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WIPAC Monthly - June 2018

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Welcome to the June 2018 edition of WIPAC Monthly the magazine from the LinkedIn Group Water Industry Process Automation & Control.

This month's issue concentrates on the concept of the Smart Water Industry whether you call it Water 4.0 or the Digital Water Industry or just efficient operation. The issue looks at the steps that Water Companies need to take on their journey to becoming a company that utilises its data to converting this data into information that forms the basis of Informed Decision Making which is the fundamental basis of the Smart Water Industry.

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WIPAC Monthly - June 2018

  1. 1. WIPAC MONTHLYThe Monthly Update from Water Industry Process Automation & Control www.wipac.org.uk Issue 6/2018- June 2018
  2. 2. Page 2 In this Issue WIPAC Monthly is a publication of the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group. It is produced by the group manager and WIPAC Monthly Editor, Oliver Grievson. This is a free publication for the benefit of the Water Industry and please feel free to distribute to any who you may feel benefit. However due to the ongoing costs of WIPAC Monthly a donation web site has been set up to allow readers to contribute to the running of WIPAC & WIPAC Monthly, For those wishing to donate then please visit https://www.patreon.com/Wipac all donations will be used solely for the benefit and development of WIPAC. All enquires about WIPAC Monthly, including those who want to publish news or articles within these pages, should be directed to the publications editor, Oliver Grievson at olivergrievson@hotmail.com The picture on the front cover is from the article that is later on in this and originates from the Innovyze Blog. It shows the area around Hurricane Sandy and poses the question as to “what if the map is wrong” and highlights the importance of data quality From the Editor............................................................................................................. 3 Industry News............................................................................................................. Highlights of the news of the month from the global water industry centred around the successes of a few of the companies in the global market plus a report from the SWAN Forum conference in Barcelona. 4 - 13 Is Water 4.0 the future of the Water Industry.............................................................. A re-visit to the Water 4.0 article that was published in April 2016 to start off this special edition on Water 4.0 and the smart water industry special edition. In this article Oliver Grievson, looks at where the water industry was with the concept of Water 4.0 and how it can be adopted into the Water Industry. 14-17 Water 4.0 and the Smart Water Industry - where are we now?..................................... In a follow up to the April 2016 report Oliver Grievson, examines where we are at the moment with Water 4.0 and the smart water industry and how the importance of the layered approach should be taken into context when we are looking at Smart Water Solutions and their adoption into the current water industry. 18-20 A review of Smart Potable Water Networks................................................................ Another look at this article from 2014 that looked at the state of the art of the smart potable water network and how it has been used to increased the efficiency of our potable water distribution networks. 21-23 Smart Wastewater Networks: From Micro to Macro..................................................... The state of the art of the Smart Wastewater Network in 2017 is re-examined in this article showing the potential of what is still a very under-developed area in the current water industry and how there are large benefits in join- ing the wastewater collection network to the treatment works. 24-26 What is a Water Utility in a digital world?..................................................................... In this excellent article by Gigi Karmous-Edwards of Amane Consultants & Will Sarni who is the founder and CEO of Water Foundry the direction of water utilities from the reliability of data to Machine Learning and Artificial In- telligence is examined and the possibilities of the water utility in a digital age expounded upon. 27-29 Workshops, Conferences & Seminars............................................................................ The highlights of the conferences and workshops in the coming months. 30-31
  3. 3. Page 3 From the Editor Water 4.0, the Smart Water Industry or even the Digital Water Industry. Whatever you call it the potential of it is starting to be realised in the global water industry which is why I have dedicated this latest edition of WIPAC monthly to the subject area. I was at a Parliamentary reception being hosted by ABB this month and Greg Clarke who is the minister in charge of Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy was very much focusing on a Digital Future for industry in the UK and how collaboration between utilities (and industry in general), supply companies and the academic sector is absolutely vital for the future. Personally, I would go further on this in terms of the Smart Water Industry and say that collaboration between the Water Companies is absolutely essential too. This does happen at the minute with organisations such as Water UK and UKWIR but in reality, with the challenges that the water industry faces in the coming years this is going to happen much more often to spread the risk of the innovations that the water industry is going to have to take. On the subject of innovation it was disappointing to see the criticism of the UK Water Industry and its innovation with the comment that the water companies (in the UK) appear to have become “increasingly reliant on their supply chains and on academic institutions for innovation” and that there seemed to have been “few examples of ‘game-changing’ innovation in the sector in recent years.” This seems an odd comment when in reality the water companies in the UK should actually be collaborating more and more with the supply chain and the universities in order to drive the pace of innovation in a more collaborative and open way whilst also guiding it in the direction that is needed so that the innovations that are created are more applicable to the needs of the water industry allowing for a higher percentage of innovation adoption. It is heartening to see that funds for anti-microbial resistance (AMR) and Micro-plastics research have been made available and I am sure there are funds that can be tapped into for the Digital Utility which are best placed to be completed by the universities and guided by the water companies and supply chain ensuring that the research that is completed (if successful) ends up in an adoptable product that will help the water industry (or other utilities) in their day to day operations or strategic goals. This collaborative approach applies equally to the digital industry or to other areas of growing concern. It this collaborative approach both nationally and internationally that I am trying to harness in the development of WIPAC and so far, where the donation element has not been good, the potential for collaboration has been excellent and there are opportunities that I am looking at to enable the group membership to have everything to hand when it comes to the Smart Water Industry. The industry has come a very long way but what I feel at the moment is that the messages that people in groups like WIPAC and the SWAN Forum (amongst others) take almost as knowledge that the Water Industry has this is not necessarily the case So where are we all going, can the industry transform itself into a digital/smart water industry or is it all smoke and mirrors? It is a case of trying certain things and adapting when things don’t work out as much as we’d potentially want. It is a case of getting the basics right and building upon a firm foundation, establishing that the data that we collect is correct and is what we want, concentrating on the elements of instrumentation & control that we need and then developing from there. Once we have established what we can do and what we need to do then there is a feedback loop from the information that we develop in Layers 4 & 5 with Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence et al. that will inform the decisions that we make in Layer 1 - the physical layer and Layer 2 -the instrumentation & control layers of our water & wastewater treatment systems Have a good month, Oliver
  4. 4. The Future of WIPAC - the current thoughts & future plans Last month I launched an appeal to keep the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group and WIPAC Monthly going as a growing group to support the global water industry and to be honest the response to the appeal has been limited. It was an option that I wanted to investigate to avoid commercialising the WIPAC group in some form or another. Despite support from some organisations a wider response was need and so alternative plans are now being considered. These alternative plans basically end up with the WIPAC Group becoming a Community of Interest Company which would be a not for profit organisation. This would be led by myself and a board of directors and would be a membership organisation (i.e. the board of directors would be formed from the membership). For those of you who are not familiar with the Community of Interest Company concept hear is a quick definition. A community interest company is a business with primary social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the community, rather than being driven by the need to maximise profit for shareholders and owners. CICs tackle a wide range of social and environmental issues and operate in all parts of the economy. By using business solutions to achieve public good, it is believed that CICs have a distinct and valuable role to play in helping create a strong, sustainable and socially inclusive economy. Regular limited liability companies that do not have charitable status find it difficult to ensure that their assets are dedicated to public benefit. There is no simple, clear way of locking assets of such a company to a public benefit purpose other than applying for charitable status. The community interest company is intended to meet this need. When a CIC is requested, the CIC regulator considers whether applications meet the criteria to become a CIC. If satisfied, the regulator advises the registrar in Companies House who, provided that all the documents are in order, will issue a certificate of incorporation as a CIC • CICs are specifically identified with social enterprise. Some organisations may feel that this is more suitable than charitable status. • They are looking to work for community benefit with the relative freedom of the non-charitable company form to identify and adapt to circumstances, but with a clear assurance of not-for-profit distribution status. • The definition of community interest that applies to CICs is wider than the public interest test for charity This option is being examined at the moment. Those companies that are currently donating to WIPAC will get priority to form the initial Board of Directors when forming the WIPAC community of interest company and forming the membership organisation as a whole which is looking to launch in January 2019. This is still up in the initial stages of design and is subject to change. The membership organisation will look to attract companies ranging from the Water Companies (of which some have already indicated their interest), Engineering Consultancies and the Supply Chain. The membership fees will be stepped according to the type of company with differing benefits. There are discussions ongoing with a number of organisations within the global industry to firm these benefits up but one of the organisations includes access to an instrumentation platform which will be available to WIPAC Members (if the discussions conclude in this direction). An example of the benefits that are available to Water Company members include a number of complimentary tickets to WIPAC Workshops an webinars. The WIPAC Workshops, at least for the first year, will centre around the Smart Water Industry utilising the SWAN Forum’s layers approach: January 2019 Smart Infrastructure & Asset Management March 2019 Instrumentation & Control May 2019 Collection & Communication of Data June/July 2019 Data Management & Display September 2019 Data Fusion & Analysis November 2019 Water 4.0 & the Smart Water Industry The WIPAC webinar series is very much dependent upon a membership for the new organisation being developed and funding becoming available but the current concept is that each month there will be webinars for the membership to attend or to watch the recording of the webinar after it has happened centring on training around various instrumentation technologies or on technology updates from the membership of the group. All of this centres around a new WIPAC website being developed which is in progress at the current time. This is a huge expansion on the current website which has frankly fallen into disuse. The new website will feature elements of what was originally going to be the WIPAC Directory and the supply chain/engineering consultancy benefits of membership will include a dedicated company page on the WIPAC website allowing members of the utility companies to see what a company has to offer the industry as a whole. This is all in development at the moment so any opinions from the group are most welcome. Nothing is certain as yet but this seemed a sensible approach to a workshop programme that is very much in active discussion at the moment. If any of the membership would like to host and/ or present at any of these workshops then please do get in touch but bear in mind that they are just an idea at the current time and may or may not go ahead. Page 4 Industry News
  5. 5. Innovation prize winners announced at BlueTech Forum 2018 Technologies for wastewater treatment and plant optimisation were the winners of the Innovation Showcase at BlueTech Forum which took place in Vancou- ver, Canada last week. Aquacycl, which is based in California, won Best Technology Innovation for its bioelectrical treatment technology – BETT – which can directly convert sewage to electrical energy without methane generation. Two pilot projects processing municipal and swine wastewater have demonstrated much faster treatment times than standard aerobic and anaerobic processes and a massive reduction in operating expenditure. Canadian start-up Emagin won the Best Market Strategy award for its operational intelligence platform that enables utility operators to manage infrastructure in real-time. In a recent demonstration project with United Utilities in the UK, the platform leveraged machine learning to generate real-time pump schedules, minimising the cost of operations while guaranteeing compliance and maintenance requirements. Paul O’Callaghan CEO and Bluetech said: “BlueTech Forum has a strong track record of selecting technologies for the Innovation Showcase that go on to succeed in the global market. These two winning companies came from a very strong field and stood out for the exceptional efficiencies they can deliver in terms of both cost and energy, along with their scalability.” Both technologies fit closely with the theme of this year’s BlueTech Forum, ‘managing risk in a circular economy’ and delegates heard many examples of companies exploring ways to reduce water use and recover and reuse a range of resources. Global approach Menno Holterman, chief executive of Nijhuis inspired delegates with case studies from around the world where circular economy approaches are helping clients meet regulatory and cost requirements alongside resource efficiency. This included an energy-neutral anaerobic digestion plant for industrial wastewater in Egypt and a self-sustaining floating farm for 48 cattle in the centre of Rotterdam. Space scientist Michael Flynn went much further afield, explaining how water recycling systems for astronauts travelling to Mars will have to be as dependable as the one built into the human body. “We’re focussing a lot on biomimetic technologies,” he said, “trying to get away from these machines that break down all the time. “We have a project now where we’re developing a small intestine based water-recycling system, so a lot of our work is based on forward osmosis because that’s how the small intestine works. We’re also doing a lot of work developing living membranes that are self-cleaning.” Digital and biotechnology were also on the agenda at the Forum, with Jens Kolind, chief executive of Novozymes telling delegates that applying bio-technology to wastewater treatment can reduce energy and chemical use, clean up biofilms and reduce sludge quantities. In a twist on the standard innovation pitch format, delegates also got to hear from 14 industrial end users, utilities and municipalities about their requirements for water technologies and services. Disrupting technologies Hans-Ulrich Buchholz, environmental compliance manager at cosmetics company L’Oreal, said the company is rolling out a ‘dry factory’ approach to re- duce municipal water consumption across its production facilities and was now looking for “disrupting technologies that are more eco-efficient” to improve treatment processes and reduce energy consumption and waste. Eddie Corwin, sustainability programme manager at Google said the tech giant was looking for ways to optimise water use within existing municipal struc- tures for water supply and wastewater collection across its real estate portfolio. “Figuring out opportunities to go beyond efficiency within our operations and further reduce our potable water use is one of our biggest challenges,” he said. Paul Knuckle, external funding lead for Severn Trent Water said the UK utility had five principle areas of need including tackling leakage, abstraction reduction, minimising supply interruptions and extracting more value from wastewater. “The fifth is around how we introduce technology,” Knuckle said, “especially artificial intelligence and the internet of things and how we make sense of big data and increase the efficiency of our operations.” Future vision Reflecting on the Forum, Paul O’Callaghan said: “We’ve had a really diverse group of people here at BlueTech Forum. Having the large strategic corporates here and the larger water technology companies is fantastic, each of those is part of this future vision for water. “One thing that struck me was the degree to which corporate water end-users are providing solutions directly within their communities, whether that was Walmart or a mining company in Chile or Peru. They’re doing things sometimes that the utilities are unable to do and becoming part of the solution both within their own factories and within the communities in which they operate. “Properly understanding and implementing the circular economy is key to delivering sustainable water infrastructure and processes across the world.” Page 5
  6. 6. Putting the AI into maintenance Over the past five years, the industrial sector has begun to see the value in digitalization and has invested more in adopting it. With this has come a cultural shift from reactive equipment maintenance to proactive maintenance that pre-empts problems. In 2006, UK mathematician Clive Humby claimed that “data is the new oil”. Whether you’re a food processing company or an automotive manufacturer, data from production processes is the cornerstone of better efficiency, effectiveness and overall performance. Plant managers that are familiar with the industrial internet of things (IIoT) will know that one of the concept’s biggest selling points has been the insight it can provide into equipment performance and process effectiveness, which in turn creates benefits for the company’s bottom-line. This has changed the culture of maintenance in plants that have started adopting IIoT technology. Rather than responding to a breakage or conducting planned maintenance based on expected equipment lifespan, engineers can make informed decisions about when to maintain systems based on the equipment’s condition. Minimising unplanned downtime has obvious benefits, but it’s the reduction in scheduled downtime that adds significant value in terms of increased overall throughput for no new capital outlay. However, achieving this is challenging due to the volume of data and subsequent analysis that is required to confidently change maintenance schedules. This is where an opportunity arises for machine learning in industrial maintenance. With machine learning, algorithms can be trained to identify correlating factors in data to not only flag up a problem but also the root cause of it. It sounds straightforward in principle, but the number of potential things to consider can be too high for a human to work through effectively. Within a single machine, there can be dozens of sensors or other health signals. To get a clear picture of all the things that affect reliability, that data should be evaluated alongside things like maintenance records and a history of what the machine was running. Even ambient conditions and crew data can give clues as to what issues can crop up. The only effective way to navigate the abundance of variables is with an IoT platform with machine learning. Connecting an IoT-enabled machine to the platform allows machine learning algorithms to analyse it with the APM’s combination of standard measures and advanced analytics. This allows maintenance staff to not only spot when a machine needs maintenance, but also why. For example, a semiconductor manufacturer might find that it rejects ten per cent of its output due to faults in the manufacturing process. Although all the machines may be IoT-connected, there is too much data for an engineer to reasonably analyse. With Predix’s machine learning algorithms, the APM could, for example, identify that a machine has elevated vibration levels, which is damaging the semiconductors. The algorithms can then assess this against historic data to spot patterns in how often this occurs, identify the performance signs that precede it and — if integrated into a management system — send alerts to engineers as the machine requires maintenance. This makes it possible for the machine to receive maintenance only when its conditions indicate it should, changing from preventative to condition-based predictive maintenance. In effect, machine learning allows maintenance data analysis to become a more automated process. In fact, there are certain industrial applications where the algorithms could be permitted to directly reconfigure a machine with the right settings. And as machine algorithms learn, this will become an increasingly viable way of improving efficiency. Whether you believe data is the new oil or not, it’s indisputable that it’s a valuable resource that fuels overall operational improvement for plant managers and maintenance engineers. The key to achieving this is to use industrial analytics intelligently and effectively to strike oil in industrial maintenance. Bluesky updates high resolution aerial maps of the UK Leading supplier of aerial survey services and data Bluesky has revealed plans to update over 160,000 square kilometres of aerial photography, colour infrared imagery and 3D terrain mapping in 2018. When combined this equates to a total of 640,000 square kilometres of data updates across the four datasets – an area equivalent to the whole of France. The ambitious update programme will include London, Manchester, South Yorkshire, Kent, Surrey and West Sussex together with other large areas of England, Scotland and Wales due for renewal this season. Bluesky also anticipates the completion of its nationwide coverage of the Republic of Ireland. Bluesky plans to capture at least 80,000 square kilometres of aerial photography at high resolutions, 12.5 and 10 cm, in addition to a further 52,000 square kilometres of imagery at standard 25cm resolution, across England, Wales and Scotland during the 2018 flying season. An additional 32,000 square kilometres will be captured in Ireland, completing Bluesky’s coverage of the Republic. “2018 will be a pivotal year for Bluesky as we complete the latest update cycle of our nationwide coverage of aerial photography both in the UK and in the Republic of Ireland,” commented Rachel Tidmarsh, Managing Director of Bluesky International. “As data is captured and processed it will be delivered to clients under existing contracts, made available via WMS feeds to existing users and will be accessible on our website – www.blueskymapshop.com – where visitors can search for, view and download their choice of aerial photography, colour infrared imagery, digital surface models and digital elevation models and much more.” In addition to the aerial photography, Bluesky will be capturing colour infrared (CIR) data, which provides a valuable tool for studies in vegetation extent and health, and other effects of human activity on the earth and its environment. Highly accurate detailed height models, Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and Digital Surface Models (DSM), will also be created at 5 metre and 2 metre resolutions respectively. Page 6
  7. 7. Atkins warns over inadequate cyber resilience for critical infrastructure providers Industry-leading cyber experts from Atkins, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group, has launched a warning that companies run a risk of being fined up to £17 million if unable to show they have adopted sufficient cyber security measures to protect information systems. The prospect of potential heavy fines follows the introduction of new legislation enacted on 10 May 2018. The legislation, known as the NIS Directive, applies to critical national infrastructure, including transportation services, healthcare service providers, communications systems, airports, water and energy companies . The companies that run the infrastructure, known as Operators of Essential Services, are required to secure their information systems, in addition to any technology they use to perform essential services. NISD imageIn a new white paper on cyber security, Atkins suggests organisations should take immediate action by focussing on five key areas: Compliance: Achieving compliant status should be a priority as the maximum penalty in the UK is £17 million. Responsibility: Rules and responsibilities have been clearly defined in the legislation. Overall, it is the operators that must ensure their own security measure are appropriate and proportionate. Understanding: A cyber assessment framework has been developed to assist organisations in performing their own assessments. However, due to its simplicity, it is imperative that operators understand how to demonstrate improvements have been made. Training: As the industry is experiencing a skills shortage, technical training and senior leadership awareness programmes will be vital to complying with the Directive. Supply Chain: Suppliers are not directly obligated to comply with regulations but should they be asked to comply contractually? RichardPiggin,PrincipalOperationalTechnologyCyberSecurityConsultantatSNC-Lav- alin’s Atkins business commented: “Cyber security is of paramount importance across a range of industries that are the lifeblood of the UK. Our extensive experience of rolling out cyber security and resilience services across multiple industries such as transport, infrastructure and defence has made a significant difference in the ability of our clients to defend not only their own systems, but those of their customers and the public at large, from more frequent and more sophisticated cyber attacks.” Amplified by the cyber skills shortage in the UK, Atkins also suggests that organisations may need to rely on external resources and expertise to ensure their networking infrastructure, systems, processes, policies and staff awareness comply with the requirements of the NIS Regulations and the relevant guidance. They may also be required to ensure that their supply chain has sufficient cyber resilience in place to demonstrate sufficient preventative action has been taken. United Utilities uses AI to tap into flexible energy at its sites United Utilities is using artificial intelligence to deliver a flexible approach to energy management. The technology from energy tech company Open Energi, will manage electricity demand and generation across its sites to reduce costs, increase self-generated renewable power use, and provide vital flexibility to support a more sustainable energy future. The move will cut electricity costs at United Utilities’ sites by 10% a year, which will be used to reduce water bills for customers. The water firm already generates 21% of its electricity consumption through its own renewable fleet – via solar PV, biogas and hydroelectric – and plans to install a further 30MW by 2020. To make the best use of clean, low cost power, it needs to be flexible about when and how it uses electricity. Open Energi’s platform, known as Dynamic Demand 2.0, continuously monitors and manages electricity demand and generation, learning what an optimal strategy looks like and adjusting it second-by-second according to many different control parameters and signals. The fully automated technology invisibly shifts United Utilities’ demand so that it consumes more when it is generating high levels of electricity, much less during expensive peak periods, and also responds to fluctuations on the grid to help balance electricity supply and demand UK-wide. Wastewater Treatment Works at Chorley and Bolton will be the first sites to go live with the technology. Over the next 12 months, pumps, motors and biogas CHP engines across 8 sites will be connected to Dynamic Demand 2.0, providing 8MW of flexibility to respond to changes in grid frequency, peak-time network costs, wholesale and imbalance prices and local constraints, whilst making the most efficient use of their energy. Open Energi’s ability to coordinate assets in this way and deliver ‘total energy optimisation’ across United Utilities’ sites supports a wider move by the water firm to provide one central energy service. Page 7
  8. 8. Making The Most Of Data In A Digitalized World Water treatment plant (WTP) and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operators are increasingly supporting better decision-making by leveraging digitalization capabilities available through instrumentation and plant management systems. Successful adoption of digitalization starts with identifying the right balance of tools (i.e., web-networked instrumentation) and systems (i.e., analytical data management software). Maximizing the value, however, is as much about exercising a mind-set of efficiency as it is about tracking raw numbers. Explore A Broad Spectrum Of Opportunities At the most basic level, WTP/WWTP managers implement digitalization to improve their snapshot view and understanding of what’s happening in their current operations. At the highest levels, they leverage it strategically for improving customer satisfaction, balancing allocation of capital, and supporting better decision-making in day-to-day business, financial, and water-treatment activities. In all cases, digitalization provides a platform for enabling more consistent operations without getting users bogged down in the overhead or technicalities of a large data processing structure. Beyond physical operations, digitalization also provides ancillary value as a means of adapting to changing labour force dynamics in water treatment operations large and small. Identify Advantages At Every Level Of Operation Taking maximum advantage of the promise that digitalization has to offer requires thinking beyond existing operations. It requires an attitude where change management, communication, and training are just as important as technology tools. Employing that broader perspective helps users envision more all- encompassing solutions rather than simply automating existing instrumentation functionality. Consider the strategic benefits offered by more comprehensive data collection and management across these four areas of operations: Diverse Data Collection. Some intelligent instrumentation provides added-value data for end users beyond its primary function. For example, some chemical analysers and level detectors provide temperature sensing that can influence better process control decisions. Flow meters that measure conductivity in the pipe can detect changes over time to indicate that more contamination is present and chemical dosing needs have changed. Flow meters that detect air bubbles caused by pump cavitation, or that provide vibration readings, can identify needs for preventive maintenance activities. Cloud-based systems using Internet of Things (IoT) technology also make it easier to access data available from diverse sources — including remote installations. Comprehensive Data Analysis. As data collection expands, it increases the risk of overlooking specific “nuggets” of information in the mountains of data generated. Modular software solutions that share inputs from sensor, analyzer, and control systems in a more holistic view help WTP/WWTP operations benefit from tighter integration across multiple functions: • Enterprise Asset Management/Enterprise Resource Planning optimizes operation, facility, and asset management in response to the latest process-related data. • Workforce Management helps assign employee guidelines for routine maintenance activities as well as responses to system alarms, warnings, and emergencies. • Asset Performance Management protects process integrity and equipment longevity through continuous assessment of process instrumentation by optimizing both predictive and preventive maintenance planning. Control-Oriented Data Management. Cloud-based infrastructure helps more people and systems access, monitor, and act upon data specific to WTP/WWTP needs. This includes inputs from process-line instrumentation and signals directed to a variety of control equipment — programmable logic control (PLC), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), and distributed control (DCS) systems. Customizable dashboards displaying key performance indicators on large touch screen displays empower plant operators to be more aware of and responsive to process variations. Apps running on mobile platforms (i.e., smart- phones and tablets) also make it easier for plant personnel to interact with plant equipment and analytic data. Data-Driven Decision-Making. Whatever the infrastructure, the value of digitalization lies in its ability to provide better perspective for informed decisions. Systems running analytic programs designed specifically for water-plant applications provide insights relevant to key operations. This includes the ability to anticipate changing process trends, to identify and react to potential upset conditions in real time, and to support higher-level organizational objectives. Harness These Benefits Of Digitalization Lower The Cost Of Measurement. Integrating instrumentation readings within digital management systems improves the time- and cost-efficiency of data collection and its practicality for controlling plant operations. Being able to monitor at a high level in real time, yet still analyze process upsets in great detail when necessary, puts plant personnel in a better position to streamline plant efficiency. Make Solutions Scalable. More data inputs bring more complexity. Adopting scalable cloud-based data management systems tailored specifically for water/ wastewater applications satisfies changing data collection and analysis needs without tying up internal IT resources or personnel. Look Forward, Not Just Backward. The true value in digitalization is being able to identify early indications of things that are about to go wrong, rather than simply documenting things that have already gone wrong. Maximize that value by using historical data trends to program systems to respond at appropriate levels of control needed to maintain optimum performance. Protect Infrastructure With Predictive Analytics. Squeezing maximum value from aging infrastructure requires a strong commitment to tracking key performance indicators. Doing so can help optimize maintenance schedules, protect aging infrastructure, and minimize the risk of unexpected equipment failure. Predictive maintenance analytics are particularly valuable with key instrumentation required for critical around-the-clock operations. Page 8
  9. 9. Optimize Efficiency For Compliance And Conservation. Real-time tracking of water streams and equipment performance can indicate shifts in water quality before a complete process upset occurs. This can save on potential fines for non-compliance and reduce the time and expense of bringing plant operations back into balance. Also, in times of water scarcity, any data that improves efficiency helps preserve precious water and energy resources. Compensate For Personnel Turnover. Process instrumentation that can provide analytical summaries along with detailed readings does a better job of supporting plant personnel with varying levels of experience. Instruments that encrypt device maintenance and operating conditions within dynamic QR codes make it easier for less experienced personnel to streamline troubleshooting processes. They can simply take a picture of the QR code with their smart- phone and forward it to the manufacturer to receive remote support. Meanwhile, more proficient plant personnel can still get the details they desire to exercise their years of troubleshooting expertise. Utilis Awarded As Technology Pioneer By World Economic Forum Utilis, an Israel-based remote sensing company that uses satellite data to detect drinking water leaks from underground pipes, was selected among hundreds of candidates as one of the World Economic Forum’s “technology pioneers”. Utilis, which has a United States subsidiary in San Diego, CA, was co-founded by Lauren Guy, who serves as the CTO. Lauren discovered that the technology used to remotely search for water under the surface of Mars could be transformed to help save water on Earth. The World Economic Forum’s Technology Pioneers community are early-stage companies from around the world that are involved in the design, development and deployment of new technologies and innovations, and are poised to have a significant impact on business and society. This year’s cohort is the most diverse ever, both geographically and in terms of gender. 52% are female-led, and a majority (54%) come from regions outside the United States and Silicon Valley, with each continent represented, barring Antarctica. There is also a wide variety in the technologies the pioneers focus on: the focus technologies include artificial intelligence, big data and internet of things (IoT), biotechnology, blockchain, autonomous vehicles, cyber security, vertical farming and other agricultural advances, decentralised microgrids and robotics. The full list of technology pioneers can be found here. Following its selection as Technology Pioneer, CEO Elly Perets of Utilis will be participating in the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting of the New Champions. This meeting, also dubbed “Summer Davos” will be held in Tianjin, China, September 18-20. Many Pioneers will also attend the Annual Meeting in Davos, in January 2019, and continue to contribute to Forum initiatives in the course of the next two years. “We welcome Utilis in this diverse group of technology pioneers,” says Fulvia Montresor, Head of Technology Pioneers at the World Economic Forum. “Utilis and its fellow pioneers are front and centre in shaping the ongoing Fourth Industrial Revolution and we believe they will be transforming society and industry in a positive way in the years to come.” “We are honoured to be acknowledged as a pioneer by the World Economic Forum,” said Utilis CEO Elly Perets. “The scale of failing pipe infrastructure is a 21st century problem, and this award shows that we need to bring forth 21st century solutions. We plan to use this award to take the next step as a company and engage with stakeholders in government and society, as well as in business.” The Technology Pioneers were selected by a selection committee of more than 60 academics, entrepreneurs, venture capitalists and corporate executives. The committee based its decisions on criteria including innovation, potential impact and leadership. Past recipients include Airbnb, Google, Kickstarter, Mozilla, Palantir Technologies, Spotify, TransferWise, Twitter and Wikimedia. Northumbrian Water installs game-changing in-pipe fibre sensing technology in sewers Northumbrian Water Limited has signed an agreement to be the first water company in the world to install nuron ltd’s game changing sewer monitoring technology in a live sewer system. The nuron system is dual-purpose: it can also deliver secure and reliable fibre communications both for NWL and for cost- effective and efficient deployment of the dense urban fibre networks required for full fibre broadband, 5G and smart cities. nuron’s distributed, in-pipe fibre sensing technology measures multiple parameters (depth, flow and temperature) along the entire length of the sewer pipes. The dense, real time data acquired enables proactive and predictive management of the sewer system, as Northumbrian Water can resolve issues before incidents occur, providing significant operational, financial and environmental benefits. The use of the nuron technology forms part of Northumbrian Water’s programme to be leaders in asset management as well as enabling wide spread social, environmental and economic benefits to their catchment. The project will be launched at Northumbrian Water’s innovation festival in July 2018. Richard Warneford, Northumbrian Water’s Wastewaster Director said: ‘For Northumbrian Water Group to be the national leader in the provision of sustainable water and wastewater services, we need to innovate and collaborate. Part of that is recognising and supporting innovative businesses with big ideas. nuron’s technology has the ability to transform the way our wastewaterinfrastructure has been traditionally managed. “Other utilities have adopted monitoring and management innovations with great outcomes for customers and the environment.. It is exciting to be leading this trend for transformation within our Industry” Claire Fenwick, nuron’s Managing Director added: ‘NWL are an innovative company, pioneering new ways to manage their sewer infrastructure to continue an excellent customer service record and affordability for all. Northumbrian Water have been working with nuron since inception, sharing our vision of a transformation of sewer network operations. This project addresses their top priorities of providing network resilience, reducing pollution and improving overall customer satisfaction.’ Page 9
  10. 10. Predictive Flood Modelling: A Course For The Future In a recent keynote speech at Wharton’s Initiative for Global Environmental Leadership (IGEL), Innovyze CEO Colby Manwaring took the stage to address the current state of flood modelling techniques. The story? We can do better. Wet weather is becoming more unpredictable and the impacts are being felt by our communities. Municipalities, engineering consultants, and government agencies cannot continue to operate with outdated flood models that are plagued by inaccurate or incomplete data. If they do, residents and businesses are left vulnerable to flood risks and costs, compromising the integrity of local governments. Where We Come from Determines Where We Are The presentation began with a call to re-evaluate current flood modelling methods: “We need to consider our frame of reference if we are going to get to a solution, we need to consider our assumptions on where we are.”, Colby stated. Once we realize where we come from, we can plot a course for the future. Colby goes on to explain that what we currently know about flood forecasting, mapping, and modelling originated in the 1970’s. During this period, the foundation was laid for data collection systems and computing that was later used to shape flood modelling approaches. These methods were eventually codified and legislated in the developed world based on key data points extracted from weather patterns. The result was a reliance on risk assessments based on 100-year return intervals of flooding (probably from most people thinking “I won’t be here in 100 years, so I’m safe”). In an elementary sense, risk assessment was framed as: How likely is an area to flood throughout a 100-year time frame: once? 15 times? 40 times? This framework for risk assessment is relatable to most people, regulators and the public alike, but somewhere along the way the understanding was lost that a “100-year flood” is just a way of saying that every year there is a 1% chance of this flood occurring. Probability this year is not affected by last year’s events, nor by future events – so we can have “100-year floods” anytime. Flood mapping based on this framework was, inevitably, misunderstood and flawed. Weather and rainfall input data was spread out, disjointed, and often assumed because it is hard to predict and codify. The inaccuracies in rainfall data contributed to the assumptions made for the overall model, which led to the need for tweaking of output data. Flood maps based on 100-year risk assessments emerged as a binary, or “single truth”, basis for flood insurance, infrastructure planning, and risk mitigation. Businesses and residents were either in or out of the floodplain, and insurance costs were­­calculated accordingly. In reality, flood emergencies do not occur in an “in vs. out”, binary manner. They are more fluid than that – they are graduated events that we are trying to quantify with probabilistic methods – so floods don’t stop at some imaginary floodplain line. What Happens when the Map is Wrong? In 2012, Hurricane Sandy ravaged the US east coast and the Caribbean. Hundreds of thousands of housing units were destroyed and billions of dollars were spent in reconstruction efforts for infrastructure, homes, and businesses. In his first major address following the disastrous storm, former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg compared the FEMA 100-year flood maps to the actual flooding caused by the storm. According to the former mayor “two-thirds of all homes damaged by Sandy [were] outside of FEMA’s existing 100-year flood maps.” Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/nycmayorsoffice/with/8249076041/ Mr. Bloomberg also stated the city’s need to adopt to risks posed by climate change: “We have to build smarter and stronger and more sustainably,” also noting that the city will “determine exactly what that means.” He later added: “No matter how much we do to make homes and businesses more resilient, the fact of the matter is, living next to the ocean comes with risks that we cannot eliminate.” As weather patterns become more erratic, and superstorms hit with unpredictability, we do need to build stronger and more resilient cities. It’s also true that we cannot eliminate all risks faced by municipalities in flood-prone areas. But just because we cannot eliminate the risk does not mean that we cannot be better prepared in our flood modelling and mapping. Page 10
  11. 11. In the aftermath of Sandy, FEMA redrew the flood maps for the first time since 1983, in some cases relying on data that was 30 years old. The initial maps released by the agency included some unfortunate news for New York City residents: 35,000 more homes and businesses would be in flood zones, essentially doubling the previous number and likely raising insurance rates. In a rare move, the city rejected FEMA’s proposed maps, and in 2016 current New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio announced a plan to revise FEMA maps with the intention of lowering flood insurance premiums for New Yorkers. However, with millions of dollars at stake in property value and insurance costs, there are likely political implications in the Mayor’s decision to challenge the agency’s proposed updates. Impacts on Enterprise and Democracy The focus of this event at IGEL was “The Consequences of Extreme Climatic Disruption for Business and Democracy”. Colby states that it all starts with acceptance: “We’ve got to accept that our methods and our plans need to be dynamic, not static single-source of truth answers. We need to use the best available methods, models and data now, not rely on prescriptive regulations from decades past.” Concerning the private sector, outdated flood modelling and maps can lead to repetitive property loss, faulty business continuity planning, and potential job loss. For heavy industries, environmental externalities are of heightened importance considering that flood damage can lead to contamination and pollution. So, what can be done? Some businesses may choose to conduct their own flood risk assessment, as they do not necessarily need to rely on FEMA. Businesses can contract experts and consulting engineers to conduct a more accurate assessment of mitigation strategies so that emergency flood plans can be defined. While this may present costly expenses up front, it can be a valuable investment when considering the alternative. The negative impact on democratic governments can be wide-ranging and profound. For example, repetitive disaster episodes can impact rule of law as societal norms are shaken during times of disaster. As Colby indicates, government agencies lose confidence as they are perceived as incompetent in flood disaster planning, or indifferent to the impacts. Legislators need to modernize the regulatory approach. State, Federal, and Local governments can avoid loss of confidence if this is done. Compromises for building on flood-prone areas and politically motivated negotiations of flood zone designations must end if governments are to maintain good faith with the people they represent. Can We Do Better? The answer to the proposed question is not only a resounding “YES”, but an acknowledgement that we must do better. The stakes are too high and are held by too many people to be ignored. As Colby put it, “We should not be analysing the weather data we’ve got now using technology and using methods developed 50 years ago. We have better options!” Stakeholders need to update their approach and acceptance. Plans need to be dynamic not static, and based on probability distribution models that accurately reflect floodplains with the ability to work with new data as it emerges. In Colby’s closing remarks, he stated: “Change is not optional…If we cannot change the climate for the better, we’ve got to change ourselves and our response.” He’s right, and these changes first require an acceptance that flood modelling methods must be amended. And while updating these methods requires advanced technology, we have the technological capabilities at our disposal. This article was originally written by Jay Nelson of Innovyze and was published on the Innovyze blog which is available by clicking here Page 11
  12. 12. SWAN 2018 - Meeting the Water Industry’s Challenges through Transformation, Actionable Data, and Collaboration The Smart Water Networks Forum held their annual conference in Barcelona this year and their annual aim is to discuss the state of the Smart Water Industry. It was certainly a resounding success with 230 attendees from 26 countries discussing wide range of topics from water quality monitoring to smart citizenship. Some general themes recurred throughout, specifically: 1. improving perception of utilities and utility-customer relationships; 2. utility transformation, 3. data overload & enhanced data management. 1. Improving Utility Perception The importance of improving the utility-customer relationship came up in multiple panels and round-table discussions, not only in relation to how customers perceive their local utility company but in terms of communication and customer engagement. In his keynote, Javier Fernandez of Canal de Isabel II stated that water utilities need to transition from the image of “the lovable grandma that is kind and charming, but outdated” to the “connected youngster.” Concerns about branding must be backed up with innovative actions, and communicating to the customer will improve imaging overall. Another interesting point raised was that customer engagement with a utility is traditionally in response to a problem, a reactive (versus proactive) response. Travis Smith of Sensus pointed out that utilities should be discerning in their messaging to clients as there is more concern and relevant engagement when the information actually affects their wallet. However, as Carlos Campos of SUEZ Advanced Solutions noted in his opening keynote, utilities should be interacting with their customers beyond just sending an invoice or responding to a leak; it is mutually beneficial when customer experience as a whole is enhanced. Campos also discussed how customer relation improvements can and should be quantified as part of the value added from smart modifications (see figure 1). Essentially, how customers perceive their utility and the quality of the water provided is a matter of language, education, and regulation. For instance, Dr. Jiawei Ng from PUB Singapore made the important point that in Singapore, the term “used water” is referred to as “wastewater” to reinforce that water is a reusable resource rather than a single-use waste. Citing his own experience, Lee Pope of Fayette County Water System pointed out that in the USA, public drinking sources are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency and are therefore held to much stricter standards than bottled water, which is regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Given that utilities provide vital services which are often invisible to the customer, sharing more information about company activities and driving local awareness regarding the cleanliness and quality of drinking water is a must. 2. Utility Transformation One of the principal challenges for utilities is the daunting process of transformation, often digitally-powered. George Hawkins of Moonshot, LLC / XPV Water Partners (and formerly DC Water) offered strategic advice for utility companies beginning the process of smart adaptations, including involving all stakeholders in the discussion via a “participatory approach” and leveraging indicators to measure growth and change. Another takeaway from the many discussions about developing smart water networks was the importance of leveraging existing infrastructure, as transformation does not necessarily require an entire system overhaul. Solution providers such as EmNet gave concrete ways to update legacy wastewater infrastructure, including real-time decision support systems. Also discussed was the opportunity to mutualise infrastructure strategies and solutions with other services (such as gas or power) as a form of collaboration that advances all sectors. An exciting new way utilities can transform themselves and innovate their companies is through blockchain. In her keynote, Anna Poberezhna of Smart4tech discussed the many opportunities of the water sector to utilise blockchain and unique business models in order to create better transactions and improve accountability in their organisational processes (see figure below). Using such a digital platform not only improves trust between the customer and the company, but using blockchain as a data management tool can also help improve record-keeping and streamline reporting to regulators. 3. Reassessing Data Management One main lesson drawn from SWAN 2018 is that smart data tools in and of themselves are insufficient - rather, proper management and data communication are a must. As was brought up during the WatEner round-table discussion, an overload of unnecessary data can flood the system and cause overreacting operational actions. Additionally, a key takeaway from the s::can-led round-table discussion was the growing market for the service of data rather than Figure 1 Keynote Presentation, Carlos Campos, SUEZ (SWAN 2018) Figure 2: Keynote Presentation, Anna Poberezhna, Smart4tech (SWAN 2018) Page 12
  13. 13. data ownership, and the challenges and opportunities that arise from using a service-economy model for data. With this in mind, the Data-as-a-Service (DaaS) model provides various business possibilities as well as opportunities for collaboration across the private and public sectors. In the case of utility transformation, as discussed earlier, there is an ever-increasing need to view and manage data as an asset. Peter Jackson of Southern Water described effective aspects of formulating a company data strategy, including appointing an internal Chief Data Officer and the need to discuss ways to transform people, processes, and technology; and reporting on progress in order to remain accountable. He also highlighted the necessity of transforming data communication; beyond data scientists, there is a need for “data storytellers” who can interpret and relay the underlying information both within the company and to the public. Such efforts can lead to actionable results and help drive data-based decision making. In another insightful panel presentation, David Lynch of Klir made the comparison of the current state of water management to early customer relationship management (CRM) systems. Just as CRM transitioned from rolodexes to spreadsheets of data, the water field has gone through a similar transition, but has not yet reached the next step as CRM has with automation and full data integration. In the water management sector, there are currently many structured data systems but no true system that integrates these “signals” into a focused mission; such integration is the next step in the evolution of smart water network management. Conclusion: Industry Cooperation and Collaboration The importance of collaboration and industry synthesis came up across many discussions, from integration on a system level to cooperation between various partners. During her keynote, Beverly Rider of Hitachi discussed such challenges faced by utility companies, but also the importance of considering the entirety of the ecosystem during water management, not just on the quality and quantity of the water. Joan Carles Guardiola Herrero of Global Omnium discussed their approach to fostering innovation in the water sector, including their contribution to a European consortium (SH2) bringing together utilities, universities, and tech companies together with the mission of consumer engagement and awareness. Another concrete example of cooperation among stakeholders was given by Daisee Aguilera, the Councillor for the Environment on the Formentera Island Council. The Alliance for Sustainable Water Management was created in Formentera (which works actively with FCC Aqualia) with representatives from public institutions, private entities, social and agricultural sectors - all with the common goal of integrated freshwater islands management. In terms of some insightful figures, when polled by Vitens, 78% of SWAN attendees said they believed innovation is best done as a collaborative effort with external partners (see figure below). Cooperation remains a key element not only of company transformation but to truly advance the water sector into a smarter future. Interestingly, when polled, the majority of Conference attendees stated that social innovation is currently more important than technological innovation (figure below). This is interesting because it highlights the importance of the customer role and behaviour beyond the smart innovations the company might provide. Lastly, while planning for future developments in the field, it is important to keep in mind where the industry is now and where it is headed. Pat Stevens of ADS Environmental Services spoke during his panel about three decades of technology adoption from (1) understanding (2) early adopter and (3) the standard phase. When polled, a majority of respondents indicated that the water sector is currently in the decade of “early adopter”, and that in a decade’s time, the industry will be in the “standard” adoption phase. For smart tools to become a standard quickly, partnerships and open communication between all stakeholders will be required. Cooperation and coordination within the industry are key for this transformation, with support from proper data management and enhanced customer engagement. (Source: SWAN 2018 Conference Mobile App Poll) About the Author Liora Hostyk is pursuing a graduate degree at Tel Aviv University in Environmental Science while working as a Research Analyst at SWAN - the Smart Water Networks Forum. Liora has experience in corporate social responsibility consulting and environmental consulting with a focused expertise in the areas of preliminary assessments, site investigation and remediation, Phase I and Phase II Environmental Site Assessments, due diligence in relation to high profile M&A transactions, and operation of remediation systems. Page 13
  14. 14. Article: Is Water 4.0 the future of the Water Industry? Introduction Water 4.0 is a concept that has recently be raised as the “future” of the Water Industry...possibly, but apart from being a paraphrase of Industry 4.0 the question has to be asked - What is it and what has it got to do with the way the Water Industry operates in its current state? So to define what exactly Water 4.0 is we have to look at Industry 4.0 and what came before it, I.e. Industry 1,2 & 3. So what are these? Industry 1.0 - This was the first Industrial revolution and involved the mechanisation of production using water and steam power. Think Water Mills and Steam Engines Industry 2.0 - In short think of electricity and what it did for the mechanisation of industry Industry 3.0 - Think electronics and computers basically the start of automation within industry So Industry 4.0? it is a collective term for technologies and concepts of value chain organization. Based on the technological concepts of cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things and the Internet of Services, it facilitates the vision of the Smart Factory. Within the modular structured Smart Factories of Industry 4.0, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the Internet of Things, Cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and humans in real time. Via the Internet of Services, both internal and cross-organizational services are offered and utilized by participants of the value chain. It is based upon six design principles 1. Interoperability: the ability of cyber-physical systems (I.e. work piece carriers, assembly stations and products), humans and Smart Factories to connect and communicate with each other via the Internet of Things and the Internet of Services 2. Virtualization: a virtual copy of the Smart Factory which is created by linking sensor data (from monitoring physical processes) with virtual plant models and simulation models 3. Decentralization: the ability of cyber-physical systems within Smart Factories to make decisions on their own 4. Real-Time Capability: the capability to collect and analyze data and provide the insights immediately 5. Service Orientation: offering of services (of cyber-physical systems, humans and Smart Factories) via the Internet of Services 6. Modularity: flexible adaptation of Smart Factories for changing requirements of individual modules The “Cyber Physical System” element of this can be defined as a system of collaborating computational elements controlling physical entities. CPS are physical and engineered systems whose operations are monitored, coordinated, controlled and integrated by a computing and communication core. They allow us to add capabilities to physical systems by merging computing and communication with physical processes. So how does this apply to the Water Industry? Industry 1-4 all apply to the manufacturing industry and for that industry it is relatively simple, something is being fabricated and put together putting together distinct parts. The Water Industry is actually quite different - be it Potable water or Wastewater it is being cleaned for discharge either to the customer’s tap or back to the environment. In reality, operationally, does Industry 4.0 apply to the Water Industry or are we trying to force concepts from another industry onto the Water Industry and creating something that doesn’t quite work? Possibly? But let’s play around with the design principles briefly and see where we get and see how far the Water Industry is with the concepts Interoperability - The way that I read interoperability is the ability of Water Industry Operators to connect, communicate and work with the treatment, collection and distribution systems to find out what is going on and be able to connect remotely. If you ignore the concept of doing this over the Internet it is arguable that we already have the ability to do this through SCADA systems. In someways you can almost say the Water Industry has achieved this on large treatment works and to some aspects with distribution systems but are no where near the interoperability concept on smaller treatment works and collection systems. Rating - Big Tick....at least in parts of the industry Virtualisation - a virtual copy of the Smart Factory - arguably a big tick in the Water Industry box. We have telemetry systems which at least allows us to see what is going on. On Advanced Wastewater Treatment Works we have process models that control aspects of the treatment works and in both advanced distribution and collection systems we even have a model based simulation models. It is certain that the technology is not quite there yet on a company wide basis but in pockets in the Water Industry it certainly works and is in place. Page 14
  15. 15. Rating - Not far off Decentralisation - the ability of the treatment works and network systems to control themselves. Again arguably this already exists, we as an industry have elements of treatment works that are more than capable of controlling themselves through monitoring and control systems, we have pumping stations that based upon the signals from level controllers will control pass forward pumps. We have PLCs that act as control centres for treatment works or individual parts of treatment works. So a big tick in the Water Industry has achieved the principle of decentralisation? Perhaps.... Rating - A “Big Tick? Perhaps Real Time Capability - The capability to collect and analyse data and provide the insights immediately? Hmmm....how do you define immediately, is it applicable to the Water Industry? Is immediately necessary? This is an area where the Water Industry can definitely develop in. The basics can be said to be done, we have the ability to alarm out if something is wrong and even the potential to react to the alarm remotely (on some systems) to repair the potential problem. Under Water 4.0 and the principles of Visualisation & Decentralisation the system should of course react itself. There is the potential for Real Time or even Near Time Capability (as applicable to the industry) but to be fair this is an area where the Water Industry could grade itself as “An area for improvement” Rating - An area for improvement Service Orientation - We’re a service industry, this is an absolutely tick in the box.....or is it? Well actually probably not? • Water meters are mostly manually read once or twice a year • Customer bills and other customer communications are mostly paper based and come through the post although some communication is through social media • Customer queries are handled over the telephone although text messaging, social media and texting to mobile phones are becoming more popular • Customer analytics are rare at best although with the advent of Smart Metering this is an area that the Industry is actively pursuing and improving in Rating - “An area where improvements are being made but generally could do better Modularity - A flexible approach? Changing requirements? Does this design principle apply? Are we already doing it? Again arguably the answer is yes. The picture to the right is from a large wastewater treatment works and to me demonstrates modularity in the design of the final tanks of the treatment works as well as flexibility of the operation. The control system of an individual tank will be exactly the same as the control system for the tank next door to it (or probably in this example the group of tanks next door. Some of the Water Companies in the UK have their control system libraries so that they can take a control module from the “library” and apply it, with a little bit of tweaking to site requirements. So has the Water Industry achieved the design principle of modularity? Arguably perhaps but certainly not across the whole industry and perhaps not if you are going to take a purist view of industry 4.0 but from a Water 4.0 point of view its a definitely maybe. Rating: - Getting there Purely going on the design principles of Industry 4.0 we can argue that Industry 4.0 does apply to the Water Industry and so as concept at least Water 4.0 is a direction that we should be at least, moving towards and in parts have actually achieved but as per anything you can take the individual ingredients of any recipe and put them all together in a mixer, it doesn’t of course mean that you will get anything resembling sense out of the other end. Delivering Water 4.0 - What does it practically mean for the Water Industry So, in nuts and bolts what does Water 4.0 actually look like from a Water Industry point of view? Well for me its a case of going back to basics and seeing what the Water Industry currently has and what it can do to bring the Industry forward to a point where we are at least adhering to the design principles. For me at least it is the management of the “Anthropogenic Water Cycle” from when we abstract water from the source to when we put it back to the environment and arguably further than that. It is seeing what we want to do, having a look at the technological gaps and then plugging them. There are examples of where this has been done, at least in part and it is these examples that we must look towards to shape the future of the Water Industry. To use the principle of the SWAN Layers where are we? Physical Layer - The first and most extensive of the Layers and includes all of the assets themselves from pipes, to tanks to pumps. This is the base of the Water Industry and it must be managed through the use of asset management systems, recording the assets that we have in a consistent way and in the same way across the Water Industry. Believe it or not this is an area of challenge as across the Water Industry the nomenclature is completely different. All of these assets of course need to managed in the short, medium and long term with systems such as Computerised Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) but potentially Condition Base Maintenance Management Systems (CBMMS) Sensing & Control Layer - This layer is relatively simple and yet is probably one of the major stumbling blocks within the Water Industry. The main reason being is generally within the Water Industry the requirements of the Sensing & Control layer have been very poorly specified and this has allowed the proliferation of the phenomenon of Data Richness Information Poverty. As such instrumentation has been installed with little or no attached value. This has led to the devaluing of instrumentation as a whole and the inability to extract usable intelligence from the vast amount of data that is collected everyday. Page 15
  16. 16. If Water 4.0 is to become a true reality in the Water Industry then an exercise to define the information that the Water Industry need to operate needs to be completed. From the information requirements comes the data needs and from this the instrumentation that is required to feed the data needs. At this level of course Sensing & Control Management Systems are needed as well as data validation systems to check on the quality of the data that is collected. It is the Sensing & Control level that is absolutely vital if the Water Industry is to deliver Water 4.0 Collection & Communication Layer - The telemetry system layer where all of the data from the Sensing & Control Layer is collected that also includes PLCs and SCADA systems. It is at this level that alot of the debate will happen in the Water Industry and is potentially where the so-called Internet of Things comes into play connecting instruments with the wider system. For the Water Industry there are numerous different elements from the Water Industry Telemetry Standard (WITS) to the existing SCADA & PLC structure. The main concern and the main stumbling block for Water 4.0 is within this layer of the Water Industry and concerns Digital or Cyber Security. If you say to a communications or telemetry specialist in the Water Industry that you are just going to connect this instrument up to the Internet of Things the answer will be a quite secure “never in a million years,” bring “the Cloud” into the mix and you are definitely not going to be successful in your endeavours and the least that is said about local communication protocols the better. In fact the discussion over communication protocols in the Water Industry is assuredly going to be a debate for many years to come. If the definition of Water (or Industry) 4.0 is to connect to the Internet then it is more than likely in the Water Industry that it will never become a reality. The Data Management & Display (layer 4) and Data Fusion & Analysis Layer (Layer 5) are probably the Layers that are developed in some respects but undeveloped in others. Model of the various aspects of the Water Industry exist as do complex telemetry and information management systems. In addition to this are the business reporting systems, SAP, Click and all of the other management systems and now all of the Software as a Service (SaaS) systems that are available. On top of this are the various Excel spreadsheets and Access Databases that are almost a pre-requisite in the industry. The problem with this is that there are several different versions of the truth and accessibility to all of these different systems are compartmentalised across the various companies. The result if of course is that the truth becomes the truth depending upon whose information that you are looking at. Conclusions Water 4.0 - Is it something for the Water Industry, is it something that the Water Industry has already achieved or are we on path to it? The quick answers are that it is something for the Water Industry and in a large part we have been moving towards it for a number of years. As an industry we are moving further and further towards a factory approach to the products that we produce whether it is potable water for drinking, treated water for returning to the environment or biosolids to be used on agricultural land. More and more we are seeing product factories, minimisation of losses (through leak- age reduction) and maximising the products that we can produce (through resource recovery. We as an industry are focused on providing the best customer service that we can hence why more and more companies are metering the water they provide and in a large number of cases this is through “Smart Metering,” to work with the customer to provide the best customer service. Water 4.0, the Smart Water Industry or just plain efficient operation (in truth whatever you want to call it) is central to these ways of working and it is through the development of the design principles of Industry 4.0 that we can deliver the future of the Water Industry. However there are some barriers to this approach to take into account and some decision that need to be taken, not on a company level but in real terms on an industry level as a whole. The first of these barriers is that of Communications Protocols insofar as we are industry that is mainly working off analogue signals in the main with Profibus on larger plants. The Industry seems to be heading towards a future of Ethernet and in the UK there is the whole direction of the Water Industry Telemetry Standard (WITS) with some heading in that direction and some not. The second is Cyber Security which more and more is becoming an increasingly urgent issue. For those talking about Cloud or Internet of Things environments then the proof of absolute security is an absolute must. Incidents of hacking of Water Treatment Works which have hit recent news along with past incidents only make the issue all the more important. The impact of a hacking incident that changed chemical levels can have serious implications to customer or the environment and zero risk must be the way forward for the Water Industry to even investigate this area. The third is instrumentation and data quality and an end to Data Richness Information Poverty. The Water Industry has a vast amount of instruments which produce a vast amount of data that gives no actionable intelligence and in reality needs to move towards an era of simply Information Richness where the information that is needed is available to the people that need it in an easy and digestible format that provides one version of the truth. This of course needs to be accurate which requires the correct instrumentation to be purchased, installed, operated and maintained correctly. This is not always the case in the Water Industry of today as the value of data and information is relatively low. Water 4.0 is something that the Water Industry should be aiming towards. How we are going to get there is going to be the fun bit over what probably is going to be the next decade or two. Oliver Grievson is the group manager of the Water Industry Process Automation and Control LinkedIn discussion group . He has many years experience firstly in the laboratory and for the past 12 years in the operational and process management of both potable and wastewater treatment works. He developed a passion for the control of water and wastewater treatment works whilst working for Yorkshire Water in the United Kingdom and decided to share this passion by setting up the WIPAC LinkedIn discussion group. He is a Fellow of CIWEM & the IES as well as being a Chartered Environmentalist, Scientist and Water & Environmental Manager. He is a member of the MCERTS Steering Group for the monitoring of flow, a member of the ICA Special Interest Group on ICA as well as sitting on the Wastewater Management Committees of the Foundation for Water Research and the Chartered Institute of Water & Environmental Management. Page 16
  17. 17. Feature Article: Water 4.0 and the Smart Water Industry – where are we? Introduction Water 4.0 is something that I first saw presented by the German Water Partnership many years ago in a conference in Madrid. It was presented as a new way of thinking, it was promoted as the digital water industry and a way that we could improve the efficiency in the way the water industry works. At roughly the same time we saw the concept of the “Smart Water Industry” rise mainly from the work that the SWAN Forum has done with their “Layered View of Data Technologies for the Water Distribution Network”. It has got to the point now that if you do a quick search on your generic search engine there is a proliferation of articles and books on Water 4.0 and the Smart Water Industry. As a concept it has been applied in part across many water operators in many different countries. There is a vast number of technologies out there that offer an intelligent or smart approach to the water industry but is this individual solutions taking a systematic approach or is it a case of the industry being truly smart. To understand all of this we have to go back to the principles of what the concepts originally were and understand where they fit into the Water Industry. So taking the concept of Water 4.0, which many would claim to come up with the concept, but to me was originally developed by the German Water Partnership WATER 4.0 puts digitization and automation at the centre of a strategy for resource-efficient, flexible and competitive water management. In doing this, WATER 4.0 incorporates the same main features and terms of the industrial revolution INDUSTRY 4.0, such as “networking of machines, processes, storage systems and resources”, “smart grids”, “Internet of Things and Services”, and brings them together in a systemic, water management context. In the implementation of WATER 4.0, Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are drivers of the optimal networking of virtual and real water systems, with planning, construction and operation being largely done by software. This allows the intelligent networking of water users (agriculture, industry, and households) and components in a sustainable water infrastructure with the environment and the water circuit and follows a holistic approach along the value-added chain. Furthermore, WATER 4.0 allows a high degree of transparency for water users, thus covering current needs, and provides opportunities for sustainable, creative activity areas in water management. From this definition of the concept the takeaway points are • It connects together in a systematic way • Its led by Cyber Physical Systems • Its software led • It’s a holistic approach To put this graphically as has been done in the German Water Partnership’s brochure on Water 4.0 you get a systematic approach to everything that is done Figure 1 - Digitization in water management creates value (source: German Water Partnership) Looking at it from a Smart Water Industry point of view I personally look at the SWAN 5-Layers diagram which was a concept originally brought to light in their seminal paper “A Layered View of Smart Water Networks”. In this paper the Smart Water Industry is split into five distinct areas as explained in an extract of the original paper. The physical layer is comprised, as its name suggests, of the physical elements enabling the distribution and delivery of water along the network. Generally speaking, these are the “wet” components which deal (only with water. Pipes, pumps, valves, pressure reducing valves (PRVs), reservoirs and delivery endpoints are all part of the physical layer. These are data-less elements, that typically perform mechanical, hydraulic or chemical functions. While the physical layer does not have data interfaces, it can be controlled using data collected in the next layer – sensing and control. Although there may be valuable innovation and design in this layer, any system which is purely focused on the physical layer is not a part of the data technologies of the Smart Water Network. Page 17
  18. 18. The sensing and control layer is comprised of equipment and sensors that measure parameters of the water delivery and distribution (such as flow, pressure, water quality parameters, reservoir levels, water temperature, acoustic information and more) and remote-controlled devices enabling to remotely operate the network (such as remote-controllable pumps, valves, and pressure-reducers). In essence, the sensing and control layer is the only interface between the network operator’s data systems on one side, and the physical layer on the other side, enabling the connection of the “smarts” of the Smart Water Network to the real, physical network. Elements of this layer typically have one “wet” end or aspect with direct contact or relation to water (such as a valve or the mechanical end of a flow sensor), and one “dry” data interface (such as a valve controller input, or a sensor’s data output). The collection and communications layer is responsible for discrete data point collection, transmission, and storage. By using two-way communication channels, commands are then given back to the second layer to instruct sensors and actuators about what data to collect or which actions to execute. For example, a fixed cable network, radio, cellular, Wi-Fi, and other communication technologies related to data transfer are all part of this layer. This is the first “dry” layer, as it only moves data between the sensing and control layer and the higher layers. The data management and display layer is where data from different sources comes together and may be used by operators. It may be pre-processed, stored, transferred, and accessed by central systems. Similarly, this is where human operator commands or instructions from higher-level systems are interpreted into concrete device settings (e.g. changing to a named network configuration may imply switching several pumps on or off, changing valve states, etc.). This interfaces with the underlying communications infrastructure on one side, and with a human operator or with other central data systems on the other side. The data management and display layer is where data from different sources comes together and may be used by operators. It may be pre-processed, stored, transferred, and accessed by central systems. Similarly, this is where human operator commands or instructions from higher-level systems are interpreted into concrete device settings (e.g. changing to a named network configuration may imply switching several pumps on or off, changing valve states, etc.). This interfaces with the underlying communications infrastructure on one side, and with a human operator or with other central data systems on the other side. The dashboard applications provided with many SCADA systems (or developed in-house at various water utilities) often fall into this layer, with some data validation and the display of multiple data streams graphically and in context, etc. Other components in this layer include data repositories, GIS or network schematic visualisation tools, control room systems with simple alert rules, graphical control interfaces, water balance applications, and fixed-rule feedback automation. The data fusion and analysis layer brings together raw input data and derives processed knowledge, which was not previously obvious or trivial from the data as collected. The resulting information may be displayed to a human operator, passed on to further analysis within the layer, or trigger automatic action by means of the data handling layer (or directly via the communications layer). The value of this information comes from sifting through the flood of data from multiple samples, data sources, and even data types, to extract high value information, in the form of alerts on problems, automated responses to system changes, high level summaries, network forecasts, etc. Components in this layer may include hydraulic modelling systems, network infrastructure monitoring, smart pressure management, smart (not fixed feedback) pumping or energy optimisation systems, and Decision Support Systems. This layer contains many promising emerging technologies, en route to a true “Smart Water Grid.” If you look at both of these concepts they are complimentary and both incorporate all of the concepts that the industry is hearing at the moment from the Internet of Things (whether it is industrial or not), Big Data (or Small Information) and all of the other buzz words that the industry is being drowned with at the current time Great in concept, but…… Water 4.0 and the Smart Water industry are fantastic in concept but what are the fundamentals under-pinning them and how do we integrate these fundamentals into the water industry as a whole? In truth a lot of water companies have taken aspects of the Smart Water Industry/Water 4.0 and integrated them into their businesses. Some actively claim that what they have done isn’t part of the Smart Water Industry where other do. The risk right now in the Water Industry is that we try and implement these “Smart Solutions” without getting the fundamental basics of the water industry correct. For me at least I run through the 5 Layers as the SWAN Forum explained in their original paper but taking the most important concept of each layer being layered on top of each other. So the most important point to make is that if the fundamentals aren’t correct or contain errors then these errors can be magnified in subsequent layers to the point where errors in the data, create errors in the information which can lead to false assumptions being made in the analytics layers. To take each layer in turn let’s explain the concepts and the importance of the layer itself. Layer 1 – Physical Layer – Quite literally the pipes, the tanks, the valves and everything else. Without the physical layer the water industry does not literally exist. It’s not Smart, its not intelligent it just simply is. However what is important and drastically increases the efficiency of the physical layer is its integration directly with Layers 4 & 5, this layer has unstructured data in terms of the physical attributes of each individual asset. So the data capture of all of the physical layer attributes is absolutely vital to the water industry in general. For example let’s take a pipe, what are its attributes and what can we do with them • Physically – Diameter, internal and external bore, material, shape, how long is it, what flows through it, what is it connected to • Locational – Where is it, what direction it goes in • Construction conditions – what was it laid in, how was it connected to its next-door asset • Asset management – when was it installed, how old is it, what is its asset condition All of this fits into asset management models to predict when the pipe asset is likely to fail. Also in the physical layer certainly at the treatment works lev- Figure 2 - The SWAN 5 Layers Page 18
  19. 19. el is the use of BIM and technologies which produces a 3-D model of the physical layer. This becomes useful when moving to technologies that use the “Digital Twin” approach. A Digital twin refers to a digital replica of physical assets (physical twin), processes and systems that can be used for various purposes. The digital representation provides both the elements and the dynamics of how an Internet of Things device operates and lives throughout its life cycle. This has its uses in the operational environment when using a modelling approach to run simulations to predict how the system will behave. A lot of this is actually already done within Water Companies with the water distribution network showing what the distribution system is going to do when a particular valve is closed or part of the system is isolated for repairs. Layer 2 - The Sensing & Control Layer – If you had an industry with no sensing and no automated control would you have an industry. The answer is quite clearly yes you would however there would be a greater need for manual monitoring and there would be a decrease in efficiency of the way the industry operates. The sensing and control layer is the source of all automated data collection in the industry and data is at the centre of the Smart Water Industry and Water 4.0. Without the correct data then the Smart Water Industry will fail and this relies on the correct instrumentation & control systems to be installed and maintained in the correct manner to ensure that the data that is being collected can be relied upon. The key to the sensing layer is something that has been termed the Instrumentation Life-Cycle which takes the use of instrumentation from the need of the data that instrument will provide even before it has been installed to the planning for its replacement and its actual replacement. Quite simply this looks like 1. What data is needed, what is it measuring and what value will it bring 2. How is that data going to be provided, what instrumentation is required to capture the data that is needed 3. Whatinstrumentisrequiredandhowisitgoing tobeinstalled taking intoaccount itsoperation,maintenanceand eventual replacement 4. Operate and maintain the instrument 5. Replace when required utilising asset management principles and instrument criticality The life-cycle questions whether an instrument is required at all and if the question cannot be answered as to the worth of the data that instrument is going to provide then the advice is not to install an instrument at all. If the value of an instrument is not know and its value is not realised then it will not be maintained and the accuracy of that instrument will fail and finally a resistance to the effective use of instrumentation is realised within the operational business. Where it comes to control the same principles apply but the holistic approach should be to control what is needed or wanted to be controlled within the operational system or have sufficient information to manage the rest. Layer 3- The Collection & Communications Layer – Without layer 2 then the need for layer 3 simply does not exist as without instruments producing data the data does not need to be communicated. This is often where, to a lot of opinions, Water 4.0/The Smart Water Industry starts. For companies that ignore the importance of the physical, sensing and control layers and start looking at the Smart Water Industry at Layer 3 are destined to fail in their aspirations for more efficient operation of the water industry. Saying this however there are huge potential developments in Layer 3 that have been seen in the past few years. At the treatment works level this is the use of secure local area networks using technologies like Wireless HART for data collection and control or simpler technologies in the form of Bluetooth where the data simply needs to be collected and communicated. This can help with operational information that is being collected on-site allowing visiting operational staff to be able to picture the site status on site visits. The difference between Layers 2 & 3 have blurred with the advent of edge computing where the sensing layer reports on the status of the plant and provides the data. This is locally communicated to onsite computing systems and comes back down to layer 2 controlling the systems on a local basis. However on a true systematic approach the “local area” needs to be somewhat fluid as the interactions between the different “local area systems” needs to be understood and controlled. Historically of course this has been traditionally managed by SCADA systems and these should not be ignored as they are an essential part of the local control system Layers 4 & 5 – Data management, visualisation, fusion and analysis – It is in Layers 4 & 5 where the potential for the Smart Water Industry can be seen and it is working on a systematic approach using the right sensing technologies in the right place to collect the right data to drive the informational needs of the industry that the value of the Smart Water Industry can be seen. In Figure 4 which shows the value of data in the Smart Water Industry/Water 4.0 Figure 3 - A digital twin (Source: IBM) Page 19
  20. 20. Figure 4 - Water 4.0 from data to value (Source: German Water Partnership) What of course this does show is that without the right data then the value will not be realised and the whole point is lost. The key to these layers are the definition of the informational needs of the water industry. This isn’t a case of engineering per se, but is a case of stakeholder engagement. The engineering comes in providing the correct data at a suitable quality to feed the data management layer and allow it to be fused into information that will allow for informed decision making to drive operational decisions that maximises the efficiency of the industry. This is the whole concept of both Water 4.0 and the Smart Water Industry. In reality how the concepts can be integrated into the water industry is for the water companies to define their informational requirements at each level within the company. What information does the CEO want or need to enable informed decisions to made and this filters down throughout the entire organisation Good in theory….but what about the practice There are a lot solutions in the Water Industry that rely on using data that is produced by the industry applies an algorithm to the data and from this controls the system or sets up an alert to an unusual event and these systems have provided huge value to the water industry as a whole. These have mainly been centred around the water distribution system and non-revenue water loss but also around the wastewater treatment works with holistic systems such as those that are based upon multi-variate process control as well as on a discrete basis with individual control systems such as an ammonia control system on an activated sludge plant. These systems have used sensing systems to measure the state of the system as a whole. This was first done decades ago by using a DMA approach on potable water distribution networks that have eventually seen monitoring drive new innovations in how we detect leaks. Probably the best example of this is the approach that Portuguese Water Company EPAL took with their WONE system to help detect where investment in the distribution network was needed. The result was a huge reduction in non-revenue water that has been sustainably maintained for a number of years.. In the UK on the wastewater treatment works the best example is the innovative approach that Severn Trent Water took in the data & information management by fully monitoring their works at Spernal to give situational awareness of the works and its surrounding areas that allowed informed decision making and the same can be said of the wastewater networks project that Southern Water undertook at Eastney as well as the work that has been done in Copenhagen. The Water Industry has numerous examples of where it has taken an approach that is similar to Water 4.0 and the Smart Water Industry however the integration of the whole concept on a wholesale basis and the interaction of the different systems within the water industry and the whole anthropogenic water cycle is yet to be seen although developments are certainly going to be seen in the next few years if the water industry takes the care in investing in the basics to form a stable base to move forward into an industry where data analytics produces information which can be used to drive informed decision making. Oliver Grievson is the group manager of the Water Industry Process Automation and Control LinkedIn discussion group . He has many years experience firstly in the laboratory and for the past 12 years in the operational and process management of both potable and wastewater treatment works. He developed a passion for the control of water and wastewater treatment works whilst working for Yorkshire Water in the United Kingdom and decided to share this passion by setting up the WIPAC LinkedIn discussion group. He is a Fellow of CIWEM & the IES as well as being a Chartered Environmentalist, Scientist and Water & Environmental Manager. He is a member of the MCERTS Steering Group for the monitoring of flow, a member of the ICA Special Interest Group on ICA as well as sitting on the Wastewater Management Committees of the Foundation for Water Research and the Chartered Institute of Water & Environmental Management. Page 20

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