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WIPAC Monthly - November 2017


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Welcome to the November 2017 issue of Water Industry Process Automation & Control Monthly the magazine from the LinkedIn Group of the same name.

In this month's edition, on top of the usual news from the Water Industry we have articles on

The use of Edge Computing in the Water Industry written by Group Manager, Oliver Grievson

Point versus Continuous Level Measurement by Rosemount Emerson

Smart Wastewater Network Management in India.

Hope you enjoy the latest edition

Published in: Engineering
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WIPAC Monthly - November 2017

  1. 1. Page 1 WIPAC MONTHLYThe Monthly Update from Water Industry Process Automation & Control Issue 11/2017 - November 2017
  2. 2. Page 2 In this Issue From the Editor.................................................................................................................... 3 Industry News................................................................................................................. 4 - 9 Highlights of the news of the month from the global water industry centred around the successes of a few of the companies in the global market. The “Edge of the Water Industry”....................................................................................... 10-11 In this month’s feature article we look at the concept of “Edge Computing” with respect to its application within the Water Industry and how doing things at the “Edge” could help rationalise the amount of data that is transferred around the industry on a daily basis Point versus Continuous Level Measuring Technologies..................................................... 12-14 In this article by Lydia Miller of Rosemount Emerson we look at the advantages and drawback of using point versus continuous level measurement devices Smart Wastewater Network Management in India............................................................. 15-16 In this article by Sam Konstantinov, of the Smart Water Networks Forum, the need and the development of Smart Wastewater Networks as a part of the 100 Smart Cities programme is discussed. Workshops, Conferences & Seminars................................................................................... 17-18 The highlights of the conferences and workshops in the coming months WIPAC Monthly is a publication of the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group. It is produced by the group manager and WIPAC Monthly Editor, Oliver Grievson. This is a free publication for the benefit of the Water Industry and please feel free to distribute to any who you may feel benefit. All enquires about WIPAC Monthly, including those who want to publish news or articles within these pages, should be directed to the publications editor, Oliver Grievson at
  3. 3. Page 3 From the Editor How do we control the industry that we work in? When you say ICA to most people, even those within the industry, they think straight away about telemetry and how things communicate and the sensors and instruments are literally apart of the wider skill set. In reality instrumentation and data can be a completely different discipline entirely and the sensor and its selection takes second string to the instrument itself. Added to this a future when the data, information and data science becomes the industry norm there is the danger that this will become part of the “telemetry system” too. I sat down with a colleague this month and talked about Smart Wastewater Networks and the subject of ICA came up and virtually the first point that was made was - “we are going to install this sort of instrument!” Of course that sort of instru- ment was an instrument at all it was a communication device to take the data to centralised control. We talked for a bit about the aims, goals, wants & needs and what the end objective was. After we’d talked for a bit the point that was made and the question asked was “so what information do you want or need to run the model?” The point was made was not to worry about the instrument, not to worry about the data. If we know the information that is needed then that can be taken and the data that is needed will drive the sensors and communication methodologies that are needed to achieve the ultimate aim. The cost will ultimately decide what actually goes into the ground and will also eventually decide the effectiveness of the model depending upon the resolution of the information received. Is this the remit of telemetry to do the depends how things work as in reality you’ll need engineers who are part process engineering, part civil, part mechanical, largely electrical with maybe some systems engineering in there too, in reality a muti-skilled team of engineers. Of course control is not all about the technology, it is not all about the instruments and it is not all about the telemetry systems. Those of you who read the weekly briefs will already know that I’ve been out wandering the country looking at bits of metal and concrete as part of the day job and using laser measure and ruler as part of my day job’s Price Review submission. It really has been enlightening in terms of the technical detail but it has also highlighted the skill and grace of the civil engineer and their role in controlling treatment works. Looking at flumes and storm weirs - pieces of concrete, plastic and metal shaped in just the right way so that precision control is achieved is something that is a real marvel. Something that is fixed in place, something that doesn’t move and something that does move that provides a level of control that is just so, a level of control that can be down to a fraction of a litre per second. That is the marvel of a flume that is kept well maintained and a storm weir that is set to a level that is just right. All of this could actually be going back in time but then not everything is about technology and there are reasons why the engineering basics are there. They are just another tool in the box of tricks that engineers have at their disposal. All of this affects the bigger picture and highlights the absolute need for the technical specialisms within the water industry and the fact that it is important that the technical specialisms within the industry are cared for and nurtured. There are difficult times in the Water Industry as it goes through the stresses and strains that it normally goes through but also as it transforms into what is now being called the “Digital Age” and we embrace Big Data, Data Mining but if of course you don’t have the meaning, you don’t have the application behind the data then you can’t make use of the information that you gather. Everything needs some sort of context. In reality moving forward where is the industry going to be? Its a subject that I hope to cover in the next couple of editions as we turn over another year but we will be heading towards a “Smart” Water Industry that is tuned to “Industry 4.0 - A digital beginning” we will have many more instruments with huge amounts of data. We need to know what we are going to do with all of the data that is coming from these instruments or the danger is that the industry hits the brick wall of “resistance to the effective use of instrumentation” and we go on yet another cycle of “it doesn’t work and before you know it the industry has rumble along for yet another decade or two. Have a good month Oliver
  4. 4. Risk-averse UK infrastructure could restrict digital growth opportunities A new report by Atkins, has found that a risk adverse culture within the infrastructure sector and a lack of certainty about which new technologies to invest in could cost the UK millions of pounds in efficiency savings and restrict the ability of its businesses to capitalise on the global digital revolution. The design, engineering and project management consultancy surveyed leaders from more than 30 organisations in the infrastructure sector to understand the challenges and opportunities they face as a result of the sector’s shift towards digital. Around 60 per cent of respondents said that their organisations were more than two years away from having digital ways of working and service offerings fully embedded, with 23 per cent stating that they were more than five years away. Although 97 per cent of respondents saw the digitalisation of the industry as a positive development, they highlighted the rapid pace of change in technology and the lack of certainty about which investments would prove to be winners and which would be losers as significant barriers to adoption. The high level of risk that comes with trying something new, rather than sticking to tried and tested solutions, was also cited as a key factor in decisions about using innovation to boost the UK’s infrastructure. Surprisingly, only 16 per cent of the organisations questioned felt that there was a large skills gap in relation to new technologies which could have been a major barrier to adoption, although there were also some words of caution not to allow two distinct groups to form – the digitally connected new generation and the rest. Nick Roberts, chief executive officer for Atkins’ UK & Europe business, said: “The message from the government is clear - disrupt or be disrupted. The research shows that the appetite to embrace the opportunities that digital offers is strong, but we need to find a way to overcome our aversion to risk. If we can’t fix this and meet the aspirations set out in the government’s Digital Strategy and the Industrial Strategy, then delivering world-class, modern infrastructure for less cost will not be achieved and Britain will be left behind.” He went on to warn that better collaboration is needed between the public and private sectors, the infrastructure experts and the technology experts, the funders, the designers and engineers, and the end users. “We must ensure the right people are having the right conversations and making informed decisions so we can reduce risk as far as possible. By understanding and addressing business transformation, the pace of change, people, skills, the use of big data, security and resilience, we believe organisations can embrace the opportunities the fourth industrial revolution offers and grow successfully alongside it.” When asked which technologies would be the most disruptive, 29 per cent of survey respondents pointed to big data and analytics, 25 per cent highlighted artificial intelligence, and 13 per cent said the Internet of Things. Cyber security is a major concern for infrastructure companies The research also found that cyber security is a major concern for infrastructure companies. As systems become more open and interconnected across multiple platforms and mediums to realise the benefits of digital adoption, they become more vulnerable to hackers. A number of positive opportunities were also flagged by the contributors. At present only 13 per cent of companies are using big data and analytics despite it being one of the most disruptive and beneficial developments. Other technologies including mobile computing, 3D and 4D modelling, augmented reality and biometrics all have strong potential but are used by less than a third of companies. The research included respondents from a wide range of industries including architecture, construction, energy, government, oil & gas, property development, telecoms, transportation (including rail and highways) and water. Wider responses were also sought from academia, infrastructure and technology industry groups, and Atkins’ technology partners. Sensileau launch information & community platform of instrumentation Benten Water has launched the Sensileau platform this month is the information and community platform for all users of online and real-time sensor technologies for the monitoring of water quality such as water companies, water boards, wastewater treatment plants, industrial water users and government authorities. Sensileau was borne out of the Online Water Quality Sensors and Monitors Compendium was compiled by an international consortium under the leadership of Benten Water Solutions, on the basis of a study carried out under the auspices of the WE&RF, under the banner of the GWRC. The aim of this study was the documentation of relevant (technical) information on commercially available online sensors for water quality monitoring, the corresponding costs (CAPEX and OPEX), and user-experience in the international water and wastewater industry. The information collected was made available via an online database. Page 4 Industry News
  5. 5. South West Water to install wastewater loggers from Servelec South West Water has selected battery-powered data loggers from Servelec Technologies for a wastewater event duration monitoring (EDM) project which starts this month. The Seprol S2000nano devices will be installed to monitor sewer levels underneath the roads of Cornwall and Devon. Using connected sensors each logger will interrogate sewer levels every two minutes and archive this time-stamped data every 15 minutes. Each device will be configured with threshold levels and if the data collected shows the sewer levels to be high then the device will generate event data and transmit it via GSM communications to operational staff via South West Water’s SCOPE SCADA system. This means that the S2000nano only communicates with the water companies’ SCOPE system when necessary, therefore prolonging battery life. Archived data, required for regulatory reporting, will also be recovered on a daily schedule. Tests have identified that based on South West Water’s application the lithium batteries within each device will last for up to five years. Following the agreement of the contract, Dave Curtis, Mechanical and Electrical Specialist at South West Water said: “Following a formal tendering process we identified a device in Servelec Technologies’ S2000nano that provides a strong technical solution to the data monitoring challenges presented by our waste- water EDM project. The exceptional battery life and rugged IP68 construction combined with its WITS compatibility makes the S2000nano an ideal choice for ultra-low power monitoring applications.” The S2000nano is a WITS certified battery-powered, ultra-low power wireless telemetry unit and data logger designed for remote unpowered applications. Its IP68 rated construction and exceptional battery life make it ideal for collecting and transmitting event data via cellular networks and generating a timely alarm before problems occur. As the loggers are WITS certified they integrates directly with South West Water’s WITS enabled SCOPE SCADA and telemetry system, also provided by Serve- lec. The enterprise SCOPE SCADA and telemetry system deployed by South West Water includes over 3000 telemetry outstations monitoring and controlling boreholes, reservoir levels and pumping stations. Neil Butler, Managing Director for Servelec Technologies’ Sheffield Office said: “This project represents a fantastic opportunity to build on our excellent rela- tionship with South West Water, which started in 2010 and further enhance our proven track record in the water industry. It demonstrates South West Water’s confidence in Servelec Technologies telemetry products and our ability to help our customers develop innovative solutions to modern data and telemetry challenges.” Hach Company Acquires Belgian Manufacturer AppliTek Hach Company ( announced today its acquisition of AppliTek (, a manufacturer of online analyzers and monitoring systems based in Nazareth, Belgium. The acquisition was conducted through Belgium-based affiliate Hach Lange N.V. AppliTek is a leading designer and manufacturer of wet chemical and biological online analyzers. The company develops application-specific solutions for customers in a range of industries including municipal drinking water and wastewater, environmental protection and industrial segments such as chemical, mining, and power generation. AppliTek’s online analyzers and integrated systems help customers increase efficiency, meet compliance requirements and reduce costs. “We are excited to add this respected leader in wet chemistry analysis to the Hach family,” said Kevin Klau, President of Hach. “AppliTek analyzers complement our existing portfolio and provide us a scalable platform from which we can drive future growth. I also want to welcome AppliTek’s knowledgeable and highly skilled associates to our team, and am confident you will feel welcome surrounded by Hach colleagues who share a passion for ensuring water quality for people around the world.” AppliTek is headquartered in Belgium and serves customers in more than 120 countries through direct sales and distributors. Founded in 1985, the company has experienced rapid growth in recent years, with robust demand for its instruments that measure a broad range of wet chemistry parameters including Nutrients, Hardness, Alkalinity, Toxicity, ATP, TOC and many others. AppliTek’s long history of creating value-added solutions for industrial markets has estab- lished the company as a leader with deep understanding of customer applications. “I am proud of what we have accomplished at AppliTek, starting with my father and mother in 1985, and continuing through this year,” said AppliTek President and CEO David Laurier. “I am thrilled to have AppliTek join Hach, as they are an ideal partner to help us scale globally and to continue to invest in our technology. This is a great opportunity for AppliTek employees to join an industry leader, as I’m confident Hach will build on the recent momentum for years to come.” 13th - 14th March 2018 Circular Solutions for Water & Energy for the 4th Industrial Revolution Page 5
  6. 6. Thames and SSE Enterprise Telecoms partner for ‘fibre in the sewers’ project Utilities are ripe for customer and data-driven revolution Ofwat’s chief executive believes the water sector, and other utilities, are ‘ripe for a revolution’ as she predicts a radical shake-up in how customers buy utilities and home services. Speaking at the Water 2017 conference, Ofwat’s outgoing Chief Executive, Cathryn Ross, said that in the coming years, customers would no longer have multiple providers for home services and utilities. Instead, they would work with just one company which would take care of all the administration and much of the decision making when it comes to their bills and contracts for water, energy, broadband, home insurance and home emergency cover. She also raised the interesting possibility that data – not only at customer interfaces but also potentially about network management - could become as important an asset for service providers as,pipes and wires. In a speech looking ahead to the next price review period, which runs from 2020-2025, Ross predicts this profound change will be shaped by specialist companies emerging and using leading edge data analysis to better understand customers’ needs and priorities and find the best combination of services at the right price. Cathryn Ross said: “Imagine a world in which you don’t even know who your supplier of water and waste water services is, or who supplies your energy, or broadband, or maybe even your home insurance and emergency cover. Because you have a contract with an intermediary who takes care of all that for you. “You may well have given them the ability to turn some bits of your home infrastructure on and off to manage demand and reduce costs, because this will enable you to get a better deal. “To my mind this means the water sector, indeed all utilities, are ripe for a revolution.” Customers increasingly put a premium on peace of mind and convenience. This societal change, alongside improvements in technology and skills to unlock the power of data, will lead to the emergence of companies who will meet customers’ needs in a way current providers are not doing and herald a fundamental, cross-sector shake-up. If these radical changes emerge, Cathryn Ross warned regulators they will need to change radically, too. In particular, she challenged regulators “to stop thinking in our silos about water bill payers, energy bill payers, telecoms bill payers, insurance customers and start thinking about ‘home services’ customers. Or better still human beings, with busy lives and competing demands on their money and time.” Thames Water and SSE Enterprise Telecoms are partnering to install fibre optic cables in the capital’s wastewater system. The agreement is expected to allow networks to be created up to ten times faster, “more directly and securely” using the existing wastewater system in business areas such as the City of London. Connectivity supplier SSE Enterprise Telecoms has signed an ‘operating licence to deploy’ agreement with Thames Water, which will enable the distribution of its fibre optic cables throughout Thame’s Water’s wastewater network. The deal also allows Thames Water to utilise its existing infrastructure without “any disruption” to general operations, while meeting EU and UK guidelines and helping to “support the UK’s digital strategy”. Richard Hill, head of property at Thames Water, said: “Our Victorian sewers are already home to a number of pipes and cables belonging to other utility companies and we’re glad to also now be supporting SSE Enterprise Telecoms. Reducing roadworks and traffic congestion is something hugely important to us, so it’s great to help a fellow utility company do the same by allowing them to make use of our existing infrastructure.” Mike Magee, director of service solutions at SSE Enterprise Telecoms, added: “Businesses fundamentally rely on their network to underpin everyday operations. With an ever-increasing demand for connectivity, network infrastructures require higher resiliency and improved diversity. “Estimates suggest there are as many as 3,000 enterprises in the finance and insurance sectors in the City of London area alone, each vying for connectivity. This has made the demand for unique, truly diverse network routes hard to achieve. We’ve identified a way to solve this by leveraging the waste water network.” By utilising Thames Water’s already existing wastewater system, SSE Enterprise Telecoms said it will be able to reduce network deployment costs by 60% and deploy connectivity services up to ten times faster than through traditional digs. Page 6
  7. 7. Using ATP In Suspended Growth Wastewater Treatment Systems – What Is The Benefit? Suspended growth systems, such as activated sludge, are a very common form of secondary wastewater treatment. The potential to optimize and improve the operation of such treatment plants using ATP is tremendous. ATP can directly quantify active biomass, which is key to providing secondary treatment. Two of the many potential uses for ATP in a wastewater treatment plant are aeration and solids optimization and toxicity monitoring and identification. Aeration Optimization In a typical activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, aeration is responsible for greater than 50% of the total energy consumption. Even a slight optimization can result in significant energy and cost savings. Improving aeration energy consumption is often done through capital upgrades such as replacing old aeration systems with new more energy efficient diffusers or adding online dissolved oxygen sensors. However, typically there is an opportunity to improve aeration energy efficiency through solids optimization. Oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) is inversely proportional to mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations in the aeration basin. Therefore, a decrease in MLSS can yield an increase in OTE, reducing the amount of air that needs to be provided to meet the required dissolved oxygen concentration. MLSS is comprised of four components: living biomass, dead biomass, inert organics and inert inorganics. The goal of solids optimization is to remove excess dead biomass and inert solids thereby increasing the ratio of living biomass to MLSS. This ratio is referred to as the active biomass ratio (ABR). ATP can provide an easy, rapid determination of total active biomass allowing solids optimization to be conducted with relative ease. Toxicity Identification Microorganisms in a wastewater treatment plant are susceptible to inhibition from toxic materials which enter with influent wastewater streams. Toxic materials can kill active biomass and reduce the treatment efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant. Using ATP, toxicity can be easily quantified using a biological stress index (BSI). BSI is the ratio of dissolved ATP to total ATP. Dissolved ATP is associated with dead or dying biomass. An increase in BSI would therefore be indicative of an increase in toxicity. BSI can be used to track influent toxicity. This is particularly helpful in wastewater treatment facilities that treat multiple influent streams. In this case, toxicity can be tracked back to a specific influent stream and corrective actions can be taken. BSI can also be used to track bioreactor toxicity. Routine monitoring will alert operators to toxicity derived upsets well before any effects on effluent water quality is seen. This allows operations to deal with toxicity issues proactively rather than waiting for the treatment plant to fall out of regulatory compliance. ZWEEC Analytics And Optiqua Technologies Enter Into a Strategic Partnership ZWEEC Analytics and Optiqua Technologies recently announced their strategic partnership in which they will combine their intelligent water quality monitoring platforms in order to provide their clients with a superior solution for early detection of water quality incidents. Both ZWEEC’s bio-monitor and Optiqua’s optical sensor platform are based on patented and awarded technologies that provide unique benefits over traditional monitoring solutions. ZWEEC’s AquaTEC uses intelligent visual surveillance to give a quick indication of water contaminations, and their toxicity, through analysing the swimming patterns and behaviour of fish in a group. Optiqua’s EventLab is a real time continuous monitoring solution based on refractive index measurements (RI) that strongly outperforms any traditional sensor technology for the purpose of overall water quality monitoring and contamination detection. Combined into the new AquaTEC concept the integrated solution offers an intelligent early warning system that captures any relevant change in the water quality while providing real time information on the toxicity status of water quality incidents. Available as a networked solution with primary and secondary monitoring nodes it combines unparalleled detection capabilities with track and trace of contaminations in an economically feasible solution. Profiling incidents in toxic/ non-toxic categories allow for the development of optimized response protocols. The combined solution has a wide range of applications including the monitoring of water quality at treatment plants and in industrial applications, monitoring of drinking water quality in distribution networks and monitoring the water quality of rivers and lakes. The partnership also includes a close commercial collaboration between the companies, optimizing commercial synergies and making use of the complementary geographical presence and client bases in Asia Pacific and Europe. An important focus market for the combined product offering will be China, where ZWEEC has already established a direct local presence and client base. Melchior van Wijlen, Managing Director Optiqua said, ‘Through this strategic partnership we will be able to reach more clients with a larger and even better product offering. It really combines the best of both worlds and it will help our clients to optimize their water quality monitoring and response protocols. We are very excited about the opportunity to work with such a professional team as ZWEEC and the important commercial opportunities it presents to our companies’. Said Mr Liaw Kok Eng, CEO of ZWEEC Analytics: ‘By combining our solutions, we will be able to offer our customers a more comprehensive approach to early event detection. The new integrated AquaTEC concept is a unique and efficient contamination detection solution and will be key to our large-scale international roll-out strategy. We look forward to start this strategic collaboration with Optiqua’. Page 7
  8. 8. ESA awards Blue-Value to develop space monitoring service for desert groundwater Following a call for feasibility studies for space-based services integrating the Internet of Things (IoT), the European Space Agency (ESA) has awarded the Blue Desert project to the consortium Blue-Value. Utilising space-based assets and IoT technology, Blue Desert aims the development of an integrated monitoring & control service to assist customers in desert areas to manage groundwater resources. Blue-Value is a consortium of two Dutch-based companies Rencos and 52impact, supported by International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC), Thuraya Satellites (UAE), SamTech Middle East (UAE) and the Netherlands Space Office (NSO). dws-blue-value-desert-gorundwater-350pxGroundwater depletion Global population growth and high water consumption in combination with severe climate change is resulting in catastrophic water shortages in many areas of the world. For example, Abu Dhabi’s groundwater reserves are set to run out in 50 years if no action is taken (see top satellite image). Simon van den Dries, co-founder of Blue-Value said: ‘The award of this project shows great recognition of the work done and the opportunity that we foresee here. It is vitally important that steps are taken to help us use water much more wisely and effectively.’ Real-time insight Using IoT sensor data and satellite imagery and infrastructure information, the Blue-Value solution delivers real-time insight into water usage, quality and environmental effects. This is all made available via an easy-to-use intuitive web application which is also available as a mobile phone app. The integrated software solution enables services such as automated well monitoring, water abstraction metering and remote water pump control. Water authorities and utilities can directly benefit from this service, enabling them to better manage the quantity and quality of the groundwater resource. At the same time, the solution will enable farmers, miners, constructors and others to make better use of their water resource. Page 8
  9. 9. Yorkshire Water unveils plan to deliver sector-leading performance Yorkshire Water has launched a multi million pound package to transform operational performance in the next two years as it looks to become a top performer in the water industry. The ambitious plan will see dramatic reductions in leakage, significantly fewer pollution incidents and will slash the time customers lose supply during planned or unplanned interruptions. Sewage escapes causing pollution are to fall by 40 per cent, incidents resulting in internal sewer flooding are to be reduced by 70 per cent and the average interruption to water supply will fall by two thirds. The improvements are to be delivered before the start of the next five year investment period in 2020. Although leakage reduction figures will be confirmed shortly, the firm has committed to fix leaks for free in supply pipes which lie within the boundary of a customer’s property. Up until now, the first fix has been for free with any further leaks becoming customers’ own responsibility. It has also signalled its intent by hiring an additional 50 leakage engineers. In total, implementation of the plan will involve an additional 300 staff for Yorkshire Water and its contractors. As well as leakage engineers, 30 skilled craftspeople and a range of other technicians including data scientists and analysts will be recruited. As well as more staff, the company is also planning a substantial investment in technology to improve its management of both waste and clean water networks. Around 15,000 monitoring devices will be attached to key locations in the water network enabling leaks to be identified much more quickly. These will reduce the average detection time for leaks from three days to three hours. A further 8,000 devices will be installed on the sewer network, providing information on the condition of the pipes and helping to prevent pollution incidents. Linking the initiatives together will be a data-led “internet of things” approach. Data generated by the improved remote telemetry will be analysed by a new team of data scientists. Engineers in the company’s Bradford based control room, using data analytics, will be able to despatch response teams much more quickly to either bursts or equipment failures which might cause pollution. Intelligence on the condition of assets will also be generated, enabling the company to adopt a “predict and prevent” approach to maintenance of its infrastructure. In what is believed to be a first in the water industry, Yorkshire Water is considering adopting an “open data” approach, allowing the growing Yorkshire based community of independent data scientists secure access to its data streams. This will enable the company to work closely with the growing Yorkshire community of digital developers to help find new and innovative solutions to pollution and leakage problems. Pamela Doherty, director of service delivery at Yorkshire Water said: “Although we are performing in line with our current commitments, we know that our customers expect more. We’ve spent a lot of time talking to them and now really understand their diverse needs and how water impacts on their lives. What they want from us is simple and clear. They want us to lose less water in leaks, minimise interruptions to their supply and reduce sewage escapes from our system. Above all, they don’t like the idea that a Yorkshire company isn’t currently one of the best in its sector. “Based on this feedback, we’ve taken the decision to make a substantial investment in new staff, new skills and new technology. Over the next two years, this investment and our determination to deliver will put us alongside the best in the industry. Our plans combine intensive use of traditional engineering skills with some innovative applications of new data led techniques.” Commenting on the plan, Andrea Cook chair of the Yorkshire Forum for Water Customers said: “This series of initiatives from Yorkshire Water makes clear how aspirational the company is in working towards the highest standards in customer service. It is what its customers expect, and what they deserve. I am sure they will welcome total investment which is also supported by shareholders.” The investment plan is linked to a new long term and ambitious strategy for Yorkshire Water which is set to be published in January as part of its continuing dialogue with customers and stakeholders about how it fundamentally changes its service for the future. At the heart of this is a renewed focus on core water and waste water services within the Kelda Group (Yorkshire Water’s parent company), with the disposal of non-regulated activities. The company recently sold its contract operations in Northern Ireland and further disposals are expected shortly. Page 9
  10. 10. Article: The “Edge” of the water industry Introduction Around a year ago somebody asked me about the concept of “Edge Computing” and how it was being adopted into the Water Industry and my immediate thought is “What is Edge Computing?” and how does it relate to the Water Industry. In the following article I will delve into the world of computing and automation in the Water Industry and see a potential future for how we can operate moving forward. But first things first – what is Edge Computing and how does it relate to the water industry? When we look at a pure version of Edge Computing it can be defined as Edge computing is a method of optimising cloud computing systems by performing data processing at the edge of the network, near the source of the data. This reduces the communications bandwidth needed between sensors and the central data-centre by performing analytics and knowledge generation at or near the source of the data. This approach requires leveraging resources that may not be continuously connected to a network such as laptops, smartphones, tablets and sensors. Edge computing covers a wide range of technologies including wireless sensor networks, mobile data acquisition, mobile signature analysis, cooperative distributed peer-to-peer ad hoc networking and processing also classifiable as local cloud/fog computing and grid/mesh computing, dew computing, mobile edge computing, cloudlet, distributed data storage and retrieval, autonomic self-healing networks, remote cloud services, augmented reality, and more. From this definition you’d be forgiven for saying – “so what does that mean to the Water Industry?” and reading this a few words pop out that could potentially make the industry more efficient that it is currently – reduction in communication bandwidth, analytics at the source of the data, wireless sensor networks. To understand the benefits of this you have to understand the way that the water industry, especially in the UK is currently. The current state of the UK Industry The UK Wastewater Industry is currently has the ten Water & Sewerage Companies running close to 10,000 wastewater treatment works of varying sizes some treating as few as a handful of customers and some treating into the millions of people. If the wastewater network is added to this the volume of data that is transmitted is huge. The sheer numbers of wastewater treatment works in the industry creates a huge amount of data and a huge amount of challenges. It is estimated that the amount of data that is transmitted just on the operational side of the business is into the 100s of millions of pieces of data every day On the clean side of the industry supplying drinking water to the customers you have the advent of the smart meter recording what the customer is consuming. The volumes of data should universal smart metering spread across the industry would amount to over half 570 million pieces of data every single day. From the aspect of monitoring area water leakage the advantages of keeping this data at a local level has huge advantages to the pressure on the data transmission systems. In short, the Water Industry manages a huge amount of data every single day of which all of it currently goes to centralised control centres that manage the data on a 24 hour basis. The question to ask of the Water Industry is “how much of the data that is produced has to be transferred to a central location and how much can remain out on the edge” This is where Edge Computing can help the industry. Its not the true definition of what “Edge Computing,” actually means but it can certainly work for the industry. One can argue that the Water Industry has been doing “Edge Computing”, especially at larger sites for many years as the larger sites within the Water Industry tend to be almost self-contained systems with automation & control systems that can almost work autonomously and this is true. Some of the larger sites within the UK Water Industry will have sensors around the treatment works which number into the hundreds. Some of these sensors will be connected to a SCADA based system that provides the data, information and the ability to control the works locally or even remotely. Currently that data will still go to a centralised control centre along with all of the associated alerts and alarms. This is realising the benefits of an edge computing system but also has the disadvantages of not realising the benefits as well as the data that is produced is both kept locally and additionally has the bandwidth disadvantages of producing lots of data. So, the potential is there but, as an industry, a potential trick is being missed. What does operating on the “Edge” look like? All of this is good in theory but the question is what does this actually look like in practice, what are the risk associated with taking this approach and how much will it actually save? Figure 1: Small Works Control Panel Page 10
  11. 11. This of course depends on what you have already in place at the various treatment works around the industry. Earlier in this article we talked about the Water Industry having in the region of 10,000 wastewater treatment works. However, the potential of having “Edge Computing” at all of these treatment works is relatively low as the works have a low density of sensors, or have little or no automation as it is simply not needed. At this size and sophis- tication of works a manual panel approach is used to control the treatment works. With modern technology though there is a case that a very low level of control system can be provided with local controllers that have been developed by the instrumentation & automation manufacturers within the industry. In this case the data that is produced locally could potentially be used on a local basis only used for local control. However, keeping the data locally has its own risks. Taking the example of a two-pump pumping station, you have a number of signals including: • Pump No.1 selection – duty/standby • Pump No. 2 selection – duty/standby • Pump No.1 – Running • Pump No. 2 – Running • Pump No.1 – Healthy/ Fault • Pump No. 2 – Healthy/Fault • Wet Well Level Transducer level • Wet Well Level Transducer Health/Fault • Backup level probe – low low level • Backup level probe – low level • Backup level probe – high level • Backup level probe – high high level This is in fact a selection of the signals that can be placed on a simple two-pump pumping station with the majority of these signals being digital (i.e. on/ off) rather than analogue (an actual number). So, in reality what is actually needed? The level controller is literally there to turn the pumps on and off ensuring that the pumps run when they need to and switch off at a low level and switch on at a high level. As the complexity of pumping stations gets more and more with more data being produced and as wastewater pumping stations start to be linked together there is no reason why they can’t be controlled from the local wastewater treatment works as the two-pump pumping station does not work on its own. There is redundancy in place within the sensing. In this case there is a situation where there are benefits in only the data that is required transmitted to the centralised location on an as needed basis. When the complexity of the system increases so the benefits of “edge computing” increases. With a large treatment works which can produce tens of thousands of pieces of data a day and control systems locally present, in the form of PLCs, to locally control the works. In this case is there a case for the data to be used locally, stored locally and only the data needed for regulatory or legal purposes transmitted. The system of the future In an ideal world what would the system of the future actually look like and would “Edge Computing” play a part in it? Imagining a medium sized works with a modicum of instrumentation and sensing systems in an ideal world the instruments around sites are wirelessly connected on a sensor net basis. Local controllers control the local systems with the site PLC controlling how the systems work together. The centralised PLC receives inputs from the network collection system controllers that shows the state of the network and instructs the network what to pass forward to the treatment works with local over-ride control depending upon levels within the system. The PLC anticipates, using a model based approach what needs to be done and controls the works in an attempt to establish a steady state (wastewater systems are never in a steady state but as close to one as possible). These sort of things sound futuristic but in fact they are not and are readily available now with the ISA 100 organisation using it in many different industries around the world. This sort of approach mirrors the approach that the Smart Water Networks Forum takes with the physical layer to data integration layers. With a sensor net collecting the data the local PLC converts the localised data into useable information which cuts the data bandwidth to a minimum by only transmitting information by cutting down the data to information ratio. In this way, especially on a large works or even a large system the amount of data that is transmitted can be reduced by between 500-1000 times. The amount of data that is transmitted around the Water Industry is not necessarily all needed to be transmitted. However not transmitting the data increases the risk by decreasing the visibility of the operational state of the operational assets with the asset base. However as the amount of instrumentation, and hence the amount of data, is set to increase significantly in the next few years there will become a need to reduce the amount of data that the industry transmits. In order to do this one of the potential solutions is to localise the data & information and trust the wastewater treatment systems to operate in a much more decentralised way by operating “on the edge.” Figure 2: The benefits of Wireless - ISA100 Page 11
  12. 12. Article: Point Versus Continuous Level Measuring Technologies While point level measuring approaches are regarded as simple and user friendly, they lack the capabilities of more sophisticated continuous measuring instruments. Water and wastewater utilities routinely need to monitor the level of water and other liquids in various applications. These level measurements are used in many ways and situations such as: • Level is often converted to volume, as when measuring how much of a treatment chemical is in a storage tank. For example, the height of liquid in a tank is converted to gallons. • Level may relate more to where the liquid level is in a tank, such as when used to turn on a pump to empty a sump or lift station when liquid reaches a predetermined point. • Level may also be used to calculate a flow measurement, as in open-channel flow applications. There are many ways to measure either point or continuous level. Point measurement technologies include float switches, vibrating forks, capacitive, and others. Continuous level technologies include radar, ultrasonic, magnetostrictive, capacitive, float-and-tape, differential pressure, and others. With water and wastewater utilities, engineers typically tried to solve all the applications they could using point level devices. They’re simple, comparatively cheap and have been used for years and continuous readings aren’t always necessary. Point level device outputs are simple on/off, so it keeps everything as straightforward as possible. Many point level applications have been done with float switches. But when considering upgrades, the simplicity of switches can be maintained while using newer technologies that have no moving parts, so are much more reliable and require less maintenance. Vibrating fork switches are a great example of simple single point measurements that have been continuously improving. Some of the newest vibrating forks have the ability to do remote proof testing and continuous health monitoring. There are switches with HART™ communication that can use frequency monitoring to know if the switch is in oil, water or alcohol. They can detect settled sediment within a liquid and can even detect the presence of foam. There are situations where having a continuous measurement can provide advantages not possible with a point device: Continuous measuring instruments can have functions tied to any level point using software rather than fixed device placement. Turning a pump on at a high level and off at a low level usually requires two point-level devices, or a single switch with a moving float. These both require immersion in the water, and changing the switch points requires moving or adjusting the hardware. A continuous measuring instrument can provide both switching functions, and the switching points can be changed by adjusting the values in the software configuration. Features such as scum line prevention can be used to ensure the switch point is varied each time, enough to prevent scum forming on the inside of the tank. Alternate pump control modes such as common on/off or pump assist can spread the work between pumps to extend their working life. Alarming functions with point level require one device for each measurement point. If the control room needs to know when a lift station has hit a high alarm and when it hits a high-high alarm, two devices are needed. A continuous measuring instrument can tell the control room where the level is and how fast it’s rising or falling. Alarms can be set at any point in the overall range as needed and changed when necessary. Continuous measuring instruments can usually be programmed to provide a volume measurement. Using a calculation or look-up table, the instrument can automatically convert the liquid distance measurement into a volume based on the tank configuration, even for non-linear tank profiles such as horizontal cylinders or spheres. The placement of point level sensors generally requires mounting through a tank wall, or full insertion if the device probe is extended down into a pit or vessel where there is no accessible side connection. Some configurations place the mechanism above the liquid and hang a float down to the surface. Often, some or all of the device is wetted or fully immersed. With mechanical devices, immersion can cause even more potential for buildup on the mechanics, so electronic devices, such as vibrating forks, can be even more advantageous in minimizing maintenance. Continuous measuring instruments often stay above the liquid and are not wetted at all (Figure 1). Radar and ultrasonic instruments read from the top down, with ultrasonics being non- contact and radars having both a contacting and non-contacting version. Ultrasonic and pulse radar technologies send sound or microwave energy from a transducer toward the liquid, and calculate distance by timing how long it takes for the pulse to be reflected back. Radar can send the pulse through open space, or down a metal cable or rod electrode extending into the liquid, whereas ultrasonic designs work in open space. Because top-down instruments measure the distance from the device to the surface of the liquid, they must be configured with the tank height in order to convert the measured value into the height of the liquid within the tank. Figure 1:Ultrasonic devices, such as the Rosemount 3107 Level Transmitter, use “time of flight” for an ultrasonic sound pulse to reach the surface of the liquid and return. Some models can cover distances up to 39 feet. Page 12
  13. 13. Obstructions in a tank such as brackets or ladders can cause interference with the readings from radar and ultrasonic instruments. The wrong surface can reflect the pulse and be misinterpreted as the liquid surface if the instrument is not installed properly, but today’s products are designed to minimize these problems. Unavoidable reflections can be zeroed-out in the signal processing software during the configuration process. Some ultrasonic instruments are smart enough to “learn” what a given installation sounds like. They are taught to recognize the fixed items, and respond only to the moveable liquid surface. Radars are getting so advanced they can immediately discern the moving liquid surface from any tank obstructions or noise within a vessel. Ultrasonics work on a pulse system where the sound signals are sent, and then received; sent and then received. Pulse radars work similarly. A microwave pulse is sent and received before the next signal is sent. Fre- quency modulating continuous wave (FMCW) radar, on the other hand, doesn’t need to receive one signal back before sending the next. With FMCW radar technology, microwaves are sent in a stream of consistently varying frequencies and the shift in the received frequency is what is used to measure the distance to the surface. Although this seems much more complicated than pulse radar, it actually allows for almost 30 times more signal to be returned to the device, resulting in much greater ability for tracking surfaces even in difficult applications with foaming, turbulence and noise. Are Functionality and Complexity Always Linked? Users who avoid ultrasonic and radar technologies usually cite two concerns: cost and complexity. Both are legitimate concerns, or at least were in years past. Compared to a basic float switch, an ultrasonic or radar level transmitter is more expensive and more complex, but much less so than an offering from 10 years ago or more. Newer models have come down in price and are far easier to use than their predecessors. Let’s look at a typical application case and compare the results. Imagine a hypothetical pumping station. It has a concrete pit, 8 feet in diameter and 12 feet deep, accessible from the top via a hatch. There is a ladder to the bottom and some brackets have been installed on the walls over the years. Several lines feed into it, and there are two submersible pumps arranged in a lead-and-lag configuration. The setup requires four point-level measurements. From the top down, they are: • High-level alarm • Lag pump on • Lead pump on • Pumps off With a conventional setup, the four sensors use floats hanging from switches connected to the pump control panel. There may be a reporting function sending the pump operational status to the control room. The high-level alarm almost certainly sends a signal back to the control room, so there is at least one connection. The alternative solution is to install an ultrasonic level transmitter, such as a Rosemount 3107 (Figure 2). The capabilities discussed here reflect this unit, but other vendors may offer comparable products. The instrument’s transmitter is designed for mounting as high as possible within the pit. It reads the distance to the liquid surface by sending out a 51 kHz sound pulse and clocking the elapsed time for the pulse to return. Since air temperature affects the speed of sound, it has an internal temperature sensor to compensate readings as needed. Figure 2: The Rosemount 3107 Level Transmitter is designed for wastewater applications. Its hous- ing is plastic to prevent rust, it can operate in a potentially explosive atmosphere and it can be immersed in liquid without harm. Figure 3: There are numerous ways an ultrasonic level transmitter can be incorporated into a larger system for an application. The Rosemount 3490 Controller can handle all the pump control and alarming functions while providing a local display. Using HART allows a technician to talk to the transmitter, reading diagnostic information and setting configuration. Page 13
  14. 14. The instrument’s enclosure is made from polymers to avoid rust problems, and it can even be immersed in liquid without damage in the event of the pit flooding. It uses a 4-20 mA output with HART, so it can send all its information via simple twisted pair cabling, and is loop-powered. Nothing needs to hang into the liquid, and there are no chains or cords to get tangled or coated with debris. The transmitter alone has functions beyond taking the measurement, such as false echo mapping. It can be used directly with the pump controller to provide the information needed to turn pumps on an off or it can be paired with a controller or readout box, such as a Rosemount™ 3490 Controller (Figure 3), which has relays to directly turn the pumps on and off or can be connected to the pump controller. Controllers in this series also provide a local display so a technician at the site can see what’s happening and have options for data logging. Pump on-and-off functions can be specified to turn the lead and lag pumps on when conditions are appropriate. Alarms can also be set as needed. In other words, all the capabilities of the conventional multiple float-switch system can be duplicated—and more functions, features and data are available. Non-contacting radars are also becoming a popular choice for these types of applications, especially if foam and debris may be present. Foam can interfere with ultrasonic signals, whereas radars are not as affected by foam. In situations where overfill may have more consequences, such as in chemical tank storage, it may be even more advantageous to use a continuous level reading along with a separate high level alarm provided by a self monitoring vibrating fork switch or level detector. Advantages of Improved Functionality How are the ultrasonic and radar transmitter setups better from an operational point of view? Information: Continuous level transmitters can send much more data back to the control room compared to point devices. Using a single pair of wires, just like those connected to a single point level switch, the transmitter can send a continuous level reading and diagnostic information. Newer vibrating forks with HART can also provide additional diagnostic information. In a situation where a problem might be developing, it is a simple matter for the control room to know what is happening at the station. Is the water level rising? Watching the data graph from continuous transmitters, it is easy to know where things are heading without having to wait for the high-level alarm to trip. A typical example: control room operators look at the display and see the current level. When the water reaches this point, both pumps should be running but only one is. Why? A maintenance team can check the site before it floods, or even before the high-level alarm sounds. The transmitter itself can send information on its own status and warn if it is not functioning properly. A float switch can’t do that, although the enhanced vibrating forks can. Flexibility: The HART signal from the transmitter can be used to gather primary and secondary process variables, transmit diagnostic data, and configure the transmitter. If the system is set up as shown in Figure 3, a HART interface can be used at any point on the cable. A technician can connect using a hand-held field communicator, or a laptop with a simple HART modem. Emerson and others provide PC-based software, some of it free (such as Emerson’s Instrument Inspector), to support this communication. Using a continuous level transmitter simplifies the hardware setup when compared to multiple float switches, but it is more expensive and complex. On the other hand, once technicians learn how to configure and use these instruments, the advantages gained are well worth the effort. And naturally, setting up the second, third and subsequent installations will be far easier. Having additional data can simplify operations and make a utility more efficient. After the initial complexity is taken care of, the capabilities of continuous level transmitters will remain for the life of the unit, providing ongoing operational benefits. Northumbrian Water AMR system helps cut utilities costs for Esh Group Northumbrian Water is working with one of the North East’s best known companies to help cut utility bills after a trial identified savings of more than £10,000 a year on water alone. Esh Group will install Northumbrian Water’s Automated Meter Reading (AMR) system, developed using market-leading technology, into five main areas of its head office site near Durham. AMR gives organisations information to allow better control over their utility spending. Using wireless technology, a small, compact data logger installed at the utility meter allows remote communication with a secure online portal in real time. The system helps to identify efficiencies, both during and outside of normal operating hours. The trial of the system was carried out at the company’s Esh House head office, focussing only on water, and has already identified enough savings to cover the full installation cost for five years. The company has chosen to have AMR installed on the water, gas and electricity meters at Esh House, along with four of their other offices within its Bowburn headquarters. As well as the traditional utilities, it will help to assess the company’s use of solar panels. By identifying irregularities in the utilities usage, the system will identify avenues for exploring opportunities to reduce waste. Simon Park, Esh Group’s Energy and Environmental Advisor, said: “Northumbrian Water’s AMR system has already identified two leaks in our water system that equate to a combined loss of just over £10,000 a year, so it has paid for itself for five years even before it has been fully installed. “By applying AMR to water, gas and electricity, there is a real potential for us to save even more on our utilities bills and change behaviours in a way that is good for the environment, as well as our finances.” Andrew Sinclair, Business Development Manager at Northumbrian Water Group’s Total Water Solutions division, added: “It is great that we are able to support businesses in this way. AMR is a great opportunity to do that, helping companies to identify ways to reduce their bills and reducing the unnecessary use of water and other utilities.” Page 14
  15. 15. Sanitation remains a primary concern for India, as 70% of urban household waste goes untreated. Rapid population growth and unpredictable weather patterns such as monsoon rains have exacerbated India’s already poor infrastructure vastly increasing the volumes of sewage overflows in urban areas. This poses a severe risk to the health and safety of the population, as well as river ecosystems. Given India’s ambitious initiative to create 100 Smart Cities by 2020, effective wastewater network management should be recognized as integral to this goal. India’s Current State of Sewerage Infrastructure According to a 2017 census, only 33% of Indian urban households are connected to a modern sewage system. Sewage systems in many cities are not well defined, thus open flow channels transporting raw sewage to rivers remain an issue. Many outfalls designed to transport stormwater deliver partially treated and untreated wastewater to nearby rivers shown in Figure 1. Almost 40% of the total sewage treatment capacity of India exists in just two cities: Delhi and Mumbai. This concentration demonstrates the underdevelopment of nationwide sewage treatment systems. A lack of critical infrastructure has a direct negative impact on India’s economy. For instance, in 2008, India’s Ministry of Urban Development stated that lack of sanitation cost India INR 2.4 trillion, amounting to over 6% of its GDP (Ministry of Urban Development, 2008). Unpredictable weather patterns also have a large impact. Monsoon rains result in approximately 75% of India’s annual rainfall. When overwhelmed, storm systems back up, combine with wastewater networks and cause severe floods. In addition to environmental damages, these floods destroy property and infrastructure. Flooding is estimated to cause USD 5 million dollars in damage per event. Therefore, India’s lack of developed infrastructure and severe weather patterns are major hurdles which must and can be addressed through data-driven solutions. A Smart Approach to Wastewater Network Management The goal of a Smart City is to increase the quality of life for its inhabitants. The Smart Cities Council defines a “Smart City” as a city that uses information and communications technology (ICT) to enhance its livability, workability and sustainability. A “Smart Wastewater Network” incorporates real-time information to allow city operators to stay informed about events out in the field and respond quickly and appropriately when a problem arises. At the basic level, this includes raising alerts to potential flooding and pollution problems and at the most advanced level, actively managing flows to protect customers from flooding and the environment from pollution events, while balancing flows in the network to allow treatment systems to operate at the optimal efficiency level. Smart wastewater network solutions can constantly analyze rainfall, flow and level data, integrate it with historical information, and then apply predicative models like real-time rainfallrunoff simulation, watershed management, real-time operation optimization, asset management and capital planning models. This enables planners to correlate data streams over select time-frames and export the data for offline analysis. Such solutions can also be used to increase treatment efficiency by balancing flows throughout the process, depending upon underlying environmental conditions, and ensuring flows through the process are always within permitted conditions. Depending upon the capacity that is available, this can limit the requirements for additional temporary flow storage facilities. The two case studies of Indian smart wastewater network management deployed in Delhi and the Ganges River are described in the following two sections Advanced Network Modelling in Delhi In 2014, the Delhi Jal Board implemented a network modelling solution as part of their 2031 Master Plan to develop new sewerage infrastructure. The plan covered an area of 1,500 sq. miles and cost $3.25 billion (Smart City Council, 2017). AECOM, which specializes in developing, building, financing and designing major infrastructure, created hydraulic designs for the initiative and Delhi Jal Board used Bentley System’s SewerGEMS software to analyze the 10,000 km of sewerage network in Delhi. (Smart City Council, 2017). The ongoing project is divided into a “sewershed area phase” and “unsewered phase.” The sewershed phase includes auditing 30 existing sewage treatment plants at 17 locations, hydraulic modelling of the trunk sewer for integration with the unsewered zone, flow monitoring and wastewater sampling at strategic locations, and conditional assessment of 500 manholes (AECOM, 2017). The unsewered phase comprises an extensive geotechnical investigation for 2,200 unsewered colonies, developing a wastewater management information system, including development of an enterprise geographic information system (GIS) framework, integrating and close coupling of sewerage information in the GIS database to carry out hydraulic modelling, and evaluating the unsewered area for 1,600 remote colonies (AECOM, 2017). Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring in the Ganges River The Ganges River is an important source of water for over 400 million people in India and also has valuable cultural significance. Due to fast population growth, migration and industrialization, the pollution of the Ganges has become a major issue. Therefore, the “National Mission for Clean Ganga” was born in 2011 by the Indian government. The installation of a smart water quality monitoring network was part of this initiative. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) assigned s::can Messtechnik GmbH and their local partners with the design and implementation of a 10-station pilot network. Due to the excellent performance of the pilot project, a 5 year water quality data supply contract was signed by s::can and CPCB in July 2016. Starting from s::can’s project office in India, the s::can Ganges project team coordinated the installation and organization even in the most remote areas of India. The water quality network was designed, installed and now is operated by s::can in close co-operation with their local joint venture partner. In March 2017, the 36 additional s::can monitoring stations went online. The measuring stations continuously send real time water quality data, on hourly basis to the CPCB in New Article: Smart Wastewater Network Management in India Figure 1: An Outfall in Varanasi, India Discharging Unprocessed Sewage Page 15
  16. 16. Delhi. Below, Figure 2 shows the location of the monitoring stations. 17 parameters are monitored: TSS, COD, BOD, EC, pH, Temperature, NH4-N, NO3-N, DO, Cl, K+, F-, Turbidity, TOC, BTX, Water Level and Temperature. For processing and evaluating tremendous amounts of data, moni::cloud, a specialized software solution, was designed. This software not only includes data evaluation,alarming and visualization elements, but also a focus on asset -and stock management to manage logistics for global monitoring projects. Figure 3 shows one possibility how parameters can be visualized in moni::cloud. The collected information strengthen the regulation and oversight of the river’s pollution load by helping planners to understand the origins of pollution, as well as to assess the impact of treatment on the water’s quality. The Role of SWAN in the Smart Wastewater SWAN, the Smart Water Network Forum is a global hub for the smart water and wastewater sectors. A non-profit organization, SWAN brings together key players in the water sector to collaborate and share knowledge while offering access to cutting-edge research, global networking opportunities, and the ability to proactively influence the future of the water industry. To help cities better understand how a Smart Water Network interconnects, SWAN devised a five layer, architecture model and the Smart Wastewater Network Tool shown in Figure 4 The first, “Physical” layer brings together the components for delivering water (i.e. pipes, pumps, valves, reservoirs and delivery endpoints). The second, “Sensing and Control” layer, comprises equipment and sensors that measure various parameters (e.g. water quality, rain, flow, reservoir levels, water temperature, pressure, etc.). This data is then transmitted and stored through the “Collection and Communications” layer, which includes fixed cable networks, radio, cellular, Wi-Fi, etc. The fourth layer, “Data Management and Display” interfaces information for human operators such as dashboards, SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), GIS (Geograph- ic Information System), and other network visualization tools. The fifth and most advanced layer, “Data Fusion and Analysis” integrates data from the below four layers to provide hydraulic modelling, decision support systems, inflow and infiltration detection systems, etc. Applying these different layers to smart wastewater network can help cities become more efficient and reduce health and environmental impacts of sewage overflows. Building Towards a Smart Wastewater Future India’s ambitious plan to build 100 Smart Cities by 2020 has placed a strong emphasis on utilizing data-driven solutions to address urban challenges. However, in much of the county, there is no basic water or sewage infrastructure. Thus, cities will need a long-term approach in addressing their wastewater network challenges. The SWAN Forum will be hosting their Annual Conference in Barcelona this year and a Call for Paper is currently open. Interested parties should go to the SWAN Forum website for further details of how to register interest in presenting or to find out more. About the Author Sam Konstantinov is a Research Analyst at the SWAN Forum. Sam has experience analyzing data from smart water systems that monitor combined sewer overflows, stormwater infiltration, and treatment plant operating practices. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in environmental studies from Temple University, Philadelphia. Smart Water Networks Forum (SWAN) is a global non-profit promoting the use of data-driven technologies in water and waste- water networks worldwide. By aligning industry leaders and fostering collaboration, SWAN can proactively influence the future of the water industry. SWAN itself offers a central source of information about the smart water and wastewater net- works through cutting-edge research, webinars, workshops, an annual conference, numerous networking opportunities, and the new SWAN Asia-Pacific Alliance, which is free to join and will act to accelerate smart water and wastewater development in the APAC region. Figure 2: s::can Monitoring Stations Send Continuously Real-Time Data Figure 3: Visualization of High BOD and COD Pollutions in Ganges Tributaries (s::- can, 2017) Figure 4: SWAN Smart Wastewater Network Tool Page 16
  17. 17. January 2018 Water & Health 31st January 2018 University of West England, UK Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group March 2018 WEX Global 12-14th March 2018 Lisbon, Portugal Hosted by WEX Global Latest Developments in Water Sensors 7th March 2018 Cambridge, UK Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group WWT Smart Water Networks 20th March 2018 Birmingham, UK Hosted by WWT April 2018 Sensors for Water & Wastewater Maintenance 18th April 2018 Manchester, UK Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group Smart Water Systems 25th-26th April 2018 London, UK Hosted by SMi Group May 2018 Condition Based Monitoring TBC May 2018 TBC Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group SWAN 2018 21st-22nd May 2018 Barcelona, Spain Hosted by Smart Water Networks Forum November 2018 Water, Wastewater & Environmental Monitoring 21st-22nd November 2018 Telford, UK Hosted by International Labmate Page 17 Conferences, Events, Seminars & Studies Conferences, Seminars & Events Water & Health Where: University of West England When: 31st January 2018 Approximately 60% of our body is water which is vital for our bodies to function. We have come to expect clean water for drinking and for our daily living and to maintain a health lifestyle. Clean water and healthy food are seen as critical elements in ensuring a healthy nation, reducing the burden on the NHS. Our health can be put at risk if our water supplies become polluted or contaminated with bacteria, toxins or other chemicals and heavy metals. In ensuring that the health of the nation is given priority, the EPSRC have identified a “Healthy Nation” as one of their Prosperity Outcomes of the strategy and delivery plan up to 2020. The EPSRC identifies that the development of new technologies materials will enhance our ability to predict, detect and treat disease. The application of new sensing technologies along with more traditional approaches and the application of connected systems can be used for the early detection of microbial pathogens and toxic chemicals preventing disease and ensuring the supply of clean water protecting the population from disease and contribute towards a healthy nation. This workshop will have a keynote talk from Public Health England giving an overview of water-borne disease followed by presentations from companies and researchers showcasing the latest devices and sensor technologies that are able to rapidly detect microbiological and chemical contaminants. Latest Developments in Water Sensors Where: Clare College, Cambridge When: 7th March 2018 Physical and chemical sensors are at the heart of virtually all measurement systems. Amongst the most popular for water monitoring applications are temperature, conductivity, turbidity, colour and pH. During the past decades, they have become smaller, more rugged and stable, leading to better reliable systems. Also during this time, significant advances have been made in the measurement of species such as trace metals, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and E. coli, using electrochemical and optical techniques. This workshop will highlight developments and improvements to sensors and sensing technologies, with emphasis on, but not exclusively, these latter, chem- ical, materials. It will discuss how information supplied from reliable sensors is vital for the development of big data analytics and creates the options for novel applications and alternative measurements. The overall goal will be to provide information to allow water companies to make better measurements in the future.
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