each type of measurement device there are equations that describe the different parameters for the different conditions all basically based around making the height of the water level the only variable that needs to be measured and creating a relationship where Q can be calculated from H. Secondary devices are basically the instruments that measure the height of the fluid incredibly accurately and normally within a millimetre. This sort of accuracy is essential when measuring flow rates as unlike some things in the water industry the measurement of flows requires a lot of precision. So what are the secondary devices? Most commonly they measure the level of the fluid by using ultrasonics but realistically can use radar, pressure or any other method that will give you a level or height measurement. When a non-contact method such as ultrasonics or radar are used what is actually measured is the ullage or the empty space of a know distance. This is done by measuring the total distance that the level meter can measure if there is no flow going through the primary device. This is called the empty distance. So as the empty distance decreases the height of the water increases. To put this is into an equation would be H = Ht – Hu Where : H is the height of water we want to know in mm Ht is the empty distance or total height in mm Hu is the ullage or remaining level of air We can see this in figure 1. Figure 1 the principles of non-contact level based flow Page 15
  16. 16. A little more detail on: Primary Devices The primary device, despite being a structure is actually a vital part of the instrument measurement system and if installed & operated correctly is surprising accurate for something that is basically a piece of plastic or a sheet of metal. The primary devices for level based flow can basically be split into two categories – flumes or weirs. The main consideration when installing a primary device is whether you have the hydraulic head within your site hydraulic profile to enable one to be installed. If not then you may have to consider another type of flow measurement technology but it you do then flows can be measured very accurately Expanding upon the equations above the actual equation for flumes and weirs is Q = C x √g x b x H3/2 Where: Q is the flow rate C is the coefficient of discharge g is the acceleration due to gravity b is the breadth of the structure H is the total head upstream of the structure Flumes Flumes are one of the most versatile types of primary device. A flume is essentially a contraction in the width of a channel (usually of rectangular shape) which induces an increase in the velocity of the water going through the contraction and a standing wave downstream of the contraction. Depending which type of flume you install there is a huge range of flows that they can handle from H flumes that can handle relatively small flows upwards to the most common types of flumes that are used including • Rectangular Flumes (probably the most common in the UK) • Trapezoidal Flumes • U-throated Flumes • Parshall Flumes Each of these types of flumes has its own use and its own application and its own uses. An example of an H Flume and a British Standard Rectangular Flume can be seen in Figure 2 The advantages of flumes is that they are relatively easy to keep clean and maintain and are relatively hard wearing with flume structures able to last 15-20 years or more and require less of a head that weir structures (generally) . However they are more complicated to install and when they are installed then they need to be installed with a very high degree of precision other wise the structure can be useless. The other advantage of using flumes, especially on the inlet of wastewater treatment works is that they can be used in conjunction with a weir to provide a very accurate flow control device (figure 3) Weirs Weirs are the second type of primary device that is very commonly used in the water industry. They can be as simple as a metal plate with an edge associated with a chamfer to Figure 2: Examples of some of the different types of flumes from a H Flume (left, a rectangular flume (centre) and a Parshall Flume (right) Figure 3: a rectangular flume used for FFT control purposes Page 16
  17. 17. provide a sharp edge or weirs with a V or rectangular notch at a varying degree of angles cut into it to provide different ranges of flow to measure. Obviously the smaller the notch that is cut in to the metal plate the smaller the flows that the notch can measure. The equation for a standard V notch is described by the Kindsvater-Shen equation: Q= 4.28 Ctan(Ø/2) (h+k)(5/2) Where Q = flow in m3 /s Ø = notch angle h = head in m k = head correction factor in m They are typically used on the outlet of a treatment works for final effluent flow measurement as at the inlet of the works they are too prone fouling and would take a huge amount of maintenance which makes them impractical to use on the inlet of a works (figure 4). The only variation on the weir that might confuse people is the “Crump or Triangular Notch” Weir that was originally designed to measure river flows but has been adapted for use in the water industry. They are basically gauging structures possessing an angled entrance and exit ramp within the full width of the channel. They are particularly appropriate for the measurement of flow in natural watercourses where minimum head losses are sought and where relatively high accuracy is required. They have a good discharge range, are robust, insensitive to minor damage and will operate even when the flow is silt-laden. A little more detail on: Secondary Devices A secondary device, as stated earlier is basically there to measure the height (or level) as accurately as possible. The most common methods are non- contact methods that measure the empty space above the flow as previously described earlier. This is not the only method and basically as long as you are measuring the height or level of water you are doing the job of the secondary device whether you are using a rule, surveying staff or of course some level based measurement technique. The most popular technique is non-contact level by using ultrasonic waves although the use of microwave-radar is becoming more popular that it previously been Ultrasonic versus Radar and how they work There has been quite a contentious debate of whether it is best to use ultrasonic waves or whether microwave radar is the better technique. In truth both techniques work and both techniques have their advantages and disadvantages and whether somebody chooses ultrasonic or microwave is up to the choice of the person. The use of ultrasonics is certainly been the method of choice as it has been a significantly cheaper method that has an excellent accuracy. This is starting to change as the cost of using microwave radar technology is getting cheaper. Principles of Ultrasonic measurement Ultrasonic level sensors work by the “time of flight” principle using the speed of sound. The sensor emits a high-frequency pulse, generally in the 20 kHz to 200 kHz range, and then listens for the echo. The pulse is transmitted in a cone, usually about 6° at the apex. The pulse impacts the level surface and is reflected back to the sensor, now acting as a receiver (Figure x), and then to the transmitter for signal processing. Basically, the transmitter divides the time between the pulse and its echo by two, and that is the distance to the surface of the material. The transmitter is designed to listen to the highest amplitude return pulse (the echo) and mask out all the other ultrasonic signals in the vessel. Figure 4: A V notch weir on the inlet of a treatment works destroyed by chemical dosing (left) and a V notch weir on the final effluent working well Figure 5: Principle of ultrasonic level measurement Page 17
  18. 18. Because of the high amplitude of the pulse, the sensor physically vibrates or “rings.” Visualize a motionless bell struck by a hammer. A distance of roughly 300mm, called the “blanking distance” is designed to prevent spurious readings from sensor ringing. This is important for installation in areas where the distance above the level surface is minimal. The ultrasonic pulse is created is created by using a piezoelectric crystal, which converts an oscillating electric field applied to the crystal into a mechanical vibration. Piezoelectric crystals include quartz, Rochelle salt, and certain types of ceramic. Particular shapes can be chosen for particular applications. For example, a disc shape provides a plane ultrasonic wave, while curving the radiating surface in a slightly concave or bowl shape creates an ultrasonic wave that will focus at a specific point The weakness of using ultrasonic for level measurement is that they are sensitive to changes in temperature due to the speed of sound being dependent upon the ambient temperature. As such when using ultrasonic measurement it is necessary to compensate for the temperature. The use of temperature compensation is well established and very commonly used but this is why you will often see a sunshade on an ultrasonic flow meter that is used to measure flow. The second weakness of the technique that is easily compensated for in the installation of ultrasonic measurement is the empty distance Principles of Microwave Radar measurement There are in fact many types of radar based systems but this article concentrates on pulsed radar systems which are used in flow & level measurement. Microwave radar measurement techniques use electromagnetic waves usually in the microwave X-band range which is near about 10 GHz but more recent developments have raised this up to the 80GHz range narrowing the angle of the beam. Pulsed radar systems work in a similar principle to an ultrasonic transducer method insofar as they emit a microwave burst towards the fluid. This burst is reflected by the surface of the material and detected by the same sensor which now acts as a receiver. Level is inferred from the time of flight (transmission to reception) of the microwave signal.” Where the ultrasonic system uses a Piezoelectric crystal the microwave radar uses a transmitter with an inbuilt solid-state oscillator, an antenna and a receiver along with a signal processor. What this means is that where the ultrasonic technique has a blanking distance the microwave radar does not. As the microwave radar does not use the speed of sound it is also not affected by temperature and so does not need any temperature compensation. Other methods of measuring level Although ultrasonic and radar systems make up virtually all of the market for level based systems they are not the only technique but they are the most convenient and the best. However it is possible to use other methods to measure the height of water through a flume or weir but these techniques can come with their own problems especially if a submerged technique is used which has the potential to disturb the flow profile going through the primary structure. Probably the only other technique to consider would be to use pressure based systems which physically measure the “weight” of the water and measure the height based upon the weight. When dealing with wastewater though the abrasiveness of the fluid has to be considered as does the potential for fouling of the pressure sensor Some points to conclude In all of level based flow there are some important points to consider no matter what technique is used for either the primary or the secondary device. The first point is how to install your flow measurement system. Usually when installing primary structures an inch is “near enough” this is not the case when installing flow measurement systems. If a primary measurement system is installed “a couple of millimetres out,” this can make a huge difference in flow meter readings. Precision is key The second point is, hydraulics. Do you have the head spare in the hydraulic profile not to drown elements of the process out or is there a hydraulic restriction that will drown your flow measurement system out and cause it to read high The third point is cleanliness. It is essential to keep any primary measurement structure as clean as possible. A few millimetres of fat or grease on an inlet flume (depending upon how big it is) can make a huge difference to the measured flow as basically you are causing the flow to rise and over-read. Lastly have you got the right measurement technique for the application. Are there any complications that will favour a particular type of secondary measurement or not as the case maybe. Is level based flow measurement appropriate for the application that you are using. About the Author Oliver Grievson is the Flow & Instrumentation Specialist for the Foundation for Water Research as well as being a Director of the Sensors for Water Interest Group and also Wastewater Education 501 (c)3 as well as being the group manager of the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group (WIPAC). He has had many years experience in both the operation and engineering sides of the Water Industry and is currently a technical expert and manager in flow and instrumentation regularly consulting & lecturing on both a national and international basis. He is a Chartered Scientist, Environmentalist and Water & Environmental Manager as well as a Fellow of both CIWEM & the Institute of Environmental Sciences and a Member of the Institute of Measurement & Control. Page 18
  19. 19. October 2017 WEFTEC 30th September - 4th October 2017 Chicago, USA Hosted by WEF Wetsus Congress 9th - 10th October 2017 Leeuwarden, Holland Hosted by Wetsus November 2017 Innovation Brokerage Workshop 22nd November 2017 University of Bath, UK Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group January 2018 Water & Health 31st January 2018 University of West England, UK Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group Page 19 Conferences, Events, Seminars & Studies Conferences, Seminars & Events Innovation Brokerage Workshop Where: University of Bath When: 22nd November 2017 There is a wealth of new technology and innovation being developed in UK universities which often translates into the development of new products in industry. Successful translation and exploitation of academic research depends on recognising potential and forming necessary collaborations. This SWIG Innovation workshop is designed to bring together academic research groups and interested companies to identify potential technologies, collaboration, exploitation opportunities in the area of sensor technologies developed for use in water. The need for new sensor technologies for water is often driven by legislation and the need for regular measurements at lower concentrations, or the need for more rapid or more reliable measurements made at remote sensing sites. This encompasses a wide range of technologies that are used for measuring physical, chemical or biological parameters in or of water. For examples sensors that measure water pressure, height or chemical and biosensors for measuring dissolved components, pollutants or micro-organisms. Water & Health Where: University of West England When: 31st January 2018 Approximately 60% of our body is water which is vital for our bodies to function. We have come to expect clean water for drinking and for our daily living and to maintain a health lifestyle. Clean water and healthy food are seen as critical elements in ensuring a healthy nation, reducing the burden on the NHS. Our health can be put at risk if our water supplies become polluted or contaminated with bacteria, toxins or other chemicals and heavy metals. In ensuring that the health of the nation is given priority, the EPSRC have identified a “Healthy Nation” as one of their Prosperity Outcomes of the strategy and delivery plan up to 2020. The EPSRC identifies that the development of new technologies materials will enhance our ability to predict, detect and treat disease. The application of new sensing technologies along with more traditional approaches and the application of connected systems can be used for the early detection of microbial pathogens and toxic chemicals preventing disease and ensuring the supply of clean water protecting the population from disease and contribute towards a healthy nation. This workshop will have a keynote talk from Public Health England giving an overview of water-borne disease followed by presentations from companies and researchers showcasing the latest devices and sensor technologies that are able to rapidly detect microbiological and chemical contaminants.
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