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WIPAC Monthly October 2018


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Welcome to the October 2018 edition of WIPAC Monthly - the magazine from the LinkedIn Group Water Industry Process Automation & Control.

In this month's edition we have articles on

Flow Meter selection
Flow Measurement & Control
The increasing importance of cyber-security in the water industry
Operational effectiveness

Enjoy the latest edition and if you are in the UK I hope to see you at WWEM

Have a good month


Published in: Engineering

WIPAC Monthly October 2018

  1. 1. WIPAC MONTHLYThe Monthly Update from Water Industry Process Automation & Control Issue 10/2018- October 2018
  2. 2. Page 2 In this Issue WIPAC Monthly is a publication of the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group. It is produced by the group manager and WIPAC Monthly Editor, Oliver Grievson. This is a free publication for the benefit of the Water Industry and please feel free to distribute to any who you may feel benefit. However due to the ongoing costs of WIPAC Monthly a donation website has been set up to allow readers to contribute to the running of WIPAC & WIPAC Monthly, For those wishing to donate then please visit all donations will be used solely for the benefit and development of WIPAC. All enquires about WIPAC Monthly, including those who want to publish news or articles within these pages, should be directed to the publications editor, Oliver Grievson at The picture on the front cover is from the training room at Florida State College of Jacksonville and is a system that incorporates the PlantPAX Process Control Training System designed to enable instrumentation technicians to train on a simulated system. From the editor............................................................................................................. 3 Industry news.............................................................................................................. Highlights of the news of the month from the global water industry centred around the successes of a few of the companies in the global market. 4 - 11 14 steps to identify WTP & WWTP flow metering options ............................................ In this article by Badger Meter the considerations in looking at some of the flow metering options on both water and wastewater treatment plants are examined looking at the aspects of the application that can cause problems 12-13 The future challenges of wastewater flow and its control............................................... In this month’s feature article by group manager, Oliver Grievson, some of the challenges and benefits of flow measurement and control in wastewater are examined with special reference to the drive towards flow to full treatment flow measurement and control 14 - 16 Cybersecurity importance is on the rise for water utilities........................................... With the growth of Industrial Control Systems in the water utilities the threat of cyber attack is growing and the need for robust cyber security systems has risen in the water utilities. In this article we look at the basic steps that need to be taken to prepare and respond to cyber attack 17-18 How alarmed should you be about operator effectiveness............................................ In this article by ABB the effectiveness of operational staff in the control room is discussed highlighting key strategies for foreseeing problems in advance, fixing them faster, and having a higher success rate by maximizing operator effectiveness. 19-20 Workshops, conferences & seminars............................................................................ The highlights of the conferences and workshops in the coming months. 21-22
  3. 3. Page 3 From the Editor Watching a video on the digital water industry this month made me think a number of different things. The video in question was from the recent International Water Association World Water Congress and it feature a number of eminent people including Patrick Dempsey, the CEO Xylem. Now Xylem have probably the best tag line of any supply company in the Water Industry, “Let’s Solve Water,” and it is very easy to think - wow what a great marketing department and this could be the case except for the fact when you see their CEO in action you can really see that they mean every single word and every single thought and feeling. On stage one of the key points that he made was that the Digital or Smart Water Industry, depending what you call it, entering into new era of Water 4.0 simply uses too many buzz words and that these buzz words are actually what is putting some operators off. In someways this does mirror what some of the water companies say as I can’t count the number of times that I’ve heard people say “we don’t need widgets, we need solutions” and in age where I increasingly see IoT enabled devices and the likes it does seem there is a proliferation of widgets and as an industry we actually need to concentrate on the application and not the “widget.” An example of this was something a LinkedIn contact sent me through recently where a well-meaning team of students had put together a sensor system for the sewer to measure the build-up of toxic gases on an IoT based system that would basically set off a spray to damp down the gases when they got to an adjustable alert phase. All of this was done to protect workers who enter the sewers. What it of course failed to see was that the application wasn’t particularly needed as the gases without the human element are certainly a hazard but without the element do no harm to the people that the system was meant to protect. In reality the solution was a widget that had no real practical application as the current solution of a portable gas detector and taking measures such as forced ventilation as necessary work. So, what can we do as an industry that we are not already doing. Well in some cases we see that a lot is being done but in pockets. In the UK at least some of the water companies have done fantastic work • Southern Water with their Smart Wastewater Network and advanced wastewater treatment works at Peel Common (amongst others) • Severn Trent Water with their demonstrator at Spernal Wastewater Treatment works • Northumbrian Water, who with their innovation festival approach, have taken on a number of technical innovations • United Utilities who this month announced a water network with artificial intelligence From this the case studies exist but it does seem, to some extent, that the proliferation of the innovations that have happened aren’t necessarily converting the mainstream. In fact a quick look on the Smart Cities Council website reveals some amazing developments around Parking 2.0 and the role out of smart electricity meters or even sensors on waste disposal trucks integrating with customers but very little about the water industry and its contribution towards the smart city approach. All of this begs the question as to “are we going to have a smart city without water?” It reminds me of a presentation that I saw a number of years ago where the presenter, from the power industry, compared the water industry to the person at a part who spends the night in the kitchen and ends up losing out. So what needs to be done? Does the water industry need to change its approach? Does the water industry need a new strategy? Really in the end its all about justifying that the Water 4.0 approach makes sense for the water companies, makes sense for the customers and makes sense for the environment as a whole and in this way it is an approach that will eventually happen but also the water companies need to be prepared for it making sure that the data that is the fundamental basis of the whole approach is actually correct. For that to happen the industry as a whole has a lot of work and needs to work together. Have a good month, Oliver
  4. 4. The Future of WIPAC: The build-up to WWEM Exeter to host 17th International Computing & Control for the Water Industry Conference in 2019 The Centre for Water Systems as delighted to announce this month that they will be hosting the 17th International Computing & Control for the Water Industry Conference (CCWI) in September 2019. Since the beginnings of this conference series in the early 1990s, the pace of change in this field has been enormous. The water sector is now in a full-scale phase of digitalisation. The proliferation of sensors of various types, smart meters, large-scale and widespread data acquisition, increasingly sophisticated modelling tools, information and communication technologies, Internet of Things, and the roll-out of 5G wireless networks will have profound implications for the management of water systems over the coming years. This is the 17th in a series of conferences organised by the universities of Brunel, De Montfort, Exeter, Imperial College, and Sheffield. Initially a biennial series held in the UK, the series has in recent years been held annually in Italy, the Netherlands and Canada. They will be hosting the next International Computing & Control for the Water Industry Conference at the University of Exeter on 2nd -4th September 2019. The aim of this CCWI conference is to bring together practitioners and researchers to discuss the emerging ‘WATER 4.0’ agenda - water systems modelling, data and control. The main theme of the conference is WATER 4.0, which describes the comprehensive bringing together and exploitation of the digital and physical world’s leading to water service transformation. This three day event will address this through a combination of keynote lectures, paper and poster sessions. • CCWI 2019 invites contributions on the following topics: • Smart systems and digitalisation, cyber-physical systems • Advances in sensors, instrumentation and communications technologies • Big Data management and exploitation • Data driven and soft computing analytics and visualisation • Systems modelling, optimisation, active control and decision support • Water quality modelling: pipe, sewer, environment • Water and wastewater treatment modelling, optimisation and control • Asset management and performance modelling • Demand, leakage, energy and GHG management • Distributed and multi-functional systems (e.g. rainwater management systems) • Flood modelling and management • Building sustainability and resilience A first call for speakers has been released and those interested in submitting a paper from all areas with relevance to computing and control in the water industry and especially the emerging WATER 4.0 agenda. Prospective authors can express interest via the following email: The Water, Wastewater & Environmental Monitoring Conference & Exhibition is the biggest Water Industry monitoring event in the Water & Wastewater calendar and a few weeks beforehand things in the industry go quiet as everyone gets busy in preparing for it. This year is no exception except it is even bigger for the WIPAC group as it prepares to launch as a company, although I’m not sure all the paperwork will be quite in place. So it may well be somewhat of a soft launch ready to begin in earnest in the New Year with members coming on board. Despite all of this WIPAC is busy preparing for the elements that it is involved in including the WIPAC Flow Forum, the WIPAC Learning Zone and of course the now famous Instrumentation Apprentice Competition. What I can promise is that it will be something special with bags being prepared for the first 100 people who come to the Flow Forum with bits and pieces from some of the companies that have been supportive of WIPAC in the past. There are exciting things planned for every aspect of WWEM. I am particularly excited about the Flow Forum as we have a very powerful group of speakers who have huge experience in working in the world of flow from Marc Swain of Severn Trent Water who has been working in flow for over 30 years and is going to talk about the importance of maintenance in primary structures, to Steven French of Z-Tech Control systems who is going to talk about installation standards and Craig Handford of Morisson Utilities who is going to talk about delivering a multi-million pound base maintenance programme including electro-magnetic cleaning, asset replacement and flow structure construction. The second session is more about control where I will be discussing flow fo full treatment control, which is a huge area of development coming up in the next few years. Lorenzo Pompa will also be discussing control but on the wastewater network side of things. In the last session of the Flow Forum we have Dr Andy Nichols of Sheffield University to discuss developments in Free Surface Flow Measurement and Greg Wainhouse of Burket Fluid Control systems talking about surface acoustic wave flow measurement. Rob Stevens of RS Hydro will also be talking about the latest developments in Time of Flight Flow Measurement. All in all WWEM this year is going to be something very special especially for the WIPAC Group. Page 4 Industry News
  5. 5. Bristol Water boosts asset management capability with PIONEER Following successful use of Servelec’s PIONEER software suite in its PR19 preparations, Bristol Water has opted to upgrade to a full continuing licence. PIONEER provides full investment optimisation, scenario analysis and forecasting on mains bursts and other asset failures, supply interruptions and leakage. In addition to the full continuing licence, Bristol Waterhas further invested in the asset risk management module (ARM) that provides full asset risk management capabilities. “ARM allows users to register and manually assess site-specific risks in a manner that is consistent with the modelled risks,” George Heywood, technical director for Servelec Technologies and product manager for PIONEER, said. “The power of the PIONEER optimiser can then be used to select and prioritise solutions to both the manually assessed and modelled risks, in order to develop an optimal investment programme.” The software enables water companies to plan their investment programme to meet their own specifically configured performance targets at the minimum cost. David Smith, asset management director at Bristol Water, praised the PIONEER software suite for its integrated optimisation capabilities. “This project is part of a wider programme of change underway in Bristol Water,” he said. “We’re looking to bring about a step-change in asset management capability in preparation for AMP7, and PIONEER’s impressive ability to combine and manage both modelled and manually assessed risks and interventions will be invaluable in helping Bristol Water to maximise efficiencies across the network in order to provide the best service to our customers.” Servelec Technologies is also providing consultancy services to help integrate the system into business processes and to provide advice on modelling improvements. Bristol Water engineers will receive full training and the system will be fully supported by Servelec PIONEER support analysts. Mark Hinton, director of business optimisation for Servelec Technologies, said: “We understand and work hard to ensure the challenges faced by our clients during PR19 are being met by our PIONEER solution. “We recognise that every customer can be different but, through effective collaboration, our client base can be helped to share best practice and benefit from the latest innovations. “Bristol Water is a great example where we have initially deployed a cloud-based SaaS PIONEER version before evolving to an on premises client hosted solution which is manually configurable by the Bristol Water’s trained staff.” United Utilities to roll out large scale artificial intelligence across entire water network United Utilities has become the first water company in the UK to introduce large-scale artificial intelligence into its operational systems. The Warrington-based company has signed a framework agreement with EMAGIN, a Canadian technology firm, to roll out AI across its entire water network in the North-West of England. The deal follows on from a successful trial that began in February after EMAGIN was selected as a finalist in United Utilities’ Innovation Lab. The Canadian team were given access to the water firm’s huge wealth of data, systems and expert knowledge to incubate their ideas and help shape their technology for the UK and European water markets. EMAGIN’s artificial intelligence platform, called HARVI, can assess vast amounts of data on a wide range of factors such as weather, demand for water, pump performance and electricity prices. This is used to help make decisions on the most cost-effective and efficient way to run pumps, detect burst pipes and minimise the risk of discoloured water. In the 12-week trial that took place across Oldham in Greater Manchester, HARVI demonstrated energy savings of 22 per cent. United Utilities now plans to deploy the artificial intelligence platform in phases across the whole North West region by the end of 2019. United Utilities’ chief operating officer, Steve Fraser, said: “Water networks are complex systems, and technology like this is going to play an integral role in our drive towards ‘systems thinking’, helping us make more sense and better use of big data. “It will free up our people to be more proactive and that’s going to have a direct impact on levels of service. Water companies are going to have to start thinking in this way and embracing new technology if we are to meet customers’ expectations on value and reliability. “The pilot scheme clearly demonstrated the huge potential for efficiency and energy savings which will help reduce our operational costs. This is going to be vital over the coming years as we aim to reduce customer bills by 10.5 per cent in real terms from 2020.” Welcoming the contract, EMAGIN chief executive officer Thouheed Abdul Gaffoor said: “The engagement at every level across United Utilities showed their continuous drive to deploy technology that supports their customers. “This is an exciting time for us, United Utilities is one of the largest and most innovative water companies in the world and gives us a huge presence to grow in the UK and Europe.” The two companies are now considering running further trials of the technology in other applications such as wastewater operations and leakage reduction. Page 5
  6. 6. New sewer monitoring technology could spell the end of fatbergs Sydney Water is trialling a ‘nervous system’ for sewers that will deliver real-time information about the health of its network. The technology was developed by UK company Nuron and uses in-pipe fibre sensing like that employed in the oil and gas industries. This extends throughout the sewer system and measures flow, depth, temperature and structural integrity every 5 metres along the sewer pipe. It will help Sydney Water remotely identify issues such as burst pipes and blockages before they develop into serious incidents. This could spell the end of ‘fatbergs’, as the system can detect a build-up of solids, pinpointing where cleaning and maintenance needs to be carried out. Sydney Water Head of Service Planning and Asset Strategy Paul Higham said the utility is trialling the technology as it could provide a better way to manage its wastewater assets. “This project is an opportunity for Sydney Water to assess real-time sewer data to improve our services,” he said. “Conducting a trial with Nuron and their collaborative partners could help us to see better ways to monitor and manage the performance of our wastewater systems.” The technology takes up less than 1% of space in a sewer pipe and is installed robotically, which means even smaller pipes can be retrofitted. Nuron Managing Director Claire Fenwick said the partnership with Sydney Water was a good fit, as both companies are passionate about ensuring resilient and sustainable wastewater infrastructure. “This is an exciting relationship as we share a vision for transforming sewer network operations, enabling significant social and environmental benefits,” she said. The Sydney Water trial comes after the technology was implemented for the first time by Northumbrian Water in the north east of England in July. This isn’t the only technology deployed in the sewer environment as Sydney Water has also looked into “Sewer Scout” which has been developed to remember locations and identify defects, promising a new age of utility-managed artificial intelligence. Sydney Water Customer Delivery Officer Steve Barclay said the utility’s new technology was developed in a bid to reduce the risks involved in the Avoid Fail Sewer traverse inspections. “Traversing entails sending people down into our large sewers and walk through for a condition assessment. Basically, we are looking for three things: issues we need to fix now, soon or later, so that we can budget and prepare for works,” he said. “Sydney Water has 16 fatal-risk standards and traversing includes 13 of those risks. Traversing is the riskiest operation undertaken at Sydney Water. Our systems are quite robust, but still it is a high-risk activity.” Barclay said Sydney Water has been looking for a technology-based solution for this issue, with recent developments in geolocation and other information technology offering a pathway. “We’ve been looking for a system that can gather enough information for detailed engineering assessments without having to traverse. And technology is finally catching up with us,” he said. “Sewer Scout is the result of this technology crossover. It uses the latest in photogrammetry – I like to call it Google Street View for sewers – stitching lots of photos together to come up with a 3D model. You can view the conduits as if you were there yourself, but without having to get dirty. “The only thing you can’t do is take tactile measurements, but we can undertake these tasks at the launch or retrieval maintenance holes. However, it reduces our risks right down to three of our 16 fatal risk standards.” Furthermore, as the Sewer Scout retrieves complex data, it learns how to locate and identify defects, Barclay said, heralding in a new era of artificial intelligence for Sydney Water’s operational and maintenance decision making. “The Sewer Scout self-centres in the sewer flow – it collects the images with a special floating camera arrangement which are then converted into 3D models and a fly-through view,” he said. “The images are captured and downloaded into the software, which is now being developed to take the Scout to the level of artificial intelligence. The Scout will be able to locate and identify defects in the system. We are at the stage where it is 98% accurate in locating maintenance chambers and holes.” Barclay said the sophisticated technology will play a role in the utility’s future asset management, but for now Sydney Water is pleased with how well the Sewer Scout helps in improving safety and reducing cost. “This technology will help us prioritise our future works. We assess the service life of every Avoid Fail Sewer asset we have on the traverse program. We want to try and automate the entire system,” he said. “We will always have to go down into sewers to work on them and check things we are unsure about. But this will eliminate the majority of our current risk profile.” Page 6
  7. 7. FSCJ partners with local manufacturers to tackle workforce shortage Florida State College at Jacksonville hosted employees of local manufacturers and utility companies Friday to showcase new equipment and proposed curricula that will form FSCJ’s new workforce training program. The program, FSCJ Works, will develop a variety of engineers and technicians in a $853,000 training lab. During Friday morning’s showcase, Festo Didactic Global Product Manager Stephane Casse performed a live demonstration of the PlantPAX Process Control Training system, a $125,000 system that trains instrumentation technicians to troubleshoot a wide array of process systems. Casse displayed the ways that instructors, with a few buttons and levers, could wreak chaos on the systems – chaos that students have to learn to solve. “You can create any situation that you can’t try on a real system,” said Casse, who noted that the system was meant to simulate real world equipment and be “student-proof.” The PlantPAX is part of the $456,000 FSCJ has raised in grant and corporate funds for its new training lab. FSCJ will begin training with this lab, but hopes to finish raising the $853,000 needed to fund a full-scale training lab. In addition to PlantPAX, the lab will also feature pulp/paper process training systems, process control entry level training systems and mechatronics training systems. Fourteen local manufacturers and utilities helped shape the program FSCJ is developing, which would yield an associate’s degree in advanced manufacturing. “My goal in my job is you get the return on your investment that you demand,” said Douglas Brauer, dean of the engineering and industry programs at FSCJ. Bill Allen, director of FSCJ Works, noted that the program was conceived out of concerns raised by Rayonier Advanced Materials (NYSE: RYAM) and others that were struggling to find properly skilled workers. Allen encouraged these businesses to help sponsor the program. “Call your HR people and ask how much it costs to hire one of these technicians,” said Allen. “Take that number, multiply it by two and cut us a check.” WEX GLOBAL 2019 Applying Intelligence to the Circular Economy in Water and Energy 4th – 6th March 2019 | Porto, Portugal Register your interest now! Florida State College at Jacksonville is using devices like this $125,000 PlantPAX Process Control Train- ing System to train new technicians for manufacturers and utilities Page 7
  8. 8. MPs call for compulsory metering and say 15% leakage target by 2025 is not enough MPs on an influential House of Commons select committee are today calling for water companies to have powers for compulsory water metering and for the amount of water lost through leaks to be halved by 2040. The call comes with the publication of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Committee report Regulation of the Water Industry. Currently, compulsory water metering is only permitted in water-stressed areas. Today’s report argues that this option should be extended to all water companies. Droughts of the type experienced in summer 2018 will become more frequent and drought resilience will require increasing the supply of water alongside reducing demand. The Committee found that a “shocking” three billion litres of water are leaked every day and believes that targets to reduce leakage by 15% by 2025 are not ambitious enough. Neil Parish MP, Chair of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Committee, said: “Water leaks affect the environment, as the more is leaked, the more must be taken from our rivers and other natural sources. It also sends a poor message to the public about the value of water when people are being encouraged to save water. Water companies should be leading by example. We are calling for the amount of water lost through leaks to be halved by 2040.” The Committee also heard there was strong evidence that water metering helps to reduce water use and detect when leaks are occurring. Currently, only water companies in designated water-stressed regions can make metering compulsory. Neil Parish MP continued: “We need to move beyond a regional approach to water metering, because there is a national need to conserve water. We call on Defra to allow all water companies the power to implement compulsory metering. That way, companies have the same tools at their disposal to reduce consumption of water in their regions. Where this might lead to significant bill increases, metering should be accompanied by strengthened support for vulnerable customers.” Although most customers are satisfied with their water companies, the report says there are over 2 million complaints and unwanted contacts (i.e. reporting service issues or asking for action to be taken) per year. The Committee heard that the complaints system can be unnecessarily convoluted. Ofwat is the economic regulator of water companies in England and Wales. The Committee found that economic regulation had become very complex in the effort to mimic a competitive environment that would not naturally exist because water companies are largely regional monopolies. Neil Parish MP commented: “The methodology for Ofwat’s five-yearly price reviews is incredibly detailed. While this reflects the complexity of Ofwat’s regulatory responsibilities, it could be quite burdensome for water companies and inhibit long-term planning. The Government needs to commission an independent review of whether the industry and its regulation is fit for the future, particularly in the context of drought resilience”. The Report’s recommendations to Government include: • By the end of 2019, amend regulations to allow all water companies to implement compulsory metering, using smart meters. • Water industry should collectively be aiming to reduce leakage by 50% by 2040, rather than 2050. • Ofwat should review how the complaints process within water companies could be streamlined. This could include a mechanism whereby water companies either automatically pay complainants a fixed sum or escalate complaints to CCWater if the complaint is not resolved by the company within 15 days. • Review whether the Environment Agency has the necessary powers and resources to enforce a drastic reduction in sewage overflows into rivers. • Commission an independent review of whether the water industry and regulation are fit to meet future needs such as drought resilience, as well as delivering value for money for customers. The report matches findings in the National Infrastructure Commission’s Preparing for a Drier Future report, which recommended an ambitious, affordable package of measures to increase drought resilience. This included having a long-term target to halve water leakages, enabling companies to roll out smart water metering beyond water stressed areas, and investing in new water supply infrastructure which will still be needed to meet future demand. A spokesman for the National Infrastructure Commission said: “Today’s report highlights the real need for urgent action to better protect our water supplies, particularly as we face an increased risk of drought. We’re therefore pleased to see the environment committee reaching the same conclusion as us, that widespread roll out of smart water metering across the country is a key part of that. “We also share the committee’s ambitions for halving the amount of water lost through leakages. A long-term target will unlock new technologies which, in turn, will reduce the costs and the potential impacts on customers’ bills. “These measures, combined with investment in new infrastructure such as reservoirs, comprised an affordable package of measures for Government to consider. On top of this, our new study into the regulation of our utilities will also include water, and we look forward to hearing from water companies, regulators and others how we can improve the system to make it more resilient for years to come.” Responding to the EFRA Committee report, Water UK Chief Executive Michael Roberts said: “The EFRA Committee’s recommendations highlight the impact of climate change and a growing population on managing water resources – challenges which water companies are working hard to address. “Leakage is a big priority for the industry. But we also know there is more to do, which is why water companies have proposed the most ambitious leakage reduction programme in 20 years and are looking ahead to even further long term reductions. “The Committee rightly highlights that we all need to use water wisely. Continued roll out of metering is an important tool for managing demand, but how and when it is done needs to be handled carefully as part of a wider approach reflecting the needs of different customers.” Page 8
  9. 9. Severn Trent set to expand trial with award-winning leak finding robot Following trials earlier this year, Severn Trent is working with US-based WatchTower Robotics on creating and trialling a UK-specific leak-finding robot in the company’s pipes. Created by Dr You Wu, who got his PhD from MIT this year, the robot, called Lighthouse, has now been named as a national winner of the James Dyson Award, which celebrates, encourages and inspires the next generation of design engineers. The robot looks a little like a badminton shuttlecock, is very flexible and ‘fills’ pipes, allowing it to travel with the flow of the water, logging its position and leak information as it goes. The data can be retrieved wirelessly and a ‘map’ of leaks can be produced before the robot is fished out using a net or flushed out of a hydrant. Bob Stear, Deputy Chief Engineer at Severn Trent, said: “We hosted You and his robot earlier this year and we were very excited about its potential so we’re now looking at the best way forward. “We’re working closely with him on a number of initiatives, including looking at a UK-specific model, and seeing whether we can partner with other, overseas, water companies in a much-extended trial. “Our initial aim is to get a dozen or so trial robots that we can hand out to our engineers in real world situations to see how they perform. It’s incredibly exciting and could be a real game changer when it comes to tackling leakage.” Dr Wu said: “Severn Trent offered a valuable opportunity to pilot the new leak detection robot in the UK earlier this year. WatchTower is looking forward to expanding the pilot programme with Severn Trent and to together implement this more effective leak finding and prevention solution in the UK. Eventually, we want to make water distribution systems in the UK more efficient and sustainable.” Brown and Caldwell Strengthens Smart Utility Offering With BC Blue Brown and Caldwell, a leading environmental engineering and construction firm, recently announced the launch of BC Blue, a smart utility approach to efficiently manage and operate water, wastewater, and stormwater utilities. Harnessing the power of emerging technologies, including Internet of Things and sensors, to collect and exchange data, BC Blue enables a broader understanding of operations and systems data and identifies organizational efficiency improvements. The approach equips staff with powerful sets of tools, user-friendly interfaces, improved data quality, and artificial intelligence-enhanced analytics for heightened utility performance. A product of BC Blue, business intelligence visualizations collect system-wide data, transforming it into a singular view of enhanced analytical information and foresight to help staff make informed decisions faster. Bringing engineering, operations, water quality, and management together, the visualizations integrate systems including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), asset management, customer service, and geographic information systems. By embracing the BC Blue approach, utilities can discover and utilize untapped potential to create a smart utility path forward for efficient, high-value outcomes. Subsequent benefits include real-time contaminant detection and improved water quality, enhanced asset monitoring for infrastructure and equipment replacement, predictive emergency response, improved customer service, and resource conservation. “BC Blue helps utilities efficiently align operations and systems to better collect and understand data for long-term capital investment and innovation planning while reducing operator training time,” said Kevin Stively, smart utility services leader, Brown and Caldwell. Early adopters, the Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District is using BC Blue in the implementation of its $2M SCADA human-machine interface replacement project to support the District over the next 25 years. Connecting the District’s three water treatment plants, multiple pump stations, reservoirs, and wells, BC Blue is combining AMI and SCADA data to reduce water loss and consumption as well as aiding overall effective utility management. SUEZ, one of the nation’s largest investor-owned utility organizations, is partnering with Brown and Caldwell to develop a state-of-the-art smart SCADA process throughout its award-winning 1,000 square mile SCADA network. The BC Blue-inspired method will establish an integrated, intuitive SCADA system harnessing data and analytics for increased utility performance and security while reducing operator training time. Powered with this approach, SUEZ will implement smart SCADA upgrades and renewals throughout its 15 North American utility operations, ensuring alignment with the firm’s overarching smart utility vision. A first for an investor-owned utility, the large-scale integration of SUEZ’ SCADA systems encompasses more than two dozen systems, each operated independently from one another. Page 9
  10. 10. Xylem CEO Patrick Decker: Smart water is the next disruption Only smart water technology can solve how utilities address water affordability and scarcity, says Xylem CEO Patrick Decker. Following Xylem’s acquisition of several smart water companies, and extensive R&D investment, Decker describes how utilities are adopting smart water technologies and how they are impacting the industry. What do you see as some of the main challenges in the water industry today? When you think about the full cycle of water, there really are three predominant pain points for the water industry that rise above the rest. First is water loss across the distribution network, which we refer to as non-revenue water. It’s a major financial burden for utilities in an age where affordability of water is such a concern. The second is stormwater overflow. With the rising impact of climate change, we’re seeing record weather events that are placing enormous stress on the water and sewer networks of our customers. And third is the rising level of energy consumption for utilities. The water sector uses a lot of energy, and it is also one of the biggest generators of greenhouse gas emissions. How do you think smart water technology will help solve some of these problems? I think the role of smart water technology is predominately in two areas. One is being able to embed more intelligence in the actual equipment and hardware that we sell to our customers. The second is to be able to overlay software and data analytics on top of that hardware. This could be data for an individual piece of equipment or an entire network, which is turned into actionable insights for our customers. These insights can help them reduce their water losses on clean water distribution networks, help them more effectively manage stormwater overflow situations, or reduce their energy consumption on the wastewater side of the network. Xylem has been acquiring companies that specialize in smart water technology. Why has Xylem been making these acquisitions? We’ve been making a number of acquisitions over the last couple of years to further build out our portfolio, to truly make it a portfolio of smart water solutions. I would like to emphasize that it’s not just through acquisitions that we’re doing that. We’re also investing heavily in our own R&D to continue to embed intelligence in our existing hardware and equipment. That’s as important as the software development and data analytics overlay that we’ve acquired through our new analytics platform. It’s important to recognize that this is not about software versus hardware. This is about marrying the two together to really be able to derive the best insights for our customers. What have you heard from Xylem customers about smart water technology? Are they cautious or excited about it? As I talk to utility customers around the world, what I’m hearing from CEOs and their management teams is that it’s not that they are risk adverse and unwilling to try new technologies, but that they need to be proven technologies. One reason our customers are so excited is that our move to smart water technologies is based on the credibility that our teams have built up over decades of serving these customers. One utility CEO told me, “Patrick, you’re doing the hard work for us. You’re going out and putting your money where your mouth is. You’re doing diligence on these terrific new technologies, vetting which ones work and which ones are not real, and then bringing that to me as a customer. I don’t have to worry about the sustainability or the effectiveness of what you’re bringing together because you’re a proven company. You’re putting your reputation on the line, and that makes it easy for me as a utility to adopt.” Are there some parts of the water industry that are taking on smart water technologies more than others? We are seeing different rates of adoption. I would say, first of all, it’s not necessarily by geography. It tends to be by the philosophy of the utility itself. CEOs of utilities are implementing these technologies for a number of reasons. It could be due to a national security issue, a regulatory challenge, or issues of water scarcity. Each situation drives a different mentality. But those utility CEOs that are more progressive are adopting this technology with open arms, because they see the immediate payback financially for them, as well as being able to provide better service to their end users. The approach we’re taking is to really go after those early adopters, use them as thought leaders, and then after that really drive a fast following of next-level utilities as they see that this is proven to be effective. I’m very optimistic that we’ll see a tipping point here in very short order. Do you think the water industry is changing how quickly it adopts new technologies? The water sector has traditionally been criticized as being risk adverse and slow to adopt new technologies, just like many other industries and sectors. I do see, along with other water leaders, that a movement is afoot today. It is driven by the confluence of water scarcity issues and the affordability of water. Those pressure points are coming together, and now that utilities see that there is a more cost-effective way to do things using smart technology, they are becoming more willing to adopt. We see that movement definitely gaining momentum at this stage. In emerging markets, they have no interest when they build greenfield infrastructure to put in dumb water infrastructure. They’re leaping ahead of that and are putting in smart, better-designed infrastructure. But also in more mature markets, where there is aging infrastructure, the technologies that we’ve brought into the portfolio now help utilities better pinpoint exactly where they need to replace infrastructure, as opposed to doing it widespread in a very costly way. They can now target specifically where leaks are occurring or where there’s ineffective metering. This is just one example of ways they can work smarter in allocating capital. What do you see as the ultimate impact of smart water on social, economic and environmental issues? I believe passionately that smart technologies in the water sector are going to change the world in a few different ways. In my view, the reason why the water sector is the next big sector to be disrupted in a positive way through technology is because it has all of the necessary characteristics to do so. First of all, there is massive spending in the sector – one trillion dollars a year. Secondly, it’s got an incredibly wasteful and inefficient supply chain. Third, regulation is going to drive a technology disruption. Issues of water scarcity and water affordability can only be dealt with through positive technological disruption. Only through technology can we significantly slash the capital spending requirement and CapEx budgets of a utility. And we have those technologies. Whether it is taking the cost of upgrading a clean drinking water distribution network and cutting that by two-thirds, or helping a city address stormwater overflow at a third of traditional contracts and CapEx budgets, the technology exists. We’ve proven this in a number of cities across the US and will be able to do that around the globe. Page 10
  11. 11. AMI Cloud Solutions No Longer Considered Pie-In-The-Sky By now, most of the utilities managing the 80 percent of U.S. water meters not yet capitalizing on advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) have heard about the advantages offered by the 20 percent of utilities that are. Unfortunately, utilities large and small still cite a variety of reasons delaying their step up to AMI productivity — including smart meter installation costs, lack of in-house expertise, and capital budgets for IT support. Now, with a vast range of experience in utility smart meter applications — water, gas, and electrical — Microsoft Azure cloud capabilities offer new incentives for utilities to make the switch, without a big CAPEX cost for the IT infrastructure to support it. AMI And The Cloud: A Perfect Fit Because AMI services offer the benefits of bi-directional communications — meter-to-utility, utility-to-meter, and utility-to-customer — cloud infrastructure is a natural fit for any AMI application. Microsoft Azure offers the advantage of an industry-tailored platform to support utility needs without the development cost or delay of custom software. Its Web-accessible cloud infrastructure also makes timely data readily accessible to appropriate utility employees, wherever and whenever needed. The Azure platform also supports automated alerts and data sharing to utility customers, via smartphone apps and Web browsers, as easily as it collects meter readings at user-designated intervals via a secure RF communication network — in real time, and even in remote locations. Satisfy core utility needs. Automated AMI data collection puts utilities in the best position to manage water meter assets, analyze water system consumption, and leverage resulting data most profitably. Cloud-based Web accessibility makes that timely, accurate data available as needed. Streamline operating costs. The nature of Software as a Service (SaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS) capabilities such as AMI and Microsoft Azure lets users employ significantly better data capture and management capabilities without major up-front financial investment in IT resources. Reduce waste. AMI data collection down to 15-minute intervals supports more timely data access and reporting than manual readings or even automated meter readings (AMR) to help utilities identify and minimize non-revenue water (NRW) losses sooner. Build better customer relationships. Cloud storage and data management systems with convenient mobile apps and user interfaces make it easy to share current and historical data with customers to help them understand and manage their own water use. Providing direct user access to timely, accurate water- consumption statistics can help customers reduce water use and costs, as well as reduce their likelihood of contacting utility customer service representatives with questions about usage and billing. Motivate desirable customer interactions. Giving customers access to their own water-use data in real time makes it easier for them to identify leaks during overnight or away-from-home periods, and can motivate them to comply with water-use restrictions during periods of water scarcity. Scale up or down, as conditions require. Another advantage to the Azure cloud platform is that it lets utilities scale AMI activity according to demand, at very affordable incremental costs. That enables utilities to get started with smart meters and AMI capabilities for a pilot program or for just a fraction of their customer base, then add more meters incrementally as additional funding resources become available. An additional benefit of using the leading world-class cloud service with experience supporting water utility AMI applications is that security is built right into the service. From protecting against unauthorized access by managing user identity and access, to protecting sensitive customer information with data access control and encryption, to monitoring, logging, and mitigating external threats, Microsoft Azure relieves utilities of the need to manage the IT platform behind it. This leaves a utility with more time and manpower to focus on its own operations. Complementing Cloud Capabilities With Other In-House Needs One of the more attractive benefits of utilizing an enterprise-level water meter data management service on the Microsoft Azure cloud platform is that it can provide the best balance of metering support capabilities with freedom to complement other areas of utility operation. Utilities working with an AMI-system supplier using the Microsoft Azure platform can harness leading-edge IT capabilities coupled with industry-specific expertise in metering and billing. For example, the winner of the 2017 SGS Best Smart Water Solution — hosted on the secure, scalable Microsoft Azure platform — is compatible with every billing system in the utility market and supports most customer information systems (CIS), asset management, and GIS software used by today’s water utilities. As the largest cloud services platform in the world — based on 2017 company filings and earnings reports — Microsoft Azure is also well positioned to serve utility and municipal needs beyond AMI. With growing experience in multiple utility applications and smart city management opportunities, plus built-in capabilities for business intelligence, analytics, and artificial intelligence, Microsoft Azure can satisfy a range of utility and municipal management concerns. Page 11
  12. 12. Article: 14 Steps To Identifying WTP & WWTP Flow Metering Options There’s a lot to be said for the old adage, “Use the right tool for the job.” When it comes to flow meters for municipal or industrial water treatment plant (WTP) and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operations, however, the sheer number of choices can be overwhelming. That is where using a process of elimination to winnow out styles that don’t fit the performance criteria of an application can make it easier to compare the few remaining options. Here is a checklist of considerations to accelerate that process. Match The Medium Just because a flow meter can produce a reading in a given application does not mean that it is the most appropriate choice. In addition to body design and material characteristics that tolerate water with high amounts of solids, potable water, or aggressive chemicals, they must take into account medium-related factors that can influence the performance and selection of one flow meter type over another. Solids Content. Mechanical meters can be fouled and compromised by suspended solids in the flow stream. Ultrasonic meters are often better choices for raw sewage or light sludge. Ultrasonic meters with Doppler technology can even accommodate solids up to 25 percent. Electromagnetic flow meters (aka mag meters) handle water with high amounts of solids very well since there are no obstructions in the flow stream within the meter. Fluid Clarity. Ultrasonic meters that measure transit-time (Figure 1) can work on clear flows, but those that work on Doppler technology (Figure 2) require some solids or bubbles in the stream to reflect the signal back for measurement calculation. Mag meters can be used with clean or dirty water applications; however, large amounts of entrained air going through a mag meter will cause inaccuracies since the air is taking up a significant volume, displacing the water. Mag meters cannot be used with pure water applications since pure water is non-conductive: a minimal amount of conductivity must be present in a liquid flowing through a mag meter for proper flow measurement. Aggressive Fluids. Be sure that meter materials can withstand aggressive process flows with sand and grit, or chemicals, such as chlorine used in WTP & WWTP applications. Mag meters with rubber liners tend to handle sand and grit well as the abrasives tend to bounce off the liner without damaging it. Mag meters with PTFE liners and the appropriate electrode materials work very well in chemical applications. Since ultrasonic clamp-on meters use non-invasive transducers, they will work well in applications with sand and grit. They can work in chemical applications if the velocity of the chemical in the pipe is sufficient for the ultrasonic transducers to measure the flow. Viscosity. Changing fluid viscosity can have negative impacts on certain types of flow meters. Mag meters are capable of providing + 0.25-percent accuracy across a wide range of flow rates, regardless of temperature-induced variations in viscosity (Figure 3). Flow-Rate Variability. In applications with highly variable flow rates, look for technologies with good turndown ratios (maximum flow rate of meter divided by minimum flow rate of meter), such as ultrasonic and especially magnetic flow meters that can yield accurate readings across a wide flow range. Sometimes meters must be downsized from the pipe size so that the flow meter will operate in the correct flow range. This is commonly done with vortex flow meters that can measure the volumetric or mass flow of steam, gases, or liquids: a 6” pipe might use a 4” vortex meter so that the application is within the meter’s flow range. Pressure Loss. When a process can tolerate pressure drop, differential pressure meters such as venturi meters are an affordable, long-lasting investment. When a process cannot, mag meters deliver accurate readings with zero pressure loss. Figure 1. Ultrasonic meters based on two-way transit-time calculations measure the time it takes an ultrasonic wave to travel between two sensors. Figure 2. Doppler-based ultrasonic meters calculate flow based on the fre- quency shift of ultrasonic waves reflecting off of suspended particles or bubbles in a liquid stream. Meters with external clamp-on sensors mean no pressure head loss, no contact with internal liquid, and no moving parts to maintain. Figure 3. Mag meters sense the voltage created by the flow of con- ductive fluid through a magnetic field. This highly accurate tech- nology is unaffected by fluid density, temperature, pressure, or viscosity changes. Page 12
  13. 13. Gases. The properties of the gas or compressed air, including blower air applications, affect the readings of many flow meters. Wet gases or condensate can dramatically alter the flow readings or damage some meters. In these situations, vortex flow meters provide an accurate flow reading, and mass flow can be determined with temperature and pressure compensation. Know How Size Matters Matching meter size to the application at hand is essential to choosing the “right tool for the job.” Both under-sizing and over-sizing can have undesirable effects on metering performance. Under-sizing. It is important to recognize that mechanical flow meters can wear out prematurely if they run at 100 percent of design capacity all the time. Recognize, too, that a marked increase in plant throughput can result in flow rates that exceed the capacity of a venturi meter, even if it was appropriately sized for the initial installation. Similar to sizing pumps, most flow meters should be sized to operate at 50 percent of peak capacity to allow for variations in demand without compromising performance, although this rule of thumb can vary by meter type and application. Over-sizing. Conversely, overcompensating for projected growth can lead to inaccuracies when the current flow is just a small fraction of a meter’s capacity. In situations where there’s a need to pace chemical feed pumps to the actual flow through a WTP or WWTP, inaccuracy and loss of resolution introduced by a suboptimal flow rate can be detrimental to the efficiency of a process. Even if a new plant is designed to accommodate long-term growth capacity, the flow meters should be specified to be closer to the known current flow rates. The cost of up-sizing flow meters as growth occurs can be more desirable than the cost of inefficiency in the early years of operation. Evaluate Application-Specific Selection Criteria Different physical flow meter types are designed to handle different operating conditions — liquid vs. gas, conductive vs. non-conductive, low-viscosity vs. high- viscosity, or particle-free vs. particle-laden streams. Even in situations where several meter designs are physically acceptable, considerations related to cost, accuracy, and installation can guide the final decision. Cost. When two or more meter types can satisfy the operating demands of an application, it is important to appreciate how meter costs vary by pipe size. For example, with mag meters, costs increase proportionally as pipe sizes increase. With ultrasonic meters, costs do not rise as quickly for larger pipes. Because the transducers in an ultrasonic meter are the same whether it’s a 24” or a 48” pipe, that factor of the cost stays the same. From an operating-cost perspective, in cases where significant volumes of purchased water are consumed or evaporated as part of the process, or shipped out as part of the product, documenting the fraction that is actually returned to the sewer system can trim sewer costs significantly. For an open discharge to a stream or river, an open channel ultrasonic meter can be used with a flume or weir. A pump station with pressurized piping can get optimal performance from a mag meter or ultrasonic meter. Accuracy. In most municipal water or wastewater flow metering applications, accuracy of + 1.0 percent is typically acceptable. Some applications may use a treatment additive with a fairly high cost at a high volume, such as a de-watering polymer, where the dosing proportion is critical, and a higher level of performance — such as the + 0.1-percent accuracy of our Coriolis meters — might be required. Be sure to evaluate accuracy requirements for minimum, normal, and maximum flow rates — either as a percentage of actual reading (AR), percentage of calibrated span (CS), or percentage of full-scale (FS) units. Note that an accuracy stated as a percentage of the actual flow reading will be more accurate than accuracy stated as a percentage of full-scale flow. Installation Considerations. Beyond meter selection, consider other factors that can impact flow-measurement performance efficiency. Installation costs can vary based on labour requirements (e.g., flanged connections vs. threaded connections). A non-invasive clamp-on ultrasonic meter can be an economical choice for retrofit applications where a process shutdown for meter replacement is not practical. Ultrasonic transit-time clamp-on technology will work with the following pipe materials: ductile iron, ductile iron mortar-lined, carbon steel, stainless steel, copper, PVC/CPVC. The following pipe materials are not recommended for use with ultrasonic clamp-on technology: cement (air pockets or voids don’t allow transmission of ultrasonic signal), rubber-lined pipe (ultrasonic signal bounces back off rubber), galvanized (inner galvanized layer of pipe comes loose, interfering with ultrasonic signal), or double-wall pipe (ultrasonic signal cannot penetrate air gap between inner and outer pipe). Turbulence caused by elbows, tees, reducing bushings, valves, pumps – anything that generates turbulence -- can impact metering accuracy: in these applications, accuracy will be lessened, but this is where meter repeatability is important. In most cases, it is best to incorporate a straight length of pipe equivalent to 10x the diameter of the pipe on the upstream side of the flow meter and 5x on the downstream side of the meter. With our mag meters, that spacing can be reduced to 3x on the upstream side and 2x on the downstream side. This flexibility makes mag meters good options for installations where the 10x/5x guidelines are compromised due to space restrictions. Also take into consideration conditions that might exist farther upstream. For example, if there is a second elbow just upstream from a first elbow, or if a pump is introducing added turbulence into the flow, consider extending the length of the straight-pipe run beyond the 10x rule of thumb to let the turbulence settle out. Also, know that a partially closed valve can introduce quite a bit of turbulence, requiring longer straight runs to let the turbulence in the cross-section of the flow equalize. Water hammer caused by quick start-and-stop conditions — such as in a water batching system — can be of particular concern for mechanical meters (such as turbine meters), where severe shock can actually damage a meter. In that case, it is a good idea to install slow- closing valves that can throttle back gently or to choose mag meters, which are not affected by water hammer. Page 13
  14. 14. Feature Article: The future challenges of wastewater flow & it’s control The subject of flow and flow to full treatment (FFT) and it’s control is one of the key investment drivers in England & Wales in the next Asset Management Period (AMP) under the Environment Agency Water Industry National Environment Programme (WINEP). The programme will see the Water Companies in England & Wales move towards even more measurement on wastewater treatment works to ensure that their treatment works to ensure that all the flows that should be treated are being treated. But what does this exactly mean for regulation of the water industry and what does this mean in terms of flow measurement and the technology that is used and how is the FFT flow going to be regulated. These are the questions that are being answered at the moment by the industry but overall there is a trend in the wastewater networks and treatment works to ensure that the maximum amount of wastewater as possible passes through the wastewater system. Network Event duration monitoring The recent swathe of measurement in the wastewater system started in PR14 with the event duration monitoring programme and the Ministerial Direction that was released in July 2013. In this Direction it was stated that the water companies need to monitor the majority of their Combined Storm Overflow’s by 2020 at the 17,684 CSOs in England & Wales. This programme has been implemented over the past four years of this AMP and results are starting to come in from the sensors that have been installed. In the CIWEM Urban Drainage Group (UDG) “Best Practice Manual for Event Duration Monitoring” the rationale for this programme of works has been give as: The Water Industry is setting out to improve the visibility of the performance of its sewerage networks to third parties including regulators and the public, specifically around Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) discharges to the environment. To achieve this, Companies are looking to promote more extensive implementation of Event Duration Monitoring (EDM), as part of their five yearly business plans. For the majority of sites, this would take the form of logging the timing and duration of CSO spills, to enable summarised reports to be consistently produced, generally on an annual basis. Where such monitoring is not already in place, it is intended that further sites would be included on a prioritised basis, focussed on environmental sensitivity. Where locations are of a particularly sensitive nature, such as designated bathing waters, Companies may seek to notify appropriate parties about spills, as they are happening or soon after. Ideally this would be on a near real-time basis, to allow potential impacts to be pro-actively managed. As examples, there are already several internet and mobile phone systems in operation around the UK by water companies and other third parties that help bathing water users make informed choices. Note that near real-time warnings are not a regulatory requirement placed on Companies. To provide this capability may require a commensurately higher level of technology and associated support systems than logging alone. Work is being done by water companies in partnership with the shellfish industry to ascertain whether similar systems would be beneficial for shellfish harvesters, so there is potential for real-time warning systems to be used at many more sites. For recipients to be able to trust this information, it is key that reliable and consistent information is produced. The system of monitoring is relatively simple with the installation of the appropriate sensor, data transmission and data analytics (figure 1) to discover where action needs to be taken to reduce the number of spills to the water environment. Figure 1: EDM monitoring system (CIWEM, 2016) Page 14
  15. 15. The devices themselves have tended to be ultrasonic sensors connected to GSM/GPRS style data logger/controller devices or capacitance-based devices connected via radio signal. This gives an excellent picture of when flow is passing over the storm overflow to the environment. The philosophy of this is, taking a risk-based approach, to reduce the number of discharges to the environment in order to improve the overall environmental quality. This is addressing the issues from a network perspective and the next step in the wastewater system chain is to look to the wastewater treatment works to reduce the potential impact from discharges of crude wastewater from this source. The programme is a first step to identify the risks to the aquatic environment so that projects can be setup to remediate where the greatest impact to the environment exists leading to environmental improvements. Flow to Full Treatment and its future drivers From a regulatory basis a wastewater treatment works often (but not always) has a flow to full treatment (FFT) consent. Literally this is the amount of flow that the works must treat before going to the storm tank or treatment system. Traditionally this has been set using the formula of FFT = 3PG + Imax + 3E P Population Served (No of people) G Per Capita Consumption (L/hd/day) Imax Maximum infiltration over the whole year (L/day) E Trade Effluent Flow (L/day) Typically, this has been considered to be three times the dry weather flow but over the years with the adjustments in the consents this has been eroded so that the ratio of the flow to full treatment to the dry weather flow is less than this. In some situations this is appropriate as sites simply never reach their flow to full treatment and never spill to the environment in others this has become a problem and the WINEP programme will allow for the adjustments of these sites in order to prevent spills to the environment. This programme of works will split into monitoring and improvement areas: U_MON 3 This driver is for monitoring discharges to the storm tanks or treatment system at the storm weir and at the exit point from the storm tanks. U_MON 4 This monitoring driver is for the installation of flow monitoring of the flow to full treatment, as near as possible, downstream of the storm split or at a remote point which is representative of the flow to full treatment. This shall be certified under the Monitoring Certification Scheme (MCERTS) U_INV 2 This is an investigation driver to see where appropriate monitoring can be installed where U_MON 4 is practically infeasible and there is the potential for using an alternative flow measurement structure which will satisfy MCERTS but be of a better value than installing a FFT device. U_IMP 5 This is to improve the works, as necessary, by increasing the consented flow to full treatment to a maximum of three times the dry weather flow. This is likely to need fundamental changes to the treatment capacity of the works. U_IMP 6 This is an improvement driver to increase the capacity of storm tanks so that they will hold two hours of flow at the difference between Formula A and FFT or 62L/hd/day. The complications of FFT Flow Measurement Thetheoryofthisprogrammeofworksisenvironmentallysound insofar as if the industry maximises the amount of wastewater flow that it treats at the wastewater treatment works by minimising the overflows to the environment from both the wastewater network and the wastewater treatment works the overall impact will be a large increase in aquatic water quality. This is important as looking at the 2011-12 data and looking at the best case scenario there were at least 64,542 spills to the environment from CSOs not including the overflows from wastewater treatment works where a recent study by UKWIR has shown that over 40% of wastewater treatment works could be non-compliant with FFT conditions although this was based upon a limited data set. This is driving the industry towards the monitoring of FFT under U_MON4 as close reasonably practical downstream of a storm weir. The complications of this is the majority of works will need this to be retrofitted with less than ideal conditions. Practically this could mean rebuilding large inlet works just for the sake of putting flow measurement in place, this can be seen in a small works context in figure 2. In this case it can be seen that downstream of the FFT control there is no practical place for flow measurement, additionally Figure 2: A storm split where FFT Flow Measurement is practically impossible Page 15
  16. 16. the monitoring of the storm split either side of the flow control device, the rectangular notch in the centre of the picture, will need at least two sensors to accurately reflect the situation. It is the presumption that most treatment works will have channels with relatively long approaches and potentially sufficient head to install a flume to provide both flow measurement and control that can cause a significant problem within the water industry. The reality is that the majority of treatment works in the water industry are relatively small. Looking at the majority of treatment works for one of the Water & Sewerage Companies in the UK it can be seen that over 35% of works consented DWD do not quality under MCERTS (i.e. have a consent below 50m3/day and over 40% of the rest are under 1000m3/day and only 3% of works are over 10,000m3/day (Figure 3) What this shows is there is a large proportion of wastewater treatment works where installing FFT flow measurement could be a problem due to lack of space within the preliminary stage of the works to effectively assess FFT flow performance. This will vary from company to company but is generally the case. The general thought is that the smaller the works the less cost there will be associated to a project to retrospectively install flow measurement. Where this is true for some of the costs associated with any project this is not necessarily the case as a larger works may well have more of an infrastructure to retrofit a measurement system where for a smaller works this may not be the case. There are technological solutions that can address some of the risk associated with the need for flow to full treatment monitoring however care has to be taken when looking at these technological approaches that they will represent the actual situation accurately and thus the feasibility of the flow measurement solutions applied need to be rigorously assessed on a holistic flow measurement approach with a view to assess the FFT situation on site. This is the reason why the MCERTS programme is set to be applied to the FFT approach. However this has the potential to limit solutions that can be applied as it is set around traditional flow measurement approaches rather than the assessment of compliance using innovative techniques or even taking the approach of assessing compliance using a fixed control structure which wouldn’t necessarily be able to provide flow measurement (such as the example in figure 2 above which is set to control at 6DWF). The use of Area Velocity techniques have been examined by some water & sewerage companies for a potential technological solution for the measurement of FFT however a recent MCERTS bulletin has made the application of these techniques more onerous with the need to prove that a fully established flow profile is present for the use of area-velocity flow measurement. There will be a duty for the installer to provide evidence that an established flow profile is present or that there are at least 20 upstream channel width and 5 downstream channel widths available. In reality all of this will require specialist advice from experts within the field. The industry will naturally move towards the MCERTS inspectors but there is a potential conflict of interest as well as the MCERTS Inspectors are not permitted to give detailed design advice under Bulletin 22 and the Code of Practice for MCERTS Inspectors. On top of all of these potential problems are the fact that under the U-MON3 driver there is a need for event duration monitoring as well and current thought is that, like flow monitoring, these devices will need to hold MCERTS product certification. The problem with this approach is that there are no products that are certified and in fact no specifications to certify any of the products that are available on the market. Conclusions In the drive towards treating as much flow (and load) through the wastewater treatment works there is an undeniable benefit to the aquatic environment although this must be balanced against the impact to the air environment through increased energy use. This can be done by measuring up the aquatic benefits and ensuring that, whilst the aquatic quality goals are met, that we also balance the regulatory demands. The overall aim is for the industry to achieve good ecological status in our rivers and waterbodies. In order to deliver this we need to monitor and control efficiently and this will take a large investment within the water industry and in order to deliver this programme of works there is a need to employ the technical expertise, that is somewhat lacking within the water industry. The alternative is that the installations that the industry will put in place will not be up to standard and the whole point of the programme will be lost and the investment needed to deliver the programme will increase as rework of the installations result in additional costs. With the Event Duration Monitoring programme of works that is currently being delivered missed out the potential of resolving the issues that the industry sees within the networks as in reality the “problem” sites were not known. This has resulted in extending the environmental solution to several asset management periods. In someways this can be seen as a prudent methodology as it was a case of the industry not knowing what it didn’t know. At least through the prioritised methodology that was used the areas with the greatest aesthetic value will be resolved first. This isn’t the case with the FFT programme where a lot of the solutions have had to be budgeted for before the monitoring is even in place, this opens up the industry to either having a programme of works with an insufficient capital investment or a programme of works where there is the potential for a large amount of aborted investment, only time will tell which it is or whether the water & sewerage companies have struck the right balance in their investment programmes. Once all of this work is finished though the water environment will be a better place and then it will time to review all of the environmental standards and see where we, as an industry, want to be. Figure 3: % of wastewater treatment works in a particular size category Page 16
  17. 17. Article: Cybersecurity Importance On The Rise In Water Utility Operations As water utilities migrate toward remote system monitoring and control in real time, the risks associated with cybersecurity tick upward as well. While the rewards of digitalization offer real promise, the associated complexity and concerns pose corresponding risks. That is why it is important to have an overall risk management process for the organizational level, for the business process level, and for the information systems and data levels as well. Defining The Problem Cybersecurity is not just a financial or communications industry concern. With the growth of industrial control systems (ICSs), the number of risks in the industrial and utility sectors has grown exponentially over the past five to 10 years. From RF-based plant and distribution control systems to smart meters, the desire to improve ICS operating efficiencies through automation and digitalization has superimposed specific new considerations on top of the basic IT cybersecurity challenges. In the world of water utilities, the systems, data within those systems, and access to those systems are all cyber assets and should be evaluated as such. According to a recent Wall Street Journal article, the Department of Homeland Security reported earlier this year that foreign operatives gained access to U.S. utilities by penetrating the networks of trusted vendors to those utilities. From data breaches to service interruptions in consumer and commercial environments, ICS users in the utility marketplaces are becoming more aware of the risks of cybersecurity incidents than ever before. Gone are the days when organizational leadership could say, “We’ve air-gapped our systems, so we have eliminated external risks and threats.” Where To Start? Any water utility operator tasked with the chore of doing more with a smaller budget or fewer experienced personnel is going to be interested in ways to automate the process securely. The informative white paper Securing Industrial Systems In A Digital World is an excellent starting point. It addresses the state of the industry, outlines the impact of real cyber attacks, and identifies regulatory requirements. It also identifies steps for taking cyber asset inventories and best practices for measuring cyber risk and identifies specific strategies for effective risk management and implementing baseline security measures within ICS organizations. It is important for cybersecurity to be aligned with an organization’s larger digital and enterprise risk strategy. This executive report on resilience for process control systems further addresses the differences between cybersecurity planning for process control IT vs. corporate IT and the need for the two disciplines to work together. Six Principles Of Cybersecurity Protection Regardless of any specific industry standards involved — IEC 62443 2-4, NIST 800-53, ISA-99, NERC-CIP, etc. — the following principles of cybersecurity protection provide a road map for utilities interested in building more secure and resilient systems: Identify. Pinpoint not only potential threats, but also corresponding executive support for programs and funding to execute appropriate cybersecurity responses to those threats. Protect. Minimize exposure to vulnerabilities with products, services, and protections designed to intercept and mitigate the impacts of potential threats if they do arise. Detect. Don’t wait to be reactive to cybersecurity intrusions. Rather, maintain an ongoing active role in assessing and managing potential threats and vulnerabilities. Respond. Have defined processes and procedures to respond once a particular type of vulnerability or threat is detected and hold periodic exercises to train incident response personnel on executing those procedures. Recover. Ensure that backup and restore processes and practices are well developed and established to restore the system as close as possible and as quickly as possible back to where it was before the cybersecurity incident. Comply. Conduct regulatory compliance training and routine audits to establish a basic level of cybersecurity maturity, then maintain and ultimately improve upon it, year after year. Whatever a utility’s status or rate of progress toward these objectives, however, cybersecurity is not a destination; it’s a journey. That is why rigorous up- front evaluation and planning are just as important for establishing methodologies to prepare for future unknown challenges as they are for meeting current challenges. Planning The Next Steps Consider these tactical steps for achieving the strategic goals outlined above, as part of a larger methodical approach toward protecting water utility operations: Page 17
  18. 18. Security Assessment And Monitoring. Compare current assets and levels of protection against industry standards and best practices. Perimeter Protection. Firewalls working hand-in-hand with a well-designed security policy can separate networks into distinctly controlled and protected zones. Security Updates And Hardening. Efficient patch management is essential. The ongoing process extends well beyond anti-virus software to include operating systems and embedded software. Procedures And Policies. Work hard to develop and communicate processes and procedures to detect and deter threats among interconnected systems on a global basis. Malware Protection. Equip substation automation systems with industry-standard intrusion protection and malware protection solutions, anti-virus protection, and application white-listing. Backup And Recovery. Secure off-site backup systems to make recovery easier, whether security attacks or other problems compromise access to critical data. Automating Real-World Cybersecurity Solutions As both ICS capabilities and their corresponding cyber threats become more complex, the value of having a cyber asset inventory becomes more obvious. Because performing a cyber asset inventory manually is so time-consuming, and because any such inventory is basically outdated as soon as it is completed, it is extremely valuable to automate that process. Using a vendor-agnostic automated cyber asset management tool that runs in real time to develop a comprehensive asset inventory can aid water utilities in responding to potential threats, regardless of the technical experience of their workforce. Equally important, automating that inventory instead of performing it manually can reduce staff effort by up to 120 hours per month. Beyond the cyber asset inventory, automated cybersecurity monitoring services that compare ICS system data against industry best practices and standards can also pinpoint areas of concern for utilities that are new to cybersecurity implementation. Siemens And Bentley Systems Announce PlantSight Digital Twin Cloud Services Siemens and Bentley Systems announced recently the introduction of PlantSight, resulting from development together based on their highly complementary software portfolios. PlantSight is a digital solution to benefit customers through more efficient plant operations. PlantSight enables as-operated and up-to-date digital twins which synchronize with both physical reality and engineering data, creating a holistic digital context for consistently understood digital components across disparate data sources, for any operating plant. Plant operators benefit from high trustworthiness and quality of information for continuous operational readiness and more reliability. Every real-world operating plant is characterized by cumulative evolution, both to its brownfield physical condition and to the varied types and formats of theoretically corresponding engineering data. Accordingly, as-operated digital twins must reliably synchronize reflections of both the physical reality and its virtual engineering representations, comprehensively and accurately. Moreover, further frequent changes are inevitable. With PlantSight, every process plant owner-operator can realize the benefits of as-operated digital twins – without disruption to their existing physical or virtual environment. For process industries, characterized by ongoing capital projects, the effectiveness of digital twins depends upon the integrity and accessibility of as-operated information presented and continuously updated in trusted 2D schematic and 3D model formats. PlantSight provides all stakeholders with cloud/web-enabled visibility and access into existing data and tool interfaces, assuring that changes are timely and accurately captured and managed. With PlantSight as-operated digital twin cloud services, operational and project-related engineering data is aligned seamlessly. All disciplines and stakeholders have immediate access to consistent representations. Especially for brownfield installations, the time and effort to federate and complete asset information will be significantly reduced, with plant documentation kept up-to-date, and its quality accordingly improved. Greg Bentley, CEO for Bentley Systems, said, “From the start of Bentley Systems’ strategic alliance with Siemens, we have together seen our development of PlantSight as having perhaps the most significance for our marketplace. Siemens’ announced combination of its digital offerings for discrete and process plants enables our bringing together, through a cloud service, the complementary elements of Comos, OpenPlant, MindSphere, and Teamcenter. PlantSight can now realize the process industries’ top priority in ‘going digital’— the digital twin enablement of their operating plant engineering.” “With PlantSight, we’re stepping up our cooperation with Bentley and extending the possibilities offered by data utilization for the process industry. This joint solution based on the complementary know-how of Bentley and Siemens represents a key step towards making digital twins even more efficient and creating a digitally integrated value chain which offers even greater consistency. In this way, we’re continuously enlarging our Digital Enterprise portfolio by embracing future technologies,” said Klaus Helmrich, Member of the Management Board of Siemens AG. ValentijndeLeeuw,VicePresidentARCAdvisoryGroup,said,“IbelievethatSiemens’andBentley’snewly-developedPlantSightserviceswillestablishafoundation for next-generation asset information and performance management. For as-operated digital twins, this augments the actual plant by integrating operational data with operational intelligence dashboards, immersive operator training simulation, and links with applications such as process simulation, asset strategy, and reliability. The benefits of the environment will increase with the number of microservices provided.” Page 18
  19. 19. Article: How Alarmed Should You Be About Operator Effectiveness? In order to optimize control of a water or wastewater treatment plant (WTP/WWTP), it is important to understand what is going on within the process. But as processes and control systems become more sophisticated, maximizing operator effectiveness becomes more complex as well. A well-planned alarm and control strategy can make a significant difference between giving plant operators valuable decision-making information and confusing them with disjointed, complex data points. This article highlights key strategies for foreseeing problems in advance, fixing them faster, and having a higher success rate by maximizing operator effectiveness. Manage Multiple Disciplines More Effectively, Under One Unified System From an organizational perspective, there are four pillars that support maximum operator effectiveness. Evaluating plant operations with these four concepts in mind provides the opportunity to streamline operations, improve plant productivity, reduce risk, and maintain a more qualified workforce in spite of employee turnover (Figure 1). Plant System Integration. Just because different subsystems have been added to a WTP or WWTP over time does not mean that they can’t all be unified under a single control system. Operator consoles having the ability to integrate I/O signals among a mix of programmable logic control (PLC), distributed control system (DCS), and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) installations now make it possible to consolidateequipmentfrommultiplevendorsinoneuser-friendlyview.Inlargerorganizations,operators from multiple facilities can also share the same control screens for collaborative troubleshooting or planning sessions. High-Performance Operator Stations. Well-thought-out human machine interface (HMI) features — such as high-performance graphics and alarm management — make operators more effective by grouping data in the ways that operators need it. Selective use of colour can help to prioritize important events by order of priority. Operator Competency. A good way to supplement operator experience gained in the plant is through training and process simulation, which can ensure that the first time an operator experiences an alarm condition is not in the real production environment. This is particularly critical in organizations where retirement of the most experienced operators has eroded institutional knowledge or where fewer operators are expected to do more as a result of automation. Human Factor Ergonomics. How a control room is organized can simplify or complicate operator effectiveness. Piecemeal control systems that were installed as new plant equipment was added can now be consolidated conveniently within the operator’s line of sight to minimize the need to roll chairs across the control room or delay operator reaction. Extended operator workplace (EOW) furniture can reduce operator fatigue during 12-hour shifts. Good lighting design, targeted audio and video alarm signals, and dedicated control-room spaces that minimize distractions from non-essential functions or personnel can all contribute to a more productive control room environment. An Alarming Retrospective On The Evolution Of Control In the days before DCS, a dedicated light on an annunciator panel meant something. With limited available panel space, only the most critical factors of operation were represented by alarm indicators. System designers carefully planned which signals were critical enough to make the grade and exactly how they should be organized. With limited space on each panel, subsequent panels had to be constructed for each system within the plant, and as water treatment processes became more sophisticated and the number of treatment systems grew, so did the number of control panels. With the advent of distributed control systems and digital display screens, however, it was very easy to create an alarm setting on every signal that came from a sensor, instrument, or control device in a WTP/WWTP. As a result, many alarms were set by default, but never prioritized into a control hierarchy. The proliferation of alarms in DCS installations created unnecessary disruptions. Non-actionable alarms occur when a specific alarm condition arises but the operator does nothing because he or she is waiting for a subsequent, more critical factor to trigger another alarm. Nuisance alarms are triggered when the system goes from “alarm” to “no-alarm” status before an operator can react. Both of these conditions can lead to “alarm fatigue,” which can condition the plant operator to ignore alarms altogether or take too long to return the system to normal operation. Minimize Inefficiency With Better HMI Better Alarms. One of the more valuable aspects of modernizing control system HMI is using it as an opportunity to review and reorganize alarm information in a more meaningful way. This includes reviewing current alarm history and classifying actionable alarms by priority. Realistic industry guidelines for alarm frequency state that an operator can handle a maximum no more than two alarms every 10 minutes on a long-term basis, and a maximum of 10 alarms per 10 minutes during a plant upset for a short duration. By comparison, some large plants average more than a thousand alarm events a day. One way to identify unnecessary alarms is to ask, “At the time of that alarm, did the operator have to act, and what were the consequences of not acting?” It is surprising how many alarm conditions require no action or have no direct consequence. Many of those are simply an indication of a change in status and should never have been classified as an alarm when the DCS was initially installed. Undertaking a methodical review will provide an opportunity to identify and re-prioritize those unnecessary alarms as well as clean up chattering or fleeting alarms. Figure 1. Focusing on four pillars of operator effectiveness can enhance control system performance at any time — from initial system installation through periodic retrofit applications. Page 19
  20. 20. Better HMI Displays. Early DCS systems that used screen graphics and animation to mimic piping-and-instrumentation-diagram (P&ID) drawings worked well enough for the electrical design engineer, but not necessarily as well for WTP/WWTP operators. With increasingly powerful DCS systems, displays got away from large painted flow-diagram boards that defined analog control systems, and became a series of individual screens that were not always organized to provide a sequential snapshot of related processes. Excessive use of colour and animation that might have looked sexy as a sales feature (Figure 2) could actually confuse an operator trying to understand what was going on in the system during a process upset. By contrast, today’s high-performance graphics incorporate grayscale images to establish the basic process flow and use colours selectively (Figure 4) to highlight critical activity within the operation (e.g., red for Priority One alarms, orange for Priority Two alarms, and yellow for Priority Three alarms). Even when a plant chooses not to employ the grayscale techniques, it is still recommended that darker shades of red and green be used as run/stop indicators while brighter reds and greens depict priority and return to normal conditions. Another valuable technique is to display trends embedded on graphics to provide a snapshot context of the past few hours of actual WTP/WWTP operation and to show the normal operating range and the alarm limits on the bar graphs — with the priority colour and priority number depicted after each respective alarm limit is breached. Yes, There’s An App For That! To simplify execution of the alarm management strategies outlined here, methodologies that can be used to rationalize alarms from any control system have been incorporated into Alarm Management Tools. The tools provide analysis of the alarm history, which can then be applied toward implementing alarm grouping and suppression, creating a master alarm database, and other steps that have generated time savings of 30 percent to 50 percent in industry applications. Figure 2. Older highly coloured screens with symbolic representations of control logic make it difficult for operators to focus in on the locations and values of alarm conditions. Figure 3. Modern, selectively coloured HMI screen features quickly highlight prime areas of concern for the operator, in the context of the actual plant layout. Echo takes billing software global with first Australian water sector client Following the launch of Aptumo, an innovative new SaaS billing software solution, outsourced utilities customer engagement specialist, Echo Managed Services, has secured its first international contract with Coliban Water in Victoria, Australia. Forming part of a wider transformation project across the water company’s customer and stakeholder managements systems, the contract will see Coliban Water replacing its existing billing platform with Aptumo – an innovative, cloud-based, utility customer billing software solution. Built on the Salesforce platform and designed to evolve with ease, the new system will help Coliban Water to maintain positive relationships with its customers through improving and personalising the billing experience. Coliban Water is one of the larger regional urban water corporations in Victoria, Australia, covering approximately 20% of the region. Amanda Finnis, CIO of Coliban Water, commented: “We needed an information management system that is easy to use, provides accurate data, has rich reporting capabilities and allows our customers to engage with us how and when they want. We also wanted to generate efficiencies throughout the business to allow us headspace for innovation. Aptumo was the ideal solution. We were impressed by Echo’s specialist utility knowledge, as well as the scope to adapt the platform to our needs both now and in the future.” Nigel Baker, managing director of Echo Managed Services, said: “Billing is an extremely important part of the customer journey, so it’s great to see that forward-thinking suppliers like Coliban Water are future-proofing their systems with dynamic software like Aptumo. Having been at the heart of the highly-regulated UK utilities sector for over 20 years, we have a deep understanding of what clients and their customers need – and we’re looking forward to the project ahead.” Page 20
  21. 21. Page 21 Conferences, Events, Seminars & Studies Conferences, Seminars & Events November 2018 Water, Wastewater & Environmental Monitoring 21st-22nd November 2018 Telford, UK Hosted by International Labmate WIPAC Flow Forum @WWEM 21st November 2018 Telford, UK Hosted by RS Hydro & International Labmate WIPAC Learning Zone @WWEM 21st-22nd November 2018 Telford, UK Hosted by International Labmate Industrial Discharge Monitoring - SWIG@WWEM 22nd November 2018 Telford, UK Hosted by SWIG & International Labmate Smart Water: Extracting Value from Data- SWIG@WWEM 22nd November 2018 Telford, UK Hosted by SWIG & International Labmate SWAN Forum@WWEM 22nd November 2018 Telford, UK Hosted by SWAN Forum & International Labmate January 2019 WWT Wastewater 2019 29th January 2019 Birmingham, UK Hosted by Water & Wastewater Technology March 2019 WEX Global 2019 4th - 6th March 2019 Porto, Portugal Hosted by Water & Wastewater Technology Conferences Coming Soon WWEM 2018 Where: Telford International Centre When: 21st - 22nd November 2018 The Water, Wastewater & Environmental Monitoring Conference & Exhibition returns for its 8th outing and this year features the Air Quality & Emissions show as well making a huge exhibition which is free to visit for all attendees. This year’s WWEM sees the return of the WWEM Instrumentation Apprentice Competition which will see apprentices from the Water Companies as well as related companies from the industry compete for the coveted WWEM Instrumentation Apprentice 2018 title. It will also see the return of the WIPAC Flow Forum as well a new innovation at WWEM, the WIPAC Learning Zone. The Learning Zone will see 40 presentations over the two days of the exhibition to learn about the various instruments and instrumentation technologies learn how to make the best of the instruments that are within the installed asset base. This year’s WWEM will also feature day conferences from the Sensors for Water Interest Group and the SWAN Forum as well as a Profibus Workshop and the SWIG Early Career Researchers Poster Competition and the SWIG photography competition as well. Some of the feature workshops at WWEM are: WIPAC Flow Forum - 21st November 2018 The WIPAC Flow Forum is the Water Industry Process Automation & Control group’s workshop forum for discussing the key learning point in the world of flow measurement that have been learnt over the previous two years as well as a form for case studies and future developments. In this year’s forum there is a concentration on • Maintenance of Flow Measurement • Flow Control & Management • Developments in Flow Monitoring WIPAC Learning Zone 21st & 22nd November 2018 The WIPAC learning zone is a series of 40 hours of technical training sessions and a further 16 workshop presentations over the two days of the WWEM conference & exhibition. Further to these conference sessions there are other workshops from the Sensors for Water Interest Group, the Standing Committee of Analysts & the SWAN Forum all talking about the analysis of water, wastewater & environmental monitoring
  22. 22. The 8th International Conference and Exhibition on water, wastewater and environmental monitoring WWEM2018 Supporting Trade Associations Network with Water Industry Experts... 21st - 22nd November Over 100 FREE workshops, over 140 Exhibitors and a focussed Conference. WWEM is the specialist event for monitoring, testing and analysis of water, wastewater and environmental samples. Tel: +44 (0)1727 858840 email: Follow us: @WWEM_Exhibition Visitors to WWEM will als o have FREE admission to the AQE Show WWEM 2018 Advert.indd 1 29/01/2018 16:50Page 22