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Page 1
WIPAC MONTHLYThe Monthly Update from Water Industry Process Automation & Control
	www.wipac.org.uk												Issue...
Page 2
In this Issue
	 From the Editor.......................................................................................
Page 3
From the Editor
					
It has been a month of sitting in rooms listening to people talk about aspirations and living...
New Chairman for SWIG: Justin Dunning of Chelsea
Technologies Group & a NEW Call for Papers for Sensing in
Water 2017
The ...
Anglian Water implements first Servelec WITS-certified
outstations as part of private pumping station network
Anglian Wate...
Research team uses specially-made GPS trackers to chart
Irrawaddy river, Myanmar
A team of researchers and students from T...
New IIoT Solution From Schneider Electric Enables Industry To
Control Real-Time Profitability
Page 7
Schneider Electric, t...
‘Far Out’ Technology Simplifies Pipeline Leak Detection
Satellites provide the latest, perhaps most efficient, method for ...
Evides Extends TaKaDu Service for Three Years
TaKaDu, a global leader in Integrated Event Management solutions for the wat...
Article:
A breakthrough in providing
real-time, low-maintenance BOD
Proteus Instruments have launched what will be hailed ...
Applications
The Proteus BOD has been deployed for extended periods in urban river systems with waste-
water drainage prob...
•	 Low maintenance - self-cleaning with automatic wiper and simple calibration only every 6 – 12 months
•	 Numerous applic...
Article:
Are your VSDs running at
maximum efficiency?
Energy efficiency is now a prime consideration for machine designers...
The old adage ‘you can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink’ is especially true when it comes to instrumentat...
Taking the example of an unreliable instrument, it is perhaps understandable that persistent nuisance trips might lead som...
Introduction
As an industry, the water industry is addicted to measuring things. By best estimate approximately 300 millio...
Figure 2 shows 24 hours of data on what was a relatively dry day with four occasions where flows surged 700 to 1,500 L/s. ...
As can be seen the instrumentation involved is two ammonia monitors and a dissolved oxygen monitor. The levels of ammonia ...
Don’t miss the upcoming SWAN 7th Annual Conference to be held 9th
-10th
May, 2017 at the Tower Hotel in London. This
year’...
March/April 2017
Smart Wastewater Networks
8th
March 2017
Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool, UK
Hosted by the Sensors ...
Sponsored by
APRIL
2017
COPTHORNE TARA HOTEL, LONDON, UK
www.smart-water-systems.com
Register online or fax your registrat...
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WIPAC Monthly - February 2017

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WIPAC Monthly is the magazine of the LinkedIn Group - Water Industry Process Automation & Control.

In this edition of WIPAC Monthly we talk about new developments in BOD monitors, the efficient use of VSDs, the perils of ignoring your instrumentation and whether or not you need to install an instrument at all

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WIPAC Monthly - February 2017

  1. 1. Page 1 WIPAC MONTHLYThe Monthly Update from Water Industry Process Automation & Control www.wipac.org.uk Issue 2/2017 - February 2017
  2. 2. Page 2 In this Issue From the Editor.................................................................................................................... 3 Industry News..................................................................................................................... 4 - 9 Highlights of the news of the month from the global water industry centred around the successes of a few of the companies in the global market. A breakthrough in BOD...................................................................................................... 10-12 The measurement of BOD to indicate organic pollution has been around for over a hundred years. The “holy grail” of the Water Industry has been to develop a short term test and the measurement of tryptophan has seemed to be an answer for a few years now. In this article we find out about the latest development in measuring BOD Are your VSDs running at maximum efficiency?.................................................................. 13 In this article by Mitsubishi we examine the question of VSD efficiency and what can be done to improve the way that we manage them and operate more efficiently Why it pays to pay attention to your instrumentation........................................................ 14-15 In this precautionary article written by Alan Hunt of ABB the dangers of ignoring what your instrumentation is pertinently highlighted as we examine the importance of what we record and why if we ignore what our instruments are telling us dire consequences can be the result Is that Instrument really needed........................................................................................ 16-18 The Water Industry has a vast array of instrumentation, arguably, too much and the data that is collected is of poor quality as a result. In this article we question whether or not instrumentation is actually needed by looking at a number of case studies where it is looked at and the question is asked whether, in any particular application, whether an instrument is needed be it a sensor, monitor, meter or even nothing at all Workshops, Conferences & Seminars................................................................................... 19-21 The highlights of the conferences and workshops in the coming months The picture on the front cover of this issue has been kindly provided by Nivus and is linked to their article on Transit Time later on in this issue. It shows transit time paths across a pipe WIPAC Monthly is a publication of the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group. It is produced by the group manager and WIPAC Monthly Editor, Oliver Grievson. This is a free publication for the benefit of the Water Industry and please feel free to distribute to any who you may feel benefit. All enquires about WIPAC Monthly, including those who want to publish news or articles within these pages, should be directed to the publications editor, Oliver Grievson at olivergrievson@hotmail.com
  3. 3. Page 3 From the Editor It has been a month of sitting in rooms listening to people talk about aspirations and living the flip side of the coin and at times seeing a stark reality. We talk about a “Smart” Water Industry and one of the rooms I sat in and talked for a bit and listened for even more I saw the very beginnings of things starting to happen when managers on the ground had been empowered to make a change. The savings that were put up on the slide, in truth, were not all the benefits that were actually seen as one of the problems of making things “Smart” is that most of the times we do not see the benefits of putting the right information in front of the right people to make the right decision. I suppose you could called it the “Smart Water Paradox” or the “Smart Water Catch 22” insofar as you don’t know the full benefit of what you are doing until you have actually done it and if you don’t have the bravery to do it then you won’t see the benefits of doing it. To quote the great US president Henry Ford and a good friend in the Water Industry Mark Lane “If you always do what you’ve always done, you’ll always get what you’ve always got” What of course we need is more of a Neil Armstrong and to paraphrase his famous quote “One small step for a water company, one giant leap for the Water Industry & the Environment To back track though through a couple of subjects that came up in conversation with various people in various rooms across the past few days I had a discussion with someone from a company famous for their data & information management and we were discussion about asset management. Now in my “day job” I’ve had great success in improving the quality of the data from instrumentation taking basic asset management principles of capturing what I have, assessing its state and putting investment in place to resolve issues. Someone doing the most basic asset management course will be taught these princi- ples in the very first lesson. Its a bit different when your managing a large asset base but the principles are the same. So, having the discussion the question was “what did you use as your management system?” How do you put things together to join up the dots. The answer of course was industries favourite spreadsheet programme, the sense of tension almost palpable. We are an industry who are addicted to their spreadsheets. The next question of course was “and why not something more complex, a proper database programme etc.....etc....,” The answer - “because it relies on a business case being raised and thousands of pounds being spent,” the rebuttal - “and how many hours did it take to set up the system versus the cost of getting somebody else to set it up.... point made. As an industry we are addicted to spreadsheets because the hassle of doing anything else in putting together programmes of work is too much. Its a case of its easier to do ourselves which of course is short-termism and doesn’t help in the long run and the spreadsheet is often not shared and thus although successes can be realised through alot of hard work the successes are often not replicated across the business. One of the major points that was brought up this month was the problem with data quality, the solution is actually simple as simple asset management needs to be applied but perhaps its perhaps the lack of asset data that is affecting the lack of data quality which is in turn holding the industry back It is the lack of data quality that is the next thing that has been the topic of discussion this month. On one hand it has been the statements made of “well for that application we don’t need accurate data,” and another standard discussion point is that “we can always use algorithms to smooth the data and fill in the gaps.” Both of these are something that I disagree with quite strongly. My standard response on not needing accurate data is “well then don’t use a meter then,” if you record a number then it should reflect the true situation, if you need something rough and ready and in the “right ball-park” then use a sensor or a probe instead as “false numbers,” caused by instruments being in the “right ball-park” have a nasty habit of being believed and taken as reflecting the true situation and that is when poor operation or poor designs happen and people stop believing in instrumentation as its “never right.” On the subject of data smoothing - “filling in the gaps” using algorithms like a magic wand being waved is it really possible. It depends how much data you have of course. If you are using several sources of data to create a fuzzy sensor then absolutely. If you are filling in the gaps on one sensor and you have minimal data then my thoughts are probably not.....but I’ll see what I can see and play with some numbers as otherwise “I’ll always get what I’ve always got.” Have a good month Oliver
  4. 4. New Chairman for SWIG: Justin Dunning of Chelsea Technologies Group & a NEW Call for Papers for Sensing in Water 2017 The Sensors for Water Interest Group (SWIG) is pleased to announce our new Chairman, Justin Dunning, Sales Manager of Chelsea Technologies Group. Justin brings a wealth of experience of sensor technologies to the role, and replaces Leo Carswell, Principal Instrumentation Consultant of WRc who has completed his 2 year tenure as SWIG Chairman. SWIG wishes to thank Leo for his hard work and dedication in the role, and welcomes Justin to take up the reins. Justin said that under his watch “SWIG will continue to work with manufacturers, end-users and researchers to encour- age cross fertilisation of ideas to benefit the sectors we serve. We will organise workshops focusing on practical applications and addressing topical water measurement challenges. We have a good track record of facilitating successful collaborations and we will continue to enable collaboration between researchers, developers and end-users in the water sensor community.” SWIG is a not for profit, knowledge-exchange and networking group holding events covering all aspects of water sensing. During 2017 we will be holding our 4th biennial Sensing in Water Conference and exhibition, which is anticipated to be bigger and better than ever. In 2015, 180 people attended Sensing in Water over the 2 days of the conference, including 12 major water companies, in addition to regulators, sensor manufacturers and distributors, researchers and consultants, and the conference grows each time it is held. The Call for Papers for SWIG’s Biennial Conference , Sensing in Water 2017 taking place on 27-28 Sept 2017 at the Nottingham Belfry in the United Kingdom. The conference has been split into four sessions and is concentrating as a central theme on the ‘Meaningful measurement from the micro to the macro scale’ SWIG is seeking abstracts from end users, regulators, designers and engineers, researchers and manufacturers of water sensors & related technology on the following themes: 1. On new and evolving sensing technologies for improved detection of chemical and biological targets in water. A focus on future sensing technologies and their application would be within scope and presentations that highlight innovation and commercialisation are particularly welcome. 2. On the treatment works the sensor has the important role of telling the operator what is happening and controlling the various treatment systems. Presentations that discuss the role on the sensor and how it can inform the operator to help protect compliance and increase efficiency are welcome. 3. Water and wastewater networks, remote and buried infrastructure – assets that are critical in the provision of water and environmental services. We are looking for examples of novel solutions or creative applications of technology that illustrate how monitoring and measurement at the network scale is delivering value for stakeholders. 4. Sensors for Catchments – presentations on catchment monitoring using remote, portable or strategic environmental sensing systems. Please note that the proposed presentations should strongly relate to use of sensors within the water industry. For consideration in the programme for SiW 2017, please send an abstract (100 words max) to rosa.richards@swig.org.uk stating which theme your presentation would fit into. Presentations will be 15-20 minutes in length. Deadline for abstract submission: 31 March 2017. Submissions will be reviewed by the SWIG Board and the session chairman to build the final programme for Sensing in Water. 2017 New SWIG Chairman Justin Dunning Page 4 Industry News
  5. 5. Anglian Water implements first Servelec WITS-certified outstations as part of private pumping station network Anglian Water, the geographically largest water and sewerage company in England, has selected Servelec Technologies’ S2000micro remote telemetry unit to monitor the remainder of its private pumping network. A project that will see Anglian Water install 750 of the field devices over the next 12 months. Anglian Water has chosen to install the WITS-certified (Water Industry Telemetry Standards) S2000micro RTU due to its ease of installation, configuration and affordability. The project further strengthens Servelec Technologies’ relationship with Anglian Water, who also use Servelec’s water network management advisory tool MISER. It also increases Servelec’s reputation as a market-leader in the UK water industry for end-to-end automation and optimisation solutions. Servelec delivers efficiency savings to UK water companies’ business operations by creating systems to collect, communicate and exploit data. Servelec can supply a true end-to-end automation and optimisation solution using state-of-the-art RTUs, a secure SCADA and telemetry platform and a suite of business optimisation SaaS solutions. Servelec’s SaaS solutions include tools for investment planning, leakage detection, production planning and automated control. Simon Harrison, Telemetry and Automation Manager at Anglian Water, said: “We chose to install Servelec’s S2000micro RTU with integrated pump control- ler for the first time on our private pumping stations because of its ease of operation, installation and value for money. We invited competing suppliers to prove how easily their devices could be installed and Servelec proved that the S2000micro could fully meet our requirements. In addition, because Servelec’s devices are WITS-certified they interface seamlessly with our existing SCADA system.” Neil Butler, Managing Director of Strategic Partnerships at Servelec added: “We’re delighted that Anglian Water has decided to incorporate our S2000micro into their existing telemetry network. As founder members of WITS and as part of the organisation’s steering committee, we have worked closely with Anglian Water, other water UK water companies and suppliers of telemetry solutions to create devices which use common protocols and technologies; providing UK water companies with the benefit of choice. Knowing the range of other technologies available, it makes it all the more pleasing that they have chosen a Servelec solution for this project.” Nivus launch Flow Metering using Radar for Ex-Zone 1 The OFR flow sensor by NIVUS GmbH was approved for use in Ex-Zone 1 by TÜV Nord. Apart from the ATEX approval required mainly in Europe erwarb das Unternehmen auch den Standard nach IECEx, which is preferably demanded in English-speaking countries. This allows contactless flow measurements in many applications including sewers. In order to obtain the Ex approvals a new sensor material was used and the sensor dimensions have been slightly modified. A non-Ex version of the radar sensor continues to remain available. The flow sensor features IP 68 protection and thus is suitable for use particularly in harsh environments. In addition to the radar sensor NIVUS provide a modular holder bracket made of stainless steel for easy installation. The basic module enables mounting of the radar sensor. An extension allows installation of an extra IP 68 level sensor. Moreover the manufacturer provides an optional casing which covers both sensors in a compact enclosure. Due to low space requirements the compact housing is suitable for installation even in cramped places or in locations where access is difficult. The contactless measurement and the compact construction of the radar system allow installation without the need to shut down processes. Flow metering using radar sensors is suitable particularly for applications conducting aggressive or abrasive media. Thames Water: drones are a gamechanger for health and safety Page 5 Thames Water has described its new fleet of drones as nothing less than a ‘gamechanger’ for its health and safety team. Carol Moore, the company’s head of safety, health and wellbeing training and statutory compliance was commenting after the drone was used in a successful trial at Abbey Mills pumping station to see if the images it produced were of sufficient quality to satisfy insurance inspectors and the Health and Safety Executive. “We found that the HSE was satisfied,” said Carol. “It means we can’t rule out human inspections totally but they can be used in three out of every four years, for example.” “The great benefit they bring is that they enable us to inspect cranes and other equipment at height without putting people into potentially hazardous situations,” she said. “And there’s a cost benefit too. To get scaffolding around a crane so it can be inspected costs between £10k and £12k every year. For a digester it can be as high as between £75k and £90k every time it needs inspecting.” With around 100 cranes that need inspecting every year, it’s clear her hopes of a whole fleet of drones are fully justified. “Cranes are just the start,” she continued.“We want the thermal imaging cameras we can attach to the drones to test for leakage in the trunk mains and our Infrastructure Alliance will find it useful for reservoir inspections, leaks, bursts, roof inspections and aerators – if you see bubbles from the air, that means diffused aeration. In slow sand filter beds, you’re looking for discolouration.” Thames Water’s trials with the drones have sparked interest from other water companies - the company’s drone pilot Jon Lorimer has recently conducted a demo for water companies in the south.
  6. 6. Research team uses specially-made GPS trackers to chart Irrawaddy river, Myanmar A team of researchers and students from TU Delft university of technology started a large scale tracer project to chart the flow of the Irrawaddy, Myanmar. The team uses 15 specially-made GPS trackers and 400 balloons with LED lights to collect data on the variations in the flow rate of the river. In order to be able to chart a major river such as the Irrawaddy, numerous measurement points are required. Ideally these measurement points are tracked continuously. Unique GPS tracker Off-the-shelf GPS beacons are expensive, or lack GSM capabilities. So Delft University of technology, together with the startup Disdro, developed a GPS tracker that records its position on a local SD card every minute, calls in its position every 15 minutes and transmits its location. As a result, it is also possible to relocate these trackers. The balloons are low-tech floats with LED-lights. They have different colours, and will be released at various places in the river at established times. Calibration of models The research team will follow the trackers and balloons for several hundred kilometres over a course of several days. The number of balloons will also be counted manually from a bridge every 50 to 70 kilometres. The data is vital to predict future concerns such as fairway (channel) relocation and the spread of contamination. It will also be used to calibrate a model of the river’s hydraulics and water quality. The team also plans to use the data to determine the extent to which collecting information on water quality via citizen science can serve as a monitoring system. Water Research Foundation Approves 11 Focus Area Projects The Water Research Foundation (WRF), a leading sponsor of innovative research supporting the water community, has approved 11 new projects to be funded in 2017 under the Focus Area Program. The Focus Area Program identifies important water industry issues and helps to resolve them with credible information from targeted, multi-year research. Water Research Foundation subscribers are encouraged to participate by volunteering to serve as a test facility, provide water samples, respond to surveys, loan equipment, or share staff expertise on particular research projects. Participating utilities gain firsthand information about the study and benefit from working with researchers and others in the water community. Interested organizations must complete the online UPIR volunteer application form by March 10, 2017. Additionally, subject matter experts are urged to volunteer to serve on Project Advisory Committees (PAC) that will oversee each funded project. The 2017 application deadline to serve on a PAC is March 8. Interested volunteers should complete the online PAC volunteer application form. Requests for proposals for these projects will be available on March 15, 2017 at www.waterrf.org. Please contact John Albert at jalbert@waterrf.org or 303.734.3413 if you have any questions about the Focus Area program or projects Page 6
  7. 7. New IIoT Solution From Schneider Electric Enables Industry To Control Real-Time Profitability Page 7 Schneider Electric, the global specialist in energy management and automation, has introduced new IIoT capabilities that will enable its industrial customers to measure and control the profitability of their operations in real time. Developed through a partnership with Seeq, a leading provider of software and services that enable data-driven decision making, EcoStruxure Profit Advisor uses Big Data analytics to measure the financial performance of an industrial operation in real time, from the equipment asset level of a plant up to the process unit, plant area, plant site and enterprise levels. On-premise or cloud-enabled, it works seamlessly with any process historian to mine both historical and real-time data. It then processes that data through Schneider Electric’s proprietary segment-specific accounting algorithms to determine real-time operational profitability and potential savings. “Despite all the new technology and capabilities available to the automation market today, many industrial operations are still performing sub-optimally when it comes to the potential business value they can generate,” according to Craig Resnick, vice president, ARC Advisory Group. “Optimizing business value in industrial operations requires scalable, open solutions that help users leverage every industrial asset. This requires shrinking the time to asset benefit from the smallest mechanical and electrical assets to the supply chain and enterprise. Such an approach could ultimately enable industry to move from monitoring business value to actually controlling it. This would include controlling business functions, such as, for example, scheduling and planning, that until now were purely transactional. This ability to actually control business value in industrial operations is a real breakthrough and will result in direct positive effects to companies’ bottom lines.” Controlling Business Variables in Real Time “While many companies are getting really good at controlling the efficiency of their operations in real time, they’re still managing their business month to month. That just doesn’t work anymore,” said Peter Martin, vice president of innovation, Schneider Electric Process Automation. “Business variables are changing so quickly—sometimes by the minute—that by the time companies receive updates from whatever enterprise resource planning systems they use, the information is no longer relevant to the business decisions they need to make or should have made. If they want to change the game, they need to control their other real-time business variables, including their safety, their reliability and especially their operational profitability. Profit Advisor allows them to do that.” Because current cost accounting systems only measure the financial performance of the industrial operation at the overall plant level, it is difficult for companies to truly understand the financial impact—positive and negative—operational changes have on business performance. To address that need, Profit Advisor allows plant personnel to see and understand the ROI and business value their actions, activities and assets are contributing to the business in real time. It empowers the workforce to make better business decisions with a variety of data analytics, which can be displayed in various formats, to help drive operational profitability improvements, safely. Innovating at Every Level to Deliver Value-focused IIoT “Our customers are struggling with many issues, including the sheer speed of business and how to manage and use emerging technology to their advantage,” said Chris Lyden, senior vice president, Process Automation, Schneider Electric. “Everyone wants to talk about all this new technology without focusing on what value it can deliver. From our perspective, the digitization of industry is a real opportunity for our customers. We’re taking a value-focused approach to IIoT because we know our ability to innovate at every level can help our customers control their productivity and profitability in real time. That’s the only reason we should be talking about IIoT to begin with.” Profit Advisor layers real-time accounting models onto the Seeq Workbench to become a scalable, repeatable and easy-to-implement solution for multiple segments, enabling customers to both measure and control their profitability. And because it can be integrated with Schneider Electric’s simulation and modelling software in a digital twin environment, users are further enabled to forecast profitability under different conditions or if changes to the operation are made. Overall, the software provides: Historical Data Review: Profit Advisor can evaluate the historical performance of the plant to assess its operational profitability, helping plant personnel analyze and understand how the operation performed during different conditions. It enables the workforce to identify true performance-improving initiatives. And since it can be tied to individual pieces of equipment, it can provide that information down to even the smallest asset in the operation. Real Time Performance Indication: Profit Advisor can indicate current performance and inform plant personnel when their operating decisions are making the business more profitable. Actual ROI and return on improvements will be visible, enabling plant personnel to concentrate and refine their efforts to the actions that provide the greatest financial returns. It also enables plant personnel to determine which parts of operation are constraining operational profitability and accurately estimate the business value their decisions might actually create. Profit Planning: Profit Advisor empowers process engineers to predict the profitability of the changes they are proposing, which will substantially minimize project risk and help to eliminate waste. Optimized Assets: The Key to the Industrial Profit Engine “Profit Advisor is the natural evolution of the vision we put forth several years ago, when we began to apply our proprietary real-time accounting models to help our customers measure the financial performance of their operations,” Lyden said. “Since then we have shown, conservatively, that these models can improve production value by at least 3 percent and reduce energy and material costs by at least 5 percent. These types of improvements have increased the profitability of process plants by up to $12 million or more annually. “Profit Advisor shows again how Schneider Electric delivers the value-focused IIoT solutions our customer need to improve business results in real time, from their equipment assets all the way to their enterprise value chains. Our approach will help convert their process control and automation systems into industrial profit engines.”
  8. 8. ‘Far Out’ Technology Simplifies Pipeline Leak Detection Satellites provide the latest, perhaps most efficient, method for spotting underground leaks, ushering in a new era of non-revenue water management. Currently, two main methods are used to manage non-revenue water around the world: smart water management systems and acoustic leak detection. Most water managers use these methods because they are the best solutions available — tried-and-tested, results-driven technologies. However, these approaches to monitoring non-revenue water are also notoriously time-consuming and expensive, as they require prohibitively high investments in infrastructure and equipment relative to the number of leaks that are identified. A quick assessment of non-revenue water management in a majority of cities around the world indicates that most simply react to anomalies in their water management systems, such as measuring drops in pressure within a district metered area (DMA), analysing a smart water management system, or responding to a distressed call from a citizen reporting that a burst pipe has turned into a fountain of water on the street. Vast quantities of non-revenue water are wasted each year; this has prompted some technology providers to suggest that water leakage in urban environments is now akin to an epidemic. Answers From Above Now, a new tool for detecting non-revenue water leaks is available — a solution that utilizes spectral images from satellites, adapted from techniques used to search for water on other planets. Developed by Utilis, a water management company based in Israel, this non-invasive technique can identify more water leaks in the same amount of time as current non-revenue water solutions available to water managers. Remote sensors collect data by detecting the energy that is reflected from Earth. Remote sensors can be either passive or active. Passive sensors respond to external stimuli. They record natural energy that is reflected or emitted from the Earth’s surface. The most common source of radiation detected by passive sensors is reflected sunlight. In contrast, active sensors, which are the primary devices used by Utilis, are also known as radars. These devices use internal stimuli to collect data about the Earth. For example, a laser-beam remote sensing system projects a laser onto the surface of Earth and measures the time that it takes for the laser to reflect to its sensor. Over the course of several years, numerous tests were conducted to identify the unique signature that treated water reflects to the radar. Using a unique wavelength in the radar spectrum, it was discovered that treated water reflected differently than other sources of water, such as sewage, rain, or drainage. The base assumption is that if treated water is present underground, it can only be coming from a nearby pipe. Of course, when dealing with data acquired from 400 miles above Earth, there is potential for problems to arise. Radar is susceptible to noises caused by vegetation, high buildings, metal objects, and the atmosphere. Those issues need to be tackled by a team of signal processing experts before the best possible results may be produced. The process itself is quite intuitive: 1. A radar sensor acquires images. 2. An algorithm is used to prepare raw data for analysis; this process includes the removal of noises caused by different objects as previously described. 3. A sieve with the known spectral signature of treated water is used to extrapolate only the treated water leaks. 4. Normalized data is presented graphically with findings displayed on a GIS web-based application. Field teams on the ground receive “leak sheets” generated by the system to confirm and repair the leaks. Using these methods, it’s possible to scan an entire system every few weeks in a matter of seconds, rather than going to the same location every few years with the conventional solutions. This is the true power of remote sensing. O&M Implications The ability to scan an entire system every few weeks makes it possible to suddenly observe the micro-evolution of a leak. Subsequently, the organization can make more informed decisions about what leaks or areas to prioritize and even check to ensure that a fix was made to a satisfactory level. The technology makes no alterations to the day-to-day operations of the municipality or the utility — the on-field crew will still use the same equipment for validation processes. However, instead of walking miles per day blindly hoping to find something, the crew gains the ability to narrow down the cumulative distance to just a few hundred feet overall per day, with a pool of five to 15 leaks to show for a day’s work. Thus, the organization can better utilize its personnel and become more cost-effective without any additional investment. According to Utilis, a regular field crew of four people working with a standard acoustic process will uncover 1.76 leaks per day, on average. By comparison, satellite-based technology allows one person to find 6.1 leaks per day, and the same location will be surveyed again in a matter of weeks. In contrast to usual acoustic technologies (hydrophones, loggers, correlators, high-sensitivity devices) that look for signs of water (mostly by sound), remote sensing enables utilities to look — for the first time — for the water itself. Page 8
  9. 9. Evides Extends TaKaDu Service for Three Years TaKaDu, a global leader in Integrated Event Management solutions for the water industry, announced today that Evides Waterbedrijf, the second largest water company in the Netherlands, is extending its TaKaDu service contract for another three years. Since 2014, Evides has been using TaKaDu’s event management solution to increase network visibility, improve asset management and reduce non-revenue water loss. The extension reflects the value of the service, and the long-term cooperation between the two companies. Covering a mix of both residential and large industrial consumers, Evides invests in bringing in the latest data management tools for network monitoring and improving customer service. Specifically, TaKaDu has played an important role in managing network events such as meters’ and sensors’ data quality, telemetry quality, flow and pressure anomalies and ensuring the quick resolution of events, increased operational efficiency and improved customer service. Robert Wever, Manager Infra at Evides, explained, “Over the years, TaKaDu has helped us to manage and optimize our complex network. Thanks to its event management, we understood the power of visualizing our network and seeing and understanding what’s happening. This is particularly valuable in our region, where we’re serving some of the largest oil refineries in the world. Going forward, we plan to integrate TaKaDu in our GAMEs platform - Geographical Asset Management at Evides.” Wever continued, “TaKaDu’s solution, combined with the other data sources, will help us to build a very transparent picture of our network.” Ziv Zaretsky, TaKaDu’s EVP for Sales & Operations, said, “Evides has always been an early adopter, since we first started to work with them and the GAMEs project shows how progressive they are. We’re excited to be part of this initiative which takes data analysis and visualization to the next level.” Based on big data analytics, TaKaDu’s IoT cloud-based solution enables water utilities to detect, analyze and manage the full life-cycle of network events (incidents), such as faulty assets, leaks, bursts, water pressure issues, water quality, operational faults and more. Mitsubishi’s new iQ-R series offers PC processing performance in a PLC environment New ASTM International standard helps measure nitrogen in water A new ASTM International standard will help calculate the amount of nitrogen in water samples more efficiently. The test method (soon to be published as D8083, Test Method for Total Nitrogen, and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) by Calculation, in Water by High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection) was developed by ASTM International’s committee on water. Specifically, the test method helps measure the amount of total nitrogen and total dissolved nitrogen in surface water, seawater, groundwater, wastewater, and more. The standard measures total nitrogen as a single number using high-temperature oxidation followed by chemiluminescence detection. Mitsubishi Electric has developed the “next generation” Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) and is the first to market with a controller that is designed to meet the needs of industry 4.0. The new controller, the MELSEC iQ-R, is a revolutionary platform that will significantly reduce development costs as well as maintenance and operating costs. At the same time, considerably improved processing performance will guarantee increased security, safety, reliable production processes and reduced downtime. With the MELSEC iQ-R control concept intellectual property is guaranteed to be fully protected by the wide range of security functions which include an additional security hardware key and an IP-based access filter and user authentication. These security measures will also offer considerable protection against the growing threat of cyber-attacks. Improved debugging and error recovery functions will enable commissioning and maintenance work and associated costs to be reduced further. The functions provided include the creation of an operating history as well as error and event logging. With data management and manipulation becoming increasingly important and vital to meet the demands of Industry 4.0, the MELSEC iQ-R has an embedded database function which enables recipe, batch or other process data to be stored in a user friendly format. This turns the thousands of pieces of data in the database into useful information for production, preventative maintenance etc. The optimised system design allows the integration of standard and safety control systems on one single rack and it is also possible to connect to open networks such as CC-Link, CC-Link IE Field and a wide range of other open networks. Users will also have a range of integrated communication protocols to choose from in order to make the process of connection as simple as possible. Besides this enhanced connectivity, the MELSEC iQ-R is fully backward compatible with its sister series, MELSEC Q both from a software and hardware perspective, which enables seamless migration. The MELSEC iQ-R series is programmed with the new and improved GX Works3 programming software which is part of the iQ Works integrated engineering environment. GX Works3 offers a wide range of options including dynamic labels, parameterisation instead of programming and the automatic creation of hardware function blocks as well as visual function blocks including HMI templates. These features help to reduce development costs and development errors. Page 9
  10. 10. Article: A breakthrough in providing real-time, low-maintenance BOD Proteus Instruments have launched what will be hailed as a global revolution in measuring Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) with the new Proteus BOD. The state of the art monitoring platform incorporates the latest technology to provide accurate, reliable and maintenance free monitoring of BOD. The problem The organic load of waste water treatment works varies markedly in concentration and composition across both space and time; responding to the different treatment processes or stages (raw water – final effluent) and population demand. BOD, a laboratory bioassay dating back to 1917, is still the in- dustry standard for measuring the quantity of reactive organic matter. BOD is currently used to assess the efficiency of waste water treatment works (WWTWs) is to ensure: (i) processes are optimised for cost and energy consumption, and; (ii) final effluents are below regulatory thresholds or levels that would cause environmental damage. Bourgeois et al. (2001) highlight the numerous issues with this test (see box 1 for summary of key points). The lag between sample collection and results is a major drawback which prohibits real-time alerts and control that could provide substantial cost savings to industry. The solution Fluorescence spectroscopy is a selective and sensitive optical technique enabling in-situ, real-time measurement of dissolved organic matter. Molecules absorb light of a specific wavelength and orbiting electrons are excited to a higher energy state. The electrons then emit light of a specific wavelength to return to the base state. The use of fluorescence spectroscopy as a technique for the rapid assessment of organic matter quality and quantity in waste water was first proposed by Reynolds & Ahmad (1997) and has recently been highlighted as an effective tool for monitoring treatment processes and assessing efficiency (Bridgeman et al. 2013). Both these studies highlighted that tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF), a fluorescence signal associated with amino-acids, proteins and phenols, was strongly related to BOD concentration across the treatment process. The TLF peak is generally associated with excitation at ~280nm and emission at ~350nm see red box on excitation emission matrix (map of fluorescence optical space). However, analysis of TLF has until recently required sample collection and transport to a laboratory for analysis on expensive, large, power hungry spectrofluorometers. Over the last 3 years RS Hydro have developed and rigorously testing the Proteus BOD; a fluorescence based real-time BOD monitoring platform. By combining a miniaturised LED based TLF sensor, thermistor and turbidity sensor the Proteus BOD is able to provide users with a highly accurate and reliable real-time indication BOD. The Proteus BOD is unique as, it has a strong scientific under pinning with multiple research articles in international scientific journals (e.g. Khamis et al., 2015, 2017). In addition, the sensor is embedded with robust correction algorithms to account for signal interference associated with temperature and turbidity variability providing unrivalled accuracy and repeatability. The Proteus BOD also comes equipped with a standard factory BOD calibration derived from installations across a diverse range of applications, which can be tweaked for specific monitoring sites for optimal accuracy. RS Hydro provide consultation on all aspects of installation and calibration and strive to provide the optimal solution for all clients. Furthermore, the Proteus BOD also has an integrated wiper for cleaning all optical windows to eradicate fouling in demanding environments, thus reducing the need for user intervention and ensuring a stable baseline for long term deployments. Page 10 Limitations of BOD5 • Lag time to result (usually 5 days) • Toxic substances such as metals can inhibit microbial respiration • Imprecise at low concentrations • High level of uncertainty (15–20%) • Labour intensive with risk of human error • Unsuitable for real-time monitoring and process control Fig. 1 Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) with tryptophan-like fluorescence peak highlighted by red box.
  11. 11. Applications The Proteus BOD has been deployed for extended periods in urban river systems with waste- water drainage problems (i.e. CSOs and cross-connections). In these systems, the Proteus BOD is able to measure BOD very accurately during base flow and storm flow conditions (see Fig 2). Extended installations of the sensor at various WWTWs have also yielded excellent results. One application involved the deployment of the sensor at 3 stages (raw inlet, settlement tank and final effluent) through a WWTW (~50,000 PE). Other installations have involved deployment on the final effluent lines of a large WWTW (>150,000 PE) with particularly strict discharge permits. Parallel grab samples were collected at all sites and analysed for BOD5 in accredited laboratories. Across the various installations (see Fig. 3) the sensor has provided accurate and reliable readings across a wide range of BOD concentrations (see Fig.4). In addition to the industrial applications a number of research organisations have purchased the sensor package and are using it to improve understanding of reactive organic matter dynamics. The Birmingham Institute of Forest Research (BIFOR) purchased two units for a long-term monitoring project and are extremely happy with the sensor stability and accuracy: Dr. Phillip Blaen BIFOR Research Fellow “The low maintenance requirements due to the integrated wiper and infrequent calibration requirements make the Proteus ideal for long term monitoring of organic matter” Added benefits of the Proteus BOD • Real-time data - easy link up to telemetry and SCADA for alarms/alerts of specified threshold exceedance (SDI 12, RS232, MODBUS) • Easily deployable – wide range of environments (inc. inlets, effluents, reservoirs or boreholes) • Versatile - modular design enables a wide range of additional parameters to be recorded concurrently (e.g. Temperature, turbidity, pH, conductivity, optical DO, chlorophyll a, ORP, ammonia) • Portable - blue-tooth option available • Sensitive- can detect very low concentrations for use in clean water systems Fig. 3. Proteus BOD installations at WWTWs. Left, a stilling well install on a raw water channel; right, direct sensor installation in a final effluent channel. Fig. 4. Relationship between the Proteus BOD and laboratory BOD during install on in post settlement tanks. Page 11 Fig. 2. Relationship between the Proteus BOD and Laboratory BOD during a 3 month install in an urban river system.
  12. 12. • Low maintenance - self-cleaning with automatic wiper and simple calibration only every 6 – 12 months • Numerous applications - Monitoring effluents for compliance - Optimization of WWT processes (i.e. aeration – energy saving) - Development of process control algorithms - Identification of cross-connected sewer - Combined sewage overflow monitoring Summary The new Proteus BOD (patent pending) is a versatile sensing unit that can provide real-time BOD data alongside traditional parameters (pH, conductivity etc.); thus, incorporating all your sensing needs into a single, easily deployable, low maintenance monitoring platform. The savings associated with the Proteus BOD are comprehensive and include: 1. reduced laboratory costs, 2. reduced likelihood of fines and reputational damage, 3. energy savings through process optimization and 4. Any additional cost savings associated with BOD sampling. The Proteus BOD is set to change the way reactive organic matter loads are monitoring- improving reliability, accuracy and resolution. References Bourgeois W, et al. 2001. On-line monitoring of wastewater quality : a review. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 76 : 337–348. Bridgeman J, et al. 2013. Determination of changes in wastewater quality through a treatment works using fluorescence spectroscopy. Environmental Technology 34 : 3069–77. Khamis K, et al. 2015. In situ tryptophan-like fluorometers: assessing turbidity and temperature effects for freshwater applications. Environmental science. Processes & impacts 17 : 740–52. Khamis K, et al. 2017. Continuous field estimation of dissolved organic carbon concentration and biochemical oxygen demand using dual-wavelength fluorescence, turbidity and temperature. Hydrological Processes 31 : 540–555. Reynolds DM, Ahmad SR. 1997. Rapid and direct determination of wastewater BOD values using a fluorescence technique. Water Research 31 : 2012–2018. Kamstrup and Optiqua to offer solutions for real time water quality monitoring in a strategic partnership Kamstrup and Optiqua Technologies today announced their collaboration to bring Optiqua’s intelligent water quality monitoring solutions, in particular EventLab, to the Scandinavian, German and Polish markets. EventLab will be offered as part of Kamstrup’s intelligent water solutions portfolio, adding the water quality monitoring component to the established line of intelligent water meters. Making water quality data available in real-time in combination with intelligent water metering holds the potential for improving relations with customers, optimising operations, quality management, asset management and much more. In short: the digital water utility provides total transparency in the distribution network and thus concrete benefits. To achieve this transparency, Kamstrup is actively cooperating with partners to integrate the required components beyond its own core portfolio. The EventLab system, based on Optiqua’s patented and awarded optical sensor platform, is a real-time continuous water quality monitoring solution. EventLab strongly outperforms any traditional sensor technology for the purpose of overall water quality monitoring and contamination detection. It has a wide range of applications, including the monitoring of water quality at treatment plants, monitoring of water quality in distribution networks and monitoring the water quality at intake points/surface water monitoring. EventLab is currently being used by reputable utilities all over the world, and with Kamstrup this solution will now be available and implemented in a variety of applications in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Poland. Jos-Willem Verhoef, Managing Director Optiqua says, ‘We are very excited about the opportunity to work together with such a reputable company as Kamstrup. It is our belief that a true intelligent water solution needs to include real-time water quality monitoring. The collaboration with Kamstrup, who shares this vision, underlines this vision and is a strong recognition of our technology and monitoring solutions. Through our cooperation with Kamstrup, a globally operating supplier of intelligent water solutions, EventLab becomes available to a large community of clients in new markets.” Jesper Kjelds, Senior Vice President from Kamstrup is convinced that this partnership will provide the utilities with many benefits: ´By combining the monitoring solutions from Optiqua with our intelligent metering solutions, we are able to offer our customers added value. Combining real time water quality data with consumption data and other network information will provide the foundation for achieving operational savings through increased insight into network dynamics and reduced response time – thus taking important steps towards the intelligent water network. Page 12
  13. 13. Article: Are your VSDs running at maximum efficiency? Energy efficiency is now a prime consideration for machine designers, plant engineers and finance directors, with a seemingly constant stream of legislation designed to encourage industries to cut their energy usage. As a result there are many technologies now available to help organisations optimise their energy use and reduce their carbon footprints. Is all of the applied technology fully optimised, though? It is a frequently quoted statistic that electric motors account for 60% of UK industrial energy usage. It is equally well-known that fitting a variable-speed drive (VSD) to control the speed of a motor can save energy – so much in fact, that the purchase cost is usually recouped within 16–18 months. Importantly, a VSD also allows users to fit motors sized closer to their typical duty, affording further energy saving potential. Today there are hundreds of thousands of VSDs installed in countless applications across the country, saving users many thousands of pounds in energy costs. But are the users getting the most out of their drives? Are they reaping all of the energy savings that they could? And how many of these VSDs are set up to run at their maximum efficiency? It might be assumed, for example, that having fitted a VSD, you have achieved your energy savings potential – end of story. The drive may certainly be optimising the speed of the motor by matching it to the requirements of the application. In high - duty pump and fan applications, for example, this will mean taking advantage of the inverse square law of speed to energy consumption to deliver some significant savings in energy use. However, to really deliver the maximum energy savings, VSDs need to be set up properly at the commissioning stage. This can be as simple as activating one parameter to turn on the drive’s intelligent energy-saving mode. The first area to look at is nature of the load: is it constant or variable torque? The drive can then be adjusted to match its output to the load, thus maximising the possible energy savings. While a drive in constant-torque mode will still save energy compared to having no drive at all, optimum savings will only be achieved in variable-torque mode if the connected load is a pump or fan – although some types of pump require the constant torque setting. This needs to be set up when the drive is installed. Again, this is normally as easy as adjusting one parameter. Furthermore, many VSDs now have specific energy-saving modes, with dedicated algorithms tailoring the profiles of their outputs for greater optimisation. For example, Mitsubishi Electric’s FR-F800 drive – a dedicated product aimed at pump, fan and compressor operations – offers energy-saving modes that can achieve energy savings up to 15% higher than standard operating modes. It also provides several advanced functions specific to industries that rely on fans, pumps and compressors, to improve performance further. Slow to respond? Some users may have shied away from enabling such energy-saving modes on VSDs because historically they could make the drive sluggish to respond to changes in the load. However, this is no longer the case, with best of-breed products incorporating technologies that will eliminate the problem. The FR-F800, for example, contains an “advanced optimum excitation control” technology that switches the drive automatically between an energy-saving mode and a high- torque mode to suit the needs of the load at any time. With this mode enabled, users achieve the optimum energy saving, without compromising performance. Energy optimisation is a constantly moving target. This means that continual monitoring of energy usage is vital to identify areas ripe for optimisation. Even more fundamental is the need to perform a post-installation survey once a VSD has been fitted. While there are many energy-saving calculation tools that can make the case for fitting a drive in the first place, they make assumptions that may not always be accurate in real-world conditions. While the tools certainly provide an indication of how much energy can be saved and show estimated payback times, only a detailed post-installation survey can highlight real energy savings and show opportunities for further optimisation. We can see, therefore, that while VSDs offer numerous opportunities to save energy, spending a little time to set up the technology correctly will deliver so much more. It’s impossible to tell how much more energy users could be saving if they really optimised their drives. What we have found is that even after a VSD has been fitted, we can often increase energy efficiency by 10% or more quite easily. If you compare this with the relatively small gains in efficiency achieved by upgrading from an IE2 to IE3 motor, for example, the saving really is substantial. The irony is that the capability is often already there, it just needs Millions of variable-speed drives are installed around the world, but are users getting the most out of them? The photo shows a water industry pump hall with VSD-driven pumps. Page 13
  14. 14. The old adage ‘you can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink’ is especially true when it comes to instrumentation. Whilst manufacturers put time, effort and ingenuity into developing new ways to enable instruments to gather and display an expanding range of useful information, it would seem it doesn’t necessarily follow that people will use them or pay attention to them. When it comes to the operation of industrial and municipal processes, it is true to say that the valuable contribution that instrumentation makes often goes unnoticed. As a valuable source of data on what’s happening, instruments are the frontline for ensuring that processes are running in line with expectations. Not only that, but with the inclusion of alarm and diagnostic functions, they are also the prime indicator for warning when things are going wrong. Despite this, incidents continue to occur where problems have arisen from instrument readings either being ignored or misunderstood. Where there is the potential for serious injury or endangerment to human life, the ramifications of ignoring what your instruments are telling you can be far more serious. In a recent example, misinterpretation of an alarm reading was found to be the main factor behind the discharge of untreated sewage by a water company. Alarms indicating a potential problem were ignored and not passed on for action, instead being regarded as a momentary blip most likely caused by a probable fault with the instrument. Unfortunately, the alarm was genuine. As a consequence, untreated sewage ended up spilling into a local waterway, which was observed and reported to an environmental inspector. Luckily, in this example, the outcome of the ignored alarm – though undesirable – was not catastrophic, resulting in just a minimum fine being issued to the company concerned. In situations where there is the potential for serious injury or endangerment to human life, the ramifications of ignoring what your instruments are telling you can be far more serious. No matter how safe you may think a process is, there is always the potential for something to go wrong, either within a process, or with the instrument itself. Complacency over safety was identified as one of the major contributing factors behind the Buncefield disaster* in 2005, where failure of an automatic tank gauging system led to a fuel storage tank being overfilled. Problems with this system, caused by sticking of the gauge mechanism, had been known for a while, with 14 reported instances having taken place in the four months leading up to the disaster. There were also problems with an independent high level system on one of the tanks that should have shut off the tank filling process and sounded an alarm. Although the system itself worked properly, a lack of knowledge over how it worked had rendered it ineffective. In many cases, there is a mismatch between the perception and reality of a problem, where the consequences of a potential failure are not fully considered. The cumulative impact of this was that in the early hours of December 11th 2005, 250,000 litres of petrol seeped from the overfilled fuel tank, causing a vapour cloud which drifted to other tanks before then igniting. The subsequent chain reaction caused other tanks to explode, resulting in a fire that lasted five days and caused extensive damage to the facility and the surrounding areas as well as significant long-term contamination of the surrounding environment. Luckily, although around 40 people were injured, no-one was killed. Nevertheless, the financial penalties imposed on the companies deemed responsible were substantial, totalling almost £10m. In tackling the problem, it helps to first understand why instruments often get ignored. In many cases, there is a mismatch between the perception and reality of a problem, where the consequences of a potential failure are not fully considered. Article: Why it pays to pay attention to your instrumentation Page 14
  15. 15. Taking the example of an unreliable instrument, it is perhaps understandable that persistent nuisance trips might lead someone to eventually ignore them altogether. However, the instrument is there for a reason and the fault may actually be indicative of problems elsewhere other than within the instrument itself. For this reason, the adage ‘if in doubt, check it out’ should always be applied. After all, if your speedometer in your car was telling you 30mph but you found yourself getting frequently pulled over by the police for speeding, you’d quickly get your car checked by a mechanic before you lost your licence. The same needs to apply consistently in an industrial context. A ‘stitch in time saves nine’ mindset needs to be created that encourages any potential problem to be worthy of investigation. If an instrument is deemed to be unreliable, then good practice dictates that it should either be repaired or replaced, especially if it’s in a critical application. If an incentive to do this is needed, then consider that UK law allows both companies and their employees to be punished in the event of a serious failure. Ultimately, a decision to ignore what an instrument is trying to tell you will never be risk-free Potential human failings also need to be addressed. You can have the best automated system in place with as many fail-safes as you can cram in, but somewhere along the line, someone is going to be needed to perform a particular task, whether it’s initiating an emergency shutdown or carrying out maintenance and checking on the plant. When this needs to happen, the people concerned need to be properly trained to do what’s needed, with the knowledge, skills and motivation to carry out their role. They also need to feel confident enough to question what an instrument is telling them if they have doubts about a reading or an alarm. Summary – it pays to pay attention Ultimately, a decision to ignore what an instrument is trying to tell you will never be risk-free. If the data is not what you expect to see or if there are persistent alarms, then this could be indicative of a problem with either the instrument or the process it is being used to measure. Either way, taking the time to check and confirm the problem will always prove to be the smart decision. Below are some top tips to help keep you out of trouble: 1. Never ignore an instrument – reacting to a problem or issue early is always better, and is invariably less costly, than allowing it to multiply 2. If in doubt, ask - if you don’t know what the instrument is trying to tell you, then ask for confirmation, either from a supervisor or, if necessary, from the instrument manufacturer 3. Don’t accept nuisance trips – warnings and alarms are always activated for a reason, either because of potential issues within your process, or faults within the instrument itself. In either case, a nuisance trip should never be tolerated or allowed to persist. Get the problem checked out straight away, replacing the device if necessary 4. Never assume that someone else is dealing with it – always report faults and make sure that they are actioned, or at least logged 5. Call in a service engineer – whilst calling in a service engineer from the device manufacturer might incur cost, this will usually be nothing compared to the potential costs, both financial and reputational, that could stem from an instrument or process failure Thames Water trials sewer infiltration survey system Thames Water has trialled a hi-tech system which uses electrical scanning to detect infiltration of groundwater into sewers. The Electroscan system represents a quicker and more efficient method of surveying sewers than traditional CCTV surveys, helping to target sewer improvements more effectively. Sewer infiltration by groundwater can cause significant problems during the wetter months of the year, as the level of groundwater rises and it seeps into pipes through defective joints and cracks. Although not significant in isolation, inflow from these defects over many kilometres can add up to large flows which can in turn lead to sewer flooding, increase the risk of pollution events and restrict the use of toilets. In addition to the potential impact on customers and the environment, the extra volumes of water in the pipes means that more pumping is needed, adding to energy costs and carbon emissions. To operate sustainably, it is therefore important that infiltration points are spotted early and repairs targeted effectively. Identifying defects and leaks in sewers has traditionally been undertaken using CCTV surveys. While effective, this technique can be time-consuming and surveys are not always conclusive which makes it difficult to target repairs efficiently. In contrast, the Electroscan system uses an electrical probe to measure any ‘leakage’ of electrical current from within the sewer pipe out to the surrounding soil. This can indicate the position of a defect, where ground water could seep in to the pipe. For smaller sewers, the probe is pushed through the pipe on a flexible rod and a stopper is installed at the downstream manhole to temporarily back up the flow. For larger sewers, the electrical probe and cable can be pulled through the pipe using a jetter hose which also provides the water needed for the electrical current to make contact between the conduit and the outside of the pipe. Unlike CCTV surveys, Electroscan can be operated while the sewer is full of water, which is an advantage if surveys need to be carried out during periods of infiltration or flooding. Although only limited trials have been carried out at three locations, project lead David Walters is quietly optimistic: “Early results are encouraging with a number of minor leaks at joints successfully identified during the trials,” he said. The trials have shown that Electroscan could potentially speed up the surveying of sewers prone to infiltration, help target repairs more effectively and reduce costs. Page 15
  16. 16. Introduction As an industry, the water industry is addicted to measuring things. By best estimate approximately 300 million pieces of operational data are collected each and every day in the water industry from an asset base which numbers in the hundreds of thousands of instruments and sensors. Arguably, instruments, whether they be sensors or monitors, are one of the last things to be designed and the data & information architecture is not even thought about. The whole point of the use of an instrument is poorly designed and understood. All of this has led the industry to a point where it suffers from a richness of data which is of poor quality because the instrumentation is not valued and because the information required was designed in up-front the information received is not just poor but verges on the unusable. What we as industry are poor at is understanding what information we want and questioning whether or not the instrument that we install is actually needed in the first place. The question we fail to ask – “is that instrument needed?” In the following article we will explore a few case studies where the initial request was for monitoring to achieve something and address a root cause and it will conclude with the question is actually was the use of instrumentation appropriate. Case Study 1: Using Flow Measurement to control multiple weirs In the first case study the operational issue on a wastewater treatment works was the surging of flows through a large works. This culminated in the surging of flows through longitudinal settlement tanks causing uneven lifting of sludge blankets causing a risk to the environmental performance. The challenge and application that was set was to use flow monitoring to enable the measurement of the unevenness of the flows across the multi-settlement tank system and enable a range of modulating weirs to be controlled to balance flows across the settlement tank system. The initial thoughts for the measurement application was to use level based flow across the top of the modulating weirs to provide a crude estimation of the flows. This would allow the weir penstocks to be modulated so that flows could be balanced. In practice some of the weirs would probably be need to be fixed to avoid the constant hunting of the penstocks and of course damage to the penstock threads. The control philosophy more likely working on a nudge and wait system making the flow measurement all the more important. Of course for the system to work there were a few key questions: - Was the flow measurement application actually feasible - How quickly did the flow surges manifest themselves - What was the maximum speed at which the penstocks could be moved without causing damage to them From figure 1 it can be seen that the flow measurement application was completely impractical. The distance between the end of the activated sludge plant and the weir was too short by a significant amount, the aerated nature of the fluid meant that the physical measurement of level would be a challenge and although not visible in the photograph there was significant amount of swirling and jetting within the flow stream. The flow measurement application was not suitable at this point in the plant. Further investigation revealed a downstream measurement point that, although not ideal would work and so all was not lost. So what else was a barrier to solving the problem of this particular issue? The question to ask now was how quickly did the flow react and how quickly could the penstocks move? Reviewing flow data for the works (figure 2) revealed that the degree of surging through the works was extreme with flows more than doubling in as little as a few minutes Article: Is that instrument really needed? Figure 1 - Is flow monitoring applicable to this application Page 16
  17. 17. Figure 2 shows 24 hours of data on what was a relatively dry day with four occasions where flows surged 700 to 1,500 L/s. In real terms considering balancing flows across multiple weirs in under a few minutes meant that the flows in this instance could not controlled and balanced across the multiple tanks to resolve the issue of surging flows. The whole concept of using flow measurement was flawed and would not resolve the issue and so the answer to the question as to whether instrumentation is needed was a resounding no. Case Study 2: Measuring Flow to Full Treatment Our second case study actually applies to a whole range of wastewater treatment works and is all about whether flow measurement is necessary to control the flow to full treatment of a works or whether a simple flow control structure is more than adequate to prove that the flow to full treatment is being met before excess flows are passed to storm storage. In the first “sub-case study” was a simple channel with two penstocks, the first controlling a Formula A overflow and the second controlling the flow to full treatment. The application, measure the flow between the two penstocks. In reality there was a maximum of five meters with a channel width of only 1 metre giving significant disturbance within the channel due to the penstocks. In this particular application a flow meter was completely inappropriate but the question was whether or not the hydraulics of the channel and the penstocks as flow control devices be used to regulate the flows and simple probes be used to warn of an overflow event. Measurement of the application and confirmation of the channel hydraulics confirmed that this was the case and instead of installing inaccurate flow measurement the use of probes as sensors was more appropriate a solution. If you class a sensor as an instrument then yes an instrument was applicable but better a sensor that a measurement technique that would have a high degree of uncertainty associated with that would make the data unusable. The second sub-case study is an installation where the flume (as a flow control device) was backwards. Now every flow expert within the business would tell you that this invalidates the primary structure but again the main point was not to measure flow but to warn about the occurrence of an event so although the uncertainty was high enough to prevent the measurement of flow the flow control device (the flume) was good enough to raise the level sufficiently to control the flow and use a sensor to warn where flows high enough to pass forward to storm. Again manual verification techniques were used to verify the flow conditions. There are cases where flow measurement is necessary but with a correctly operating flow measurement structure such as a correctly operating flume or a penstock the actual measurement isn’t strictly necessary although the measurement of flow is useful for other purposes (such as controlling automated storm return systems). Case Study 3 : Controlling ammonia – simple feedback loop or much more In this case study we examine the instrumentation associated with the ammonia control of an activated sludge plant. Figure 3 shows the inlet ammonia concentration (black), the final effluent ammonia concentration (red) and the dissolved oxygen concentration (gold). Figure 2 - To understand whether instrumentation is necessary it helps to understand the process Figure 3 The control of ammonia in an activated sludge plant Page 17
  18. 18. As can be seen the instrumentation involved is two ammonia monitors and a dissolved oxygen monitor. The levels of ammonia removal are good and respond to changes in the inlet ammonia concentration well, the control system is a simple PID loop and if anything further savings could be made by adding additional complexity to the control system which would decrease the DO setpoint to maintain the effluent ammonia concentration to just below the consent (in this case 5mg/L). Mixed Liquor suspended solids would also be a welcome addition for this particular application by controlling the sludge age to reap the full benefits of the ammonia control system. So in reality the instrumentation that is present can benefit from other measurements being taken to feed a control system to provide overall measurement and control of the biological treatment system. Discussion The purpose of the instrumentation and its use within the Water Industry must be understood in order for the industry to move on and mature in the way that its use data & information. At the current time we have a plethora of instruments, be they sensors, meters or monitors, whether they are used for the sake of collecting data or they are used as part of a control system. In order to do this we have to question – is that instrument needed? If it is and it has a purpose and a value then the instrument needs to be treated as if it has value, installed correctly, operated correctly and maintained correctly otherwise the instrument loses its value and it might as well be stripped out and decommissioned the worth that it is giving. In order to understand what we want of an instrument we need to understand what instruments we have. We use the terms sensor, monitor, meter almost indiscriminately and of course they do have definitions. Sensor – An instrument that detects a particular condition of a media that it is prevalent. An example of this is a very simple float that when it reaches a level it activates and senses that a condition has been met. This is sometimes used to trigger some sort of action for example the switching on and off of pumps within a pumping station Monitor – This is an instrument that gives a numerical value to a particular situation and advises of the condition. A typical application of this to use the pump station analogy is a pump station controller that instead of sensing that a level that has been reached actually monitors the level and controls the level to setpoints. The use of monitors is particularly relevant to where vertical speed drives are used. As a monitor actually gives a number, whether that number is actually used for data purposes, it is essential to control so needs to be calibrated and maintained appropriately. Meter – A meter is an instrument which is the main source of our data. A meter gives a hard number of the situation and is used for a number of different needs from gathering data for conversion to information to for a number of different reasons from regulatory compliance to operational needs to design . Like the monitor, it is essential to install, operate & maintain the meter correctly. From this it can be seen that if we define what we want to achieve from an instrument then we can select the appropriate instrument for the application that is needed. There is no point putting a meter on an application where a sensor is required and vice versa as the value of the sensor, monitor or meter will be lost very quickly. Where an instrument is installed it needs to be installed correctly, operated correctly and maintained correctly as if it isn’t then the value of the instrument is lost and the data that it collects soon becomes worthless. What is essential in the Water Industry is to understand what information is needed and where as this will answer the question as to what data is required which in turn will drive the instrumentation required. If the instrumentation needs, whether It be a sensor or a monitor or a meter, are understood then the value is understood and ultimately will answer the question as to whether an instrument is needed or not. Endress+Hauser To Become Preferred Supplier For Nereda Wastewater Treatment Installations International engineering consultancy Royal HaskoningDHV will collaborate with leading supplier of products, solutions and services for industrial process measurement and automation Endress+Hauser to have its instrumentation certified for the Nereda® technology. As part of the agreement, the companies will collaborate in research and development to further improve the applicability of Endress+Hauser instrumentation to Nereda-specific conditions. An agreement to this effect was signed between the two companies. As one of the Nereda preferred suppliers Endress+Hauser is working on a compact solution to make installation and handling of the installed analytical instruments more easy and comfortable. Royal HaskoningDHV will actively support this process by making available technical know-how, performance data and access to its Nereda research and development facilities. Heidrun Tippe, Global Industry Manager for Water&Wastewater at Endress+Hauser explains: “One of our main goals within the water and wastewater industry is to offer our clients reliable and cost-effective solutions. So this is a perfect match for us. We are convinced that this cooperation will satisfy both Royal HaskoningDHV and Endress+Hauser customers.” René Noppeney, Global Director Water Technology Products & Innovation by Royal HaskoningDHV: “Our Nereda technology has unique selling points in terms of its footprint, its energy efficiency, sustainability and ease of operation. With this agreement, we aim to make a significant step towards tailor made instrumentation as well. I am very pleased that Endress+Hauser has decided to become a preferred supplier.” Endress+Hauser is a global leader in measurement instrumentation, services and solutions for industrial process engineering. The Group employs 13,000 personnel across the globe, generating net sales of more than 2.1 billion euros in 2015. With dedicated sales centres and a strong network of partners, Endress+Hauser guarantees competent worldwide support. Endress+Hauser provides sensors, instruments, systems and services for level, flow, pressure and temperature measurement as well as analytics and data acquisition. The company supports customers with automation engineering, logistics and IT services and solutions. Page 18
  19. 19. Don’t miss the upcoming SWAN 7th Annual Conference to be held 9th -10th May, 2017 at the Tower Hotel in London. This year’s conference will focus on creating smart, resilient water and wastewater systems, encompassing four key pillars: • Safe water quality • Reliable service • Secure systems • Efficient operations This two-day event will feature 20 leading, global water utilities, including speakers from Veolia, Suez, PUB, American Water, Unitywater, Essbio, AEGEA, FCC Aqualia, Vitens, City of Dakar, Taiwan Water Corporation, and the OECD. SWAN is pleased to offer conference attendees a special rate of £185 inc VAT (inc breakfast) at the Tower Hotel. Note, this rate will only be available until March 10th. View the agenda here Register here Proudly Sponsored by Page 19
  20. 20. March/April 2017 Smart Wastewater Networks 8th March 2017 Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool, UK Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group WET Wednesday 15st March 2017 Pinsent Mason’s London Hosted by Pinsent Mason’s/Arup Smart Water Networks 21st March 2017 Hilton Birmingham Metropole, Birmingham, UK Hosted by the Faversham House Group Smart Water Systems 24th -25th April 2017 London, UK Hosted by the SMi Group May/ June 2017 Specification & Installation of Sensors 3rd May 2017 Principality Stadium, Cardiff, Wales Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group SWAN Conference 2017 9th -10th May 2017 Tower Hotel, London UK Hosted by the SWAN Forum 12th Specialized Conference in ICA 11th -14th June 2017 Quebec City, Canada Hosted by the International Water Association September 2017 Sensing in Water 2017 27th -28th September 2017 Nottingham Belfry, Nottingham, UK Hosted by the Sensors for Water Interest Group October 2017 Wetsus Congress 9th - 10th October 2017 Leeuwarden, Holland Hosted by Wetsus Page 20 Conferences, Events, Seminars & Studies Conferences, Seminars & Events Smart Wastewater Networks Where: Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool When: 8th March 2017 The use of sensors in the Wastewater Network has been sparse and far between. The complexity of wastewater collection has meant that this development within the Wastewater industry has been delayed. However with the requirement for event duration monitoring, improvements in sensor technologies and modelling software, the industry is starting to develop improved methods of managing the Wastewater Network. In this SWIG Workshop on Smart Wastewater Networks we will discuss the drivers and developments in the Wastewater Network. Specification & Installation of Sensors: Giving the sensor the best chance Where: Principality Stadium, Cardiff When: 3rd May 2017 Getting reliable data from sensors and instruments relies on three key steps – getting the right instrument for the job, installing it correctly and performing appropriate on-going maintenance and calibration. This event focuses on the first two steps. To get the right instrument needs a good specification and understanding of the application. We will look at the role of Standards, from MCERTS to ISOs, from the viewpoints of users and suppliers, exploring whether they can be a barrier or an aide in improving quality and innovation. We will also look at the role that robust technical evaluation can play in procurement of instrumentation against a user specification for a particular application. Good installation practice is also key to good performance. Some of the latest findings related to installation of flowmeters and other instruments will be presented.
  21. 21. Sponsored by APRIL 2017 COPTHORNE TARA HOTEL, LONDON, UK www.smart-water-systems.com Register online or fax your registration to +44 (0) 870 9090 712 or call +44 (0) 870 9090 711 SPECIAL RATES AVAILABLE FOR UTILITY & PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANISATIONS | GROUP DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE HIGHLIGHTS IN 2017: • The hidden value of Data and Information – innovative solutions to improve your strategies • The water industry after the Smart Meter Roll Outs – learn about the most recent developments and challenges water utilities are facing • The Scottish concept of a Hydro Nation – improving water economy by addressing the value of water resources • International data insight – an experience report on Real-Time Demand forecast and Big Data challenges • Customer-focused engagement programmes to improve satisfaction – how these developments are changing customer service SMi presents its 6th annual Conference on… Smart Water Systems Addressing the latest Smart Water Management issues and Data-Driven solutions REGISTER BY 16TH DECEMBER TO SAVE £400 | REGISTER BY 31ST JANUARY TO SAVE £200 | REGISTER BY 28TH FEBRUARY TO SAVE £100 @UtilitiesSMi #SmartWaterSystems CHAIRMAN FOR 2017: • Jeremy Heath, Innovation Manager, Sutton and East Surrey Water plc FEATURED SPEAKERS INCLUDE: • Ali Fanshawe, Metering Strategy Manager, Thames Water • Andy Smith, Regional Optimisation Manager, Anglian Water • Jon Rathjen, Group Leader Water Industry Division, Scottish Government • Ben Earl, Water Efficiency Manager, Southern Water • Ken Black, Optimisation Manager, Northumbrian Water • Antonio Sanchez Zaplana, Engineer Manager, Aguas de Alicante • Mike Bishop, Head of Operational Control and Development, Dwr Cymru Welsh Water A: Customer and Stakeholder Engagement in the Digital Age: How can new technologies and their application transform your key relationships 08.30 – 12.30 Hosted by: Chris Wallace, Director and Founder, WallaceTransform B: The fundamentals of Data & Information in the Smart Water Industry 13.30 – 17.30 Hosted by: Oliver Grievson, Group Manager, Water Industry Process Automation and Control Group PLUS TWO INTERACTIVE HALF-DAY POST-CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS | WEDNESDAY 26TH APRIL 2017 CONFERENCE: 24TH - 25TH WORKSHOPS: 26TH Page 21

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