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WIPAC Monthly December 2018

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Welcome to the last edition of WIPAC Monthly for 2018.

In this month's edition, as well as all of the news from the Smart Water Industry, we have articles on:

Defining Water 4.0 - clarifying what it means and how we can deliver it

Advancements in Flow Meter Technology - An article by E+H on the developments in 2018 from small electro-magnetic flow meters, to novel communications and mass flow

An article covering Drones to Digital Twins and Connect Sensor Grids - A case study from Toronto where various initiatives have seen the city take a leap forward in Water 4.0

Enjoy the latest edition

Oliver

Published in: Engineering
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WIPAC Monthly December 2018

  1. 1. WIPAC MONTHLYThe Monthly Update from Water Industry Process Automation & Control www.wipac.org.uk Issue 12/2018- December 2018
  2. 2. Page 2 In this Issue WIPAC Monthly is a publication of the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group. It is produced by the group manager and WIPAC Monthly Editor, Oliver Grievson. This is a free publication for the benefit of the Water Industry and please feel free to distribute to any who you may feel benefit. However due to the ongoing costs of WIPAC Monthly a donation website has been set up to allow readers to contribute to the running of WIPAC & WIPAC Monthly, For those wishing to donate then please visit https://www.patreon.com/Wipac all donations will be used solely for the benefit and development of WIPAC. All enquires about WIPAC Monthly, including those who want to publish news or articles within these pages, should be directed to the publications editor, Oliver Grievson at olivergrievson@hotmail.com The picture on the front cover is from the article about Drones, Digital Twins & Connected Sensor Grids and represents the use of augmented reality in Toronto (click here for the article) From the editor............................................................................................................. 3 Industry news.............................................................................................................. Highlights of the news of the month from the global water industry centred around the successes of a few of the companies in the global market. 4 - 11 Defining Water 4.0.......................................................... ............................................ Whatever the Smart Water is call it, Water 4.0 or Digital Transformation or just the Smart Water Industry there are a lot of different concepts that are getting in the way of its adoption. In this month’s Feature article we look at defining what “it” is so that the water industry can move forward in “its” adoption 12-15 Advancements in Flow Meter Technology..................................................................... In this article from Endress+Hauser we look at some of the developments in flow meter technology from minia- ture electromagnetic flow meters to the development of Coriolis Flow Meters within the water industry and there applications in wider industry. 16 - 17 Drones,DigitalTwins&ConnectedSensorGrids............................................................... In this article by Brian Jackson, originally published by IT Wired Canada, we look at the developments of technology in Toronto Water and how they are using Drones, Digital Twinning and augmented reality to increase the efficiency of water operations 18-19 Workshops, conferences & seminars............................................................................ The highlights of the conferences and workshops in the coming months. 20-21
  3. 3. Page 3 From the Editor As 2018 comes to a close the water industry is coming under increasing pressure to change, the recent aspirations that the UK government has produced on water leakage and decreasing the per capita consumption (click here) has been criticised for not being adventurous enough and in reality it’s true it isn’t. Couple this with the government’s guidance on what it hopes to do with environmental legislation post Brexit (click here) and we have a large amount of environmental & water guidelines that are going to shape the future of the industry. When you look at the documents in detail it is obvious that there is going to be a need to change the way that we operate. At the moment the average leakage across the water industry is around 20%, the aspiration is to cut this in half to around 10%. This is a major amount of investment within the water distribution network. What was very surprising to me in the water leakage aspirations is that the amount of customer water meters is only around 50% despite increasing by 288% in the past 18 years climbing from 18% in 2000 to 52% now but is also predicted to increase a further 10% in two years and taking another 23 years to increase a further 21%. Something doesn’t quite add up especially considering that some water companies have been tasked to achieve 100% metering in the next 10-15 years and others achieved greater that the 83% government aspiration over 3 years ago (noted in the report). There are a huge amount of challenges to achieve, not only the water metering, but the reduction in both leakage and PCC but leakage is not the only part of the water industry. The impact on the aquatic environment is interesting and we are seeing the wastewater side of the business, something that is taken for granted, start to get an increasing focus. The installation of event duration monitors on CSOs and the future concentration around the flow to full treatment coupled with sensing on storm weirs is a tightening in control, it is encouraging the volumetric management of wastewater to a much greater amount. So what is the strategy? Should the industry be moving towards universal metering? In what timescale and the question is, to what end? The answer of course is yes it should and as soon as possible. The 90% installation in Southern Water saw 27ML of water saved each day. When the figures are looked at 2/3rds of all leakage comes from four companies and meter penetration is a key factor, but its not only what you record but what you do with the data and this is where Water 4.0/ Digital Transformation comes in. There is of course more to be done and this where the case studies from the industry come from to show what can be done to target the areas that the industry can improve on, just in terms of non-revenue water. This is where event detection and management systems come in and the propensity for machine learning comes in. All of this has to be supported at a Government level though as it does take investment and it does take a national strategy to deliver. Where do you go from there? The development of smart water solutions in non-revenue water was an obvious step, the economic and political motivations for its implementation especially when the UK is water stressed in areas means that the will is there for it to be delivered. This is not necessarily the case when it comes to the wastewater system although it is starting to happen within the industry. There are plenty of opportunities for it to happen and the state of the art is starting to develop but in the long term the water industry is looking at the vertical silos and instead of doing Water 4.0 on a vertical strategy we do need to look at the horizontal strategy that should be delivered to avoid the siloism that the water industry has always suffered from. Have a good month, Oliver
  4. 4. The future of WIPAC - Vega & Xylem join WIPAC board of directors as things start to take shape SWAN Forum appoints three new council members The Smart Water Networks Forum (SWAN) is pleased to announce the addition of three, visionary smart water leaders to its Executive Council: • Nav Otal, Director of Bellevue Utilities - City of Bellevue, Washington (USA) • Rik Thijssen, Business Development Manager - Vitens (Netherlands) • Scott Branum, Senior Digital Solutions Manager, Remote Monitoring & IoT Solutions - Evoqua Water Technologies (USA) Selected based on their diverse industry knowledge and vast experience, the appointed senior representatives will assist to maintain SWAN as the leading global hub for the smart water and wastewater sectors. Commenting on the significance of joining the Council, Rik Thijssen of Vitens stated: “SWAN’s success is directly related to the active role from utilities all around the world. By offering utilities a platform to meet and discuss the huge opportunity of operating smart grid, technology providers and the industry will benefit as a whole.” Scott Branum of Evoqua Water Technologies added: “I have only observed true innovation when the industry has been able to coalesce around a platform, standard, or fundamental technology. This is why I believe in SWAN and its vision and am thrilled to join the organization’s current outstanding leadership.” Nav Otal of Bellevue Utilities emphasized: “I’m excited to be part of SWAN - the leading, global smart water hub - which provides the platform for utility industry professionals and technology providers to come together to establish and benefit from standards and best practices that will propel the water industry to IoT as a standard for our industry.” The topic of collaborative engagement will be explored at the next global SWAN Annual Conference in Miami, May 15-16, 2019. This event will focus on “Navigating the Utility Smart Water Journey,” bringing together diverse industry leaders to discuss a variety of cutting-edge, smart water topics. For many months there has been a lot of work behind the scenes of WIPAC to bring it together as a member organisation in the UK including the development of the new WIPAC website, collaborations with a number of organisations that will provide support to WIPAC members most notably the Sensileau platform but also organisations such as the SWAN Forum. There have also been long discussions with organisations who will form the first six members of the board of directors. After the first six directors are appointed they will discuss further appointments from the end-users and other organisations. WIPAC is delighted to announce that the first two members of the Board of Directors have been confirmed and will be founding members of the WIPAC organisation. The first director is Doug Anderson from Vega Control Systems and the second director is Dr Oliver Puckering of Xylem Analytics, these directors will join Oliver Grievson who will act as the Executive Director for the Water Industry Process Automation & Control group when it forms as a Community of Interest Company. WIPAC was first formed as a LinkedIn group in May 2011 and will form as a Community of Interest Company (CIC) in the UK in the first quarter of 2019 once the initial six members of the board of directors have been confirmed. This will lead to a series of workshops & webinars that will be available to WIPAC members as well as the WIPAC website which features the WIPAC directory, a database of instrumentation & control products that are available around the world. Through collaboration with the Sensileau platform WIPAC members will be able to look at the technological concepts behind all of the different instrumentation types. This will provide a full information resource for those using sensors within the water industry. The workshops in the first year of operation are centred around the concept of Water 4.0 and the first WIPAC workshop will be titled “Infrastructure or Infrastructure” looking at how we build, operate and manage the infrastructure network as well as build the physical part of the industry. A call for papers and sponsorship is currently open for this workshop as well as the second workshop which will concentrate on Instrumentation & Control Systems. Both the IWA and the Institute of Measurement & Control start work on “Digital Transformation” “Smart Industry” and in particular the”Smart Water Industry” has been around as a concept for a number of years now but it is perhaps in the two to three years that the concept has started to come to the foreground. At the current time, arguably, it is fair to say that the concepts are confused as best and so some of the world’s leading organisations have started to put teams together to help define the concepts of both the “Digital Transformation” of industry and the “Digital Water Industry” Within the International Water Association a Steering Group of 15 people from a wide range of technological areas from leading academics to practitioners across the world are looking to define the concepts in a series of white papers, workshops and webinars. The Institute of Measurement & Control are doing a similar thing but looking at the wider industry. This is being led by Dr Maurice Wilkins the Engineering Director at the Institute who is also an Executive Advisor at the industrial automation company, Yokogawa. The concept of the Digital Transformation of industry centres itself around the concept of Industry 4.0 and specifically in the water industry around the concept of Water 4.0. These both look to Cyber-Physical systems as the root of the next industrial revolution. The concept of Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) is a mechanism that is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms, tightly integrated with the Internet and its users. In cyber-physical systems, physical and software components are deeply intertwined, each operating on different spatial and temporal scales, exhibiting multiple and distinct behavioural modalities, and interacting with each other in a lot of ways that change with context Page 4 Industry News
  5. 5. Manhole Covers Serve as Antennas Expanding Wireless Network Coverage The inconvenient truth of future 5G networks is that their increased high-speed bandwidth, and the use of the millimetre wave spectrum (the radio spectrum above 30 gigahertz) to achieve it, comes at a price: Those radio signals barely propagate around the corners of buildings. To overcome this issue, the strategy has been a combination of small cells with massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas to increase coverage. Small cell deployment will be so extensive that the Small Cell Forum predicts 5G small cell will overtake 4G small cells by 2024. The total installed base of 5G or multimode small cells will reach 13.1 million by 2025, constituting more than one- third of the total small cells in use. So, how do you manage to get all of these small cells dispersed throughout a city landscape where buildings are everywhere and there’s little open space for signals to travel? Engineers at Vodafone, headquartered in the United Kingdom, have come up with an ingenious solution: make manhole covers do double duty as antennas for mobile communications. This clever solution manages to avoid all the troubling issues that had worried many observers about the proliferation of small cells. It eliminates traffic disruptions from street construction, and there are no antennas awkwardly placed on buildings, marring the appearance of a neighbourhood. This solution is currently being used for existing 4G networks, but Vodafone engineers believe this could be a solution for future 5G networks as well. “The manholes do provide an opportunity to deliver solutions in dense urban environments,” said James Grayling, senior network deployment manager, Vodafone UK. While there is a possibility that the manhole covers could be used for 5G networks—and Vodafone gives a fair amount of credence to the connection in their press release—a Vodafone spokesperson remained non-committal as to whether this will indeed be a part of Vodafone’s overall 5G strategy. “We envisage that we may be able to use the manhole coverage solutions for 5G roll-out going forward but this is still to be decided,” said Ally Stevens, a network media relations manager for Vodafone UK. Nonetheless, Grayling did reveal some of the manhole antennas’ impressive capabilities. “The antenna currently being used has a frequency range of 1695 megahertz to 2690 Mhz, and is being used with 4G where download speeds of up to 195 megabits per second can be achieved,” said Grayling. While it may seem that the big metal manhole covers would interfere with signals, Grayling insists that is not the case. “The manhole does not interfere with the mobile signals, although there is a small level of power loss caused by the manhole,” said Grayling. “This is taken into account when designing where we want to deploy such solutions.” It’s not yet clear how extensive the deployment of the special manhole covers will be. When asked whether there was any number of manhole antennas they were targeting to be put out into the field, Vodafone’s spokespeople demurred. “We are in the process of identifying assets in our fixed network that can be best utilized to meet the needs of the mobile network,” was all Grayling would say in response. Severn Trent has made savings of £750,000 in the last year through the use of drones for more efficient asset inspections, it has been reported. The utility has partnered with commercial drone experts COPTRZ to deploy a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for use in its routine inspections of assets. Now in its second year, the approach is generating significant cost and time savings and efficiencies. By using their UAV fleet for inspection work, Severn Trent has removed the need for scaffolding being put up. This allows them to save time and increases the safety for their staff, due to them not needing to climb the scaffolding during inspections. The amount of time taken for the actual inspection is also shortened with the drone doing all the work for them. Duncan Turner, Severn Trent’s Drone Team Lead, said: “It’s been an incredibly exciting time to be involved with UAVs at Severn Trent. It feels like we are at the forefront of innovation which is unlocking new ways of working within the business using this cutting edge robotics technology. With our customers at the heart of what we do we can pass on the saving making sure our customers’ bills remain low and are helping to keep our water Wonderful on Tap.” Formed in 2016, COPTRZ provides specialist services to the commercial UAV market to help businesses to access the benefits of drone technology. The company is working with some of the largest utilities in the UK, including Thames Water as well as Severn Trent. Steve Coulson, Founder and Managing Director at COPTRZ, added€¯“It’s great to see more companies seeing the benefit that drone technology can have for them and their business. Not only do they save money, but they also save time and improve safety. This example is only one of many, and I’m sure in the future there will be a huge number of companies that decide to make the small immediate investment, to unlock the huge savings potential moving forward.” Severn Trent saves £750K using drone inspections Page 5
  6. 6. Wireless-to-Optical Receiver Could Speed Data Transmission Over ‘Last Mile’ While light waves sent through optical fibres support fast data transmission, the “last mile,” from the fiber optic cable to the internet socket in your home, can be the most challenging and expensive leg of the journey. In the future a new light modulator developed by researchers at ETH Zürich, with support from the University of Washington, could cover the “last mile” where data must travel efficiently and at a low cost. The modulator consists of a chip that contains the microwave antenna. The antenna receives the high-frequency microwaves, or millimetre waves, used for the data transmission and converts them into an electric voltage. At the heart of the modulator is a narrow slit, just a few micrometers long and less than 100 nm wide. The slit is filled with a material that is sensitive to electric fields. A light beam from the fiber is fed into the slit. Inside the slit, the light propagates not as an electromagnetic wave, but as a plasmon. Plasmons — hybrids made of electromagnetic fields and oscillations of electric charge at the surface of a metal — can be confined much more tightly than light waves. The electrically sensitive, non-linear material inside the slit ensures that even the tiniest electric field created by the antenna will strongly influence the propagation of the plasmons. The antenna’s influence on the oscillatory phase of the waves is conserved when the plasmons are converted back into light waves at the end of the slit. The plasmonic mixer directly maps the wireless information onto optical signals. The data bits contained in the high-frequency millimetre waves are transferred directly onto the light waves. The plasmonic scheme provides a built-in field enhancement in an ultra-compact metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible structure. The plasmonic mixer is not limited by electronic speed and is thus compatible with future Thz technologies, said the researchers. In a laboratory experiment with microwave signals at 60 GHz, the researchers were able to demonstrate data transmission rates of up to 10 Gb/s over a distance of 5 m, and 20 Gb/s over 1 m. The light modulator works entirely without batteries and expensive electronics. “That makes our modulator completely independent of external power supplies and, on top of that, extremely small so that it can, in principle, be mounted on any lamppost,” said researcher Yannick Salamin. “From there, it can then receive data via microwave signals from individual houses and feed them directly into the central optical fiber.” In addition to its compact size and low energy consumption, the new modulator has further advantages. “The direct transfer from millimetre waves to light waves makes our modulator particularly versatile regarding the frequency and exact format of data encoding,” said professor Jürg Leuthold. According to the researchers, the modulator is compatible with the new 5G technology and with future industry standards, based on millimetre-wave and THz frequencies of 300 GHz and data transmission rates of up to 100 Gb/s. It can be built using conventional silicon technology, and thus at a relatively low cost. In contrast to the radio waves or microwaves of a Wi-Fi modem, which propagate evenly in all directions, millimetre waves can be focused to propagate just between the roof antenna and a light pole inside a beam that is 20 cm in diameter. This could significantly reduce the power needed for transmission, compared to other wireless technologies. It could also eliminate the typical problems of Wi-Fi modems, whose signals can get in each other’s way. www.wex-global.com WEX GLOBAL 2019 Applying Intelligence to the Circular Economy in Water and Energy 4th – 6th March 2019 | Porto, Portugal Register your interest now! Page 6
  7. 7. Commons Committee warns over deteriorating water quality, nitrate pollution and inadequate monitoring The House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee has flagged up a raft of concerns over the possibility of deteriorating water quality, growing nitrate pollution and inadequate monitoring after the UK leaves the European Union. The Committee’s warnings come in its report UK Progress on Reducing Nitrate Pollution – the EAC heard evidence from a wide range of experts, including water companies, British Geological Survey, The Rivers Trust, National Farmers Union , Soil Association and the Environment Agency. The report says that it is “a cause for concern that 86% of English rivers did not reach good ecological status in 2016, which is lower than the EU average, and that the UK is also performing badly compared to many of its European neighbours in terms of the chemical status of its ground waters .“ It also describes as “particularly worrying” the prospect that the UK may not hit the 2027 target set in the Water Framework Directive for all water bodies to have a good ecological status. “Disappointed” Government slow to address UK breaches of Urban Water Directive..”does not inspire us with confidence” The MPs said they were “disappointed” that the Government had been slow to address UK breaches of the Urban Water Directive in 2009 which led to a European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruling against the UK in 2017, commenting: “The fact that the UK was slow to respond to these breaches even after the intervention of the European Commission and European Court of Justice does not inspire us with confidence about maintenance of water standards once the UK leaves their jurisdiction.” “ This underlines why a powerful environmental watchdog will be needed after the UK leaves the EU and particularly in the event of leaving without a deal. This body will need to set, monitor and evaluate targets to reduce pollution incidents and improve water quality.” The report points out that although there has been has been an improvement in the quality of UK bathing waters over the past 25–30 years, the UK is still 7th from the bottom of the scale. The EAC also expressed its concern that while progress had been made in reducing nitrates in surface waters, levels were high in some areas, especially in parts of England, and the UK still lags behind a number of its European neighbours. The report states: “We are particularly disturbed to hear of the high levels of nitrate pollution in some of our groundwater sources, which supply nearly a third of our drinking water, which might not peak for another 60 years. Water companies are having to invest substantial sums of money in nitrate removal and water blending plants, the costs of which are being passed on to customers through water bills.” According to the report, collaboration between stakeholders involved in river basin catchment management makes sense as it seeks to stop nitrate and other pollution at source and acknowledges that responsibility for better water quality lies with multiple actors. A key part of this is investment from water companies and they have made a persuasive case for a longer-term approach to funding, the report says. However, the EAC said it had noted Secretary of State Michael Gove’s concern that water companies should invest more of their profits addressing environmental challenges, before passing their costs on to consumers. Concerns over potential fall in water quality and lessening of regulatory standards when UK leaves EU The EAC appears to be particularly concerned about a potential fall in water quality and lessening of regulatory standards when the UK leaves the EU. The Committee is calling on the Government to ensure that various EU Directives and regulations are aligned and do not result in a siloed approach to individual pollutants but address them in their totality. It also wants the Government to consider whether it can better align policies on water, air and soil and the interaction between nitrogen in its various forms so that actions in one area do not have a negative impact in another. For such a joined-up approach to work effectively after the UK leaves the EU, the report says “it is imperative that an independent overarching body can oversee these overlapping areas and enforce compliance,.” arguing that this further strengthens the EAC case for an Environmental Enforcement and Audit Office (EEAO). The report reiterates the Committee’s call set out in its July report on the Government’s 25 Year Plan for the Environment to create an independent oversight body - the Environmental Enforcement and Audit Office (EEAO), that reports to Parliament. Commenting on anaerobic digestion, the report says the technology offers an effective solution to managing sewage sludge and re-purposing waste as a resource to be used as a renewable energy source and as a bio-fertiliser which can reduce the need for artificial fertiliser. Page 7
  8. 8. However, it goes on to point out that compliance is essential to realising the advantages of anaerobic digestion and calls on the Government to set out how it is monitoring anaerobic digestion and ensuring compliance and how this is supporting reductions in air, water and soil nitrate pollution. “Concerned that a number of witnesses told us that the monitoring system for water quality was not fit for purpose” The EAC has also set out its concerns over monitoring, enforcement and resourcing issues, saying: “We are concerned that a number of witnesses told us that the monitoring system for water quality was not fit for purpose and that figures supplied by the Environment Agency show that the numbers of samples taken, tests carried out and funding have decreased in recent years.” “Despite the Agency telling us that this is due to increased efficiency, we are troubled that this is occurring ahead of the UK leaving the EU and implementation of the Government’s 25 Year Environment Plan, and before the 2018 New Farming Rules for Water have fully bedded in.” The Committee is calling on the Environment Agency to publish the results of its Strategic Monitoring Review as soon as possible and provide evidence that its monitoring is comprehensive in terms of: the range and number of sites; • the frequency of testing; • the amount of third party information it is using; • the full range of pollutants and their combined impact upon water quality; • the impact of farming practices and pollution mitigation strategies; • the correct balance between modelling and data. In the EAC’s view, this is important as it provides the evidence base for policies and future investment decisions and “ensures that Government policies can be scrutinised and progress can be monitored.” The report also says the EAC is “concerned that a number of witnesses suggested that the EA lacks the resources it needs to ensure compliance with the existing regime and rules” and does not believe that “30 FTE Inspectors to cover the whole of England is enough.” The Committee is flagging up the danger of a “poorly regulated and ..poorly resourced and fragmented compliance regime” - which also risks public money- being misused. The Government needs to bring forward plans and costings to indicate that it has sufficient resources to enable effective enforcement and oversight, the report says. Serious concerns over monitoring, compliance and enforcement after UK leaves the EU According to the report, the EAC is also concerned that despite Ministerial assurances, the compliance regime for EU water quality and nitrate directives cannot be fully transposed into UK law and run the risk of ending up as ‘zombie’ legislation, saying: “While we welcome the Secretary of State’s acknowledgement of the need for an environmental watchdog to fill the Commission-shaped hole and to replace the European Court of Justice, we are worried that his proposals do not provide an independent body with sufficient powers to ensure that statutory water quality and pollution reduction targets are met. We are also concerned that it will be more difficult to bring cases against the Government for breaches of nitrate pollution and water quality legislation.” It also voices its concern that if the current system of monitoring, compliance and enforcement is currently under-resourced, ,regulators such as the Environment Agency will “struggle to take on responsibilities previously undertaken by EU institutions.” The Committee wants the Government to ensure that its draft environmental bill includes a watchdog with sufficient powers to enforce compliance with statutory water quality targets, fine Government departments and public authorities for non-compliance, and allow complaints for breaches to be raised and dealt with by the courts. The EAC described itself as “very disappointed” that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) target of ‘good status’ for all ground and surface waters in the EU by 2027 had not been retained within the 25 Year Environment Plan - despite being told by the Minister that the Government had “no intention of watering down commitments on reducing water pollution and improving water quality.” “ The Plan’s aim to ensure that at least three quarters of our water will be close to their natural state as soon as is practicable is a significant watering-down of the aim in the Directive. This retreat seemed to be confirmed by the Secretary of State’s subsequent letter to the Chair concerning the challenging nature of the 2027 WFD target. “ the Committee says. Targets and milestones needed to underpin legally binding targets on water quality The report has also questioned the absence of targets and key milestones within the Government’s 25 Year Environment Plan, describing them as “vital stepping stones” to guide policy and measure progress. The EAC has called on the Government to produce robust targets and milestones to underpin legally binding targets on water quality, saying that if there is any weakening of long-term and interim national, EU or international water quality targets, the Government needs to provide an explanation of where they are weaker and why. “We look forward to seeing the metrics for nitrate and water pollution by the end of the year, which we hope will underpin clear targets in line with or exceeding those set out in the Water Framework Directive,” the report says. Page 8
  9. 9. Yorkshire Water to open up water resources data WRc to run UKs largest independent trial of on-line wastewater phosphorus monitors In response to the introduction of stricter wastewater phosphorus consents, the UK water industry has a large number of phosphorous schemes planned for AMP7. Selection of the most appropriate phosphorus monitoring technology is important if the balance between compliance and cost is to be achieved for these schemes. The performance, cost of ownership and potential savings associated with the use of different monitoring options i.e. ortho-phosphate, total phosphorus or novel surrogate methods, is not fully understood. As a result, water companies risk investing in inappropriate solutions with direct impact on costs and compliance. The WRc run Instrument User Group (IUG) has discussed collaborating on a trial of on-line wastewater phosphorous monitors to allow best possible instrument selection for different applications and known site conditions. A WRc project has been developed to address these needs and provide robust information and data on the level of performance and total cost of ownership of the available monitors so that informed investment decisions can be made on this technology. It is envisaged that a large group of UK water companies will collaborate on this project and, as a result, the supply chain will see this as an important investment in terms of supplying equipment and engaging with the project team. Servitech International Ltd will form part of the project team undertaking the on-site maintenance and referencing activity. With the summer’s unusually dry weather continuing into the winter months, Yorkshire Water has announced it is to become the first water company to regularly publish its full data on the region’s water resources to allow customers to see for themselves how dry weather and increased demand are having an impact. Alongside publishing the data, Yorkshire Water is to team up with the Environment Agency to run a new campaign based on the information, which aims to help Yorkshire residents make more informed choices about their water use. Recent customer research by Yorkshire Water shows that customers are more likely to think about their water use and change their habits when they feel they are being given honest information about water resources and that they strongly preferred being provided with information and being asked to play their part in conserving water, compared to the possibility of enforced restrictions. The water resources data, which is generated by Yorkshire Water and normally only shared with the Environment Agency, includes detailed information on reservoir, river and groundwater levels, customer demand, rainfall and the outputs of the company’s water treatment works. A customer-friendly version will be available on the Yorkshire Water website and the full report will be published through Data Mill North as part of Yorkshire Water’s open data initiative. The data shows Yorkshire has experienced below-average rainfall in five of the last six months to the end of October, with June being the driest month at just over 30 per cent of the long-term average. A dry summer would not be too unusual, but the dry spell has continued through the autumn and winter. The figures also show a significant peak in demand for water during the summer with an increase of up to 200 million litres per day, which is more than the daily demand of a city the size of Leeds. As a result, Yorkshire Water’s reservoir stocks currently stand at 56 per cent below the level normally expected at this time of year and meaning work is required to ensure that water resources can recover over the winter. The dry weather has also impacted Yorkshire Water’s network of pipes, as increased ground movement from the ground drying out has resulted in a 50 per cent increase in the number of repairs needed to burst pipes. Yorkshire Water chief executive Richard Flint said: “Throughout this year we have been sharing tips on how to use water wisely and we saw a great response from customers. However, we feel that for us to really be able to have the conversation with customers about their use of water we need to be really clear with them about the current situation. “We hope that making our full water situation report available will allow customers to use the information to make their own decisions about the action they can take to conserve water at home.” The newly published information will be used by Yorkshire Water and the Environment Agency as part of a pilot campaign, which could help lead the way in changing how the water industry approaches conversations with customers about water resources. Katharine Smith, EA area manager, said: “We encourage everyone to follow advice on saving water from their water company and use water wisely because this will help protect the environment and conserve water in reservoirs.” In addition to working with customers to reduce demand for water, Yorkshire Water is also engaging with the Environment Agency to manage water resources in a bid to ensure stocks recover as much as possible over the winter. Drought permits will be submitted for some of the region’s key rivers and reservoirs. If granted, the permits would allow Yorkshire Water to reduce the amount of water released from reservoirs to support river levels during the winter months. This would allow reservoirs to refill during what will hopefully be the wetter winter months allowing resources to go into 2019 in the best position possible. Page 9
  10. 10. Thames deploys hundreds of night-time leak detectors Hundreds of Thames Water engineers are walking the streets at night to pinpoint leakage from the company’s 20,000-mile water pipe network. Thames has recruited an extra 600 staff and installed thousands of high-tech loggers after severe weather hampered its drive to stop water escaping from its network this year. Teams of night-time leak detectors are patrolling the streets hunting for leaks to help meet long-term targets following the severe impact of the ‘Beast from the East’ and prolonged summer heatwave. Chief executive Steve Robertson explained that Thames Water was taking a raft of measures to tackle leaks. He said: “We have hundreds of people every night out on the streets listening for leaks. You have to do it at night when it’s quiet – that’s how you find them.” As part of its £11.7 billion business plan for 2020-25, Thames Water has pledged to spend £2.1 billion on increasing resilience and reducing leakage by 15 per cent by 2025, with plans to halve it in the longer term. Around 1,500 leaks on average are being fixed every week, a 10-year high for the company. Teams have an arsenal of high-tech acoustic loggers and electronic sensors to identify leak areas, and then use listening sticks to pinpoint exactly where water is seeping out. Thames has also trialled satellite imagery, drones and dozens of other new innovations in the ongoing mission, but said “nothing can beat the ear of an experienced leakage detection engineer”. The company has developed new techniques to better predict freezing weather and potential damage in advance, while also trialling innovations to repair pipes from the inside. “Our ability to monitor and predict the sort of impact we have from the ‘Beast from the East’ is much better now than it was earlier in the year,” Robertson said. He admitted “lessons” were learned so that now the impact of a similar freeze would be “much less”. Earlier this year, Robertson agreed to forgo bonuses for the next two years after the company paid £120 million in rebates to customers and penalties for missing targets to cut leaks. Returns to shareholders were also frozen until 2020 to prioritise investment. Severn Trent uses machine learning to tackle leakage by filtering 5bn data points Severn Trent has started to use machine learning to help transform the way it approaches leaks and is now looking to use advanced analytics across other areas of its business. The FTSE 100 company has created an advanced leakage detection model that uses data from its network to help identify, locate and manage leaks. The model forms part of an innovative programme of work that Severn Trent is undertaking to help reduce leakage - the Midlands-based water company said it is already seeing impressive early results. Rob Ryder, Technology and Lab Data Manager commented: “We’re really excited by this project, and it’s fantastic that we’re already seeing brilliant results. We’ve created the model by applying advanced analytics to data from our network of pipes collected through sensors, which gives us loads of valuable data which we can use to anticipate and manage leakage across our region. When using the model we’re getting the most out of our network data, giving us the upper-hand when it comes to locating and fixing leaks.” Severn Trent teamed up with Capgemini, a global leader in consulting, technology services and digital services in the UK, to create the complex machine learning model which is already seeing notable early results. The company says that, in the areas the model has been used, time to find leaks has reduced by over half, engineers are able to pinpoint leaks more accurately, and overall the network in those pilot areas seen a reduction in leakage of over 16%. Rob Ryder continued: “The amount of data we’re analysing is huge. We’ve collected about five billion records of flow and pressure data that we’re able to use to help our teams on the ground while also ensuring we can understand our network better. “This new advanced capability allows us to explore possible outcomes that were not previously available to us – so we’re in a position where we can tackle leakage more effectively and more quickly for our customers, and improve their experience with us.” Amit Ghosh, Group Account Executive Energy and Utilities at Capgemini’s UK Business Unit, added: “We brought our deep expertise in data science and analytics, and our pre-built analytical models, which combined with Severn Trent’s subject matter expertise in leakage operations enabled them to fast track the roll out of the solution. Severn Trent is a true innovator who believes in the power of data and we are taking our relationship to next level by helping them build a strong internal capability to deliver a truly insight driven business.” The water company is now looking to use advanced analytics across other areas of its business, to help solve some of the company’s other key challenges. Page 10
  11. 11. NorthumbrianandOSpartneronundergrounddigitalmapsystem A pioneering underground digital map system that will help improve safety conditions for workers and reduce the time that the public are inconvenienced by roadworks has launched in the North East. The innovative project is being led by Northumbrian Water and Ordnance Survey (OS) in collaboration with Northern Gas Networks, Northern Powergrid, Openreach, Newcastle City Council, Sunderland City Council and Durham County Council, which have pooled data to create the underground map of part of the Sunderland area, which covers around 140,000 properties. A digital map is provided of the infrastructure that exists underground, detailing pipework and cables for water, gas, electricity or telecoms. The technology works on a PC, laptop, smartphone or tablet and is accessible for workers out on the ground. The technology was presented at a special showcase event at the Stadium of Light earlier this month and will be tested across a number of locations in the Sunderland area. If successful, Northumbrian Water and OS will work with utility partners and local authorities to introduce an underground map covering its entire operating area. Clive Surman-Wells, operational solutions manager for Northumbrian Water, said: “This is a really exciting piece of technology which could be a real game- changer for a number of different industries. “Water, gas, electricity and telecoms companies all have maps of their infrastructure underground, but we are bringing all of this together on the same map, at the same time, to give us a consolidated view. We all face the same issues when digging roads, so it makes sense for us to work together to overcome them, utilising the expertise of trusted advisors Ordnance Survey. “Knowing what is underground before we start digging will really help to protect the safety of our workforce, and hopefully reduce the disruption and frustration we cause to our customers through roadworks. If the project works successfully in our operating region we are keen to develop this as a national platform.” Andy Wilson, Ordnance Survey region director UK and Europe, said: “Working on the solid geospatial principles of enabling data exchange, this project aims to demonstrate the significant operational and customer outcome benefits that can be created by providing a coordinated view of assets to the relevant parties. “If successful in Sunderland, we are keen to explore with government partners ways of making an underground map available for the whole of Great Britain.” The idea for an underground map for the North East was first explored during the five-day OS-sponsored ‘mapathon’ at Northumbrian Water’s 2018 Innovation Festival, which took place at Newcastle Racecourse in July. OS, utilities companies and local authorities worked together to create a first version of the map, develop data and a business case. Surman-Wells added: “This is an issue that utilities have faced for decades, and it is only through the Innovation Festival that we were able to bring together the various stakeholders involved to work on a solution. We have now been able to produce a sharing agreement that is agreeable for us all to take forward.” South East Water partners with Centrica Hive to cut leakage South East Water and smart home technology provider Centrica Hive have announced the first domestic household water supplier partnership to reduce leakage and improve water use understanding. The project will see 800 South East Water customers given access to Hive’s Leak Sensor device, which not only detects possible leaks but will also provide customers with water usage insights. The Hive Leak Sensor is designed to monitor use and proactively detect potential leaks, and notify customers of any unusual flows via the Hive app. The sensor is easy to fit and works by monitoring water usage, using learning algorithms to detect anomalous flows in customer households. The average water damage claim in the UK is £25,000, so the sensor will help avoid costly repairs by allowing customers to detect drips before they become leaks. When the Leak Sensor detects an unusual flow of water, the Hive app will lead customers through a troubleshooting journey. This allows them to confirm if the flow was due to their own water use or whether it is a potential leak. For South East Water, the partnership is a proactive step towards realising its leak reduction target of 15 per cent. The additional benefit of the Hive platform is that customers will receive insight about their water usage, which South East Water hope will give customers more control over their water use – something many customers said they wanted during research for the water company’s latest business plan. South East Water asset and regulation director David Hinton said: “As the number of smart devices people use in their homes increases, people have more control than ever before and can make changes to reduce their own water consumption. “The ultimate goal is not only to reduce leaks in our network and reduce consumption of water, but to also improve customer satisfaction by finding new ways to engage with our customers.” Centrica Hive managing director Claire Miles added: “This is another first for Hive and a hugely exciting opportunity for us to enter into a partnership with a domestic water provider like South East Water. “This enables us to provide solutions like Leak, where we can stop a drip becoming a far bigger problem for even more customers using our smart home technology. It’s all about giving customers peace of mind and making everyday life a little easier.” The water company will be seeking 800 customers to be part of a trial programme in the New Year and, if successful, more of South East Water’s 2.2 million customers may be able to access the device in the future. Page 11
  12. 12. Feature Article: Defining Water 4.0 Whether you call it Water 4.0 or the “Smart Water Industry” or even the latest, the “Digital Transformation of Industry,” there is a movement afoot within the water industry to integrate new ways of working to ensure that the way the industry operates is more efficient through the use of technology. Industry/Water 4.0 has been around as a concept for a number of years now and it has been lauded as the revolution and adoption of “Cyber-Physical Systems,” but what does this actually mean? Are robots going to be running the water industry or is it just the latest widget for the industry to adopt? In its purest form cyber-physical systems can be defined as: A cyber-physical (CPS) is a mechanism that is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms, tightly integrated with the Internet and its users. In cyber-physical systems, physical and software components are deeply intertwined, each operating on different spatial and temporal scales, exhibiting multiple and distinct behavioural modalities, and interacting with each other in a lot of ways that change with context. CPS involves transdisciplinary approaches, merging theory of cybernetics, mechatronics, design and process science. The process control is often referred to as embedded systems. In embedded systems, the emphasis tends to be more on the computational elements, and less on an intense link between the computational and physical elements. CPS is also similar to the Internet of Things (IoT), sharing the same basic architecture; nevertheless, CPS presents a higher combination and coordination between physical and computational elements. Now this sounds very science fiction and makes people very nervous as normally when your talking something that is hi-tech it means that it is expensive, takes lots of skill to both design, operate & maintain and acts as a “black box,” which is something that the water industry has been burnt with before and thus, as a whole, is generally adverse to. So, lets go back to some of the other concepts that people will have heard as associated with Water 4.0 • Big Data • (Industrial) Internet of Things • Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning • Artificial Neural Networks • Augmented/Virtual reality • Multi-Variate Process Control • Technology Assisted Gamification All of these are somewhat surreal concepts when it comes to the practical elements of implementation in the water industry. So practically what does all of this mean and how can we implement this in the water industry? The first methodology is to look at what are we trying to achieve. From a cyber-physical system point of view we have a marriage of the physical and the cyber, basic so far. Breaking this down we have a physical asset which has a state of being now in order for the “cyber”to understand what the physical is it has to be measured and monitored, this is the instrumentation side of the industry. Once the physical state is monitored this state has to be communicated (this is the telemetry angle) and after the state has been communicated this state has to be understood by either visualisation or by an analytical engine and the results communicated back and transformed into action. This in a nut-shell is a cyber-physical system. What we can see from this is that apart from the physical state (Level 1) the data is absolutely key to the whole concept of Water 4.0 and digital transformation as without the monitoring of the physical state the whole concept cannot come into being. As an aside let’s look at “data” within the Water Industry. Data in the Water Industry In terms of data and the instruments that collect data the water industry is awash with it with hundreds of millions of pieces of data being collected each day just for operational purposes. This is set to increase massively with the advent of technologies such as smart water meters with the potential of 600 million pieces of data if smart meters are just set to record hourly or 2.4 billion if they are set to record every 15 minutes (the standard frequency in the water industry). However, in order to understand data we’ve got to look at its uses to people within the water industry and the potential uses in the future as well as the frequency of the data that is looked at by different stakeholders within the business. In Figure 1 it can be seen that the different stakeholders within a water company have different needs in terms of the use of data. For example, those in the control centre who are speaking to operational staff in response to alarms tend to look at data with a frequency of minutes or hours. They are in need of a situational awareness that is sufficient enough to make a decision of whether to have someone go to a site and respond as necessary. Those in operations who are looking after treatment works tend not to look at data from a day to day perspective in order to make a judgement over whether a particular part of the system is working as it should be. The engineers & scientists tend to look at everything depending upon what role they play be it in the optimisation of the system Figure 1: A snapshot of data use with a selection of different stakeholders in the water industry Page 12
  13. 13. or in its design. When it comes to asset management the normal periodicity is typically in terms of months or years to see when an asset is starting to fail but may go down towards looking at daily data when it comes to working with regulatory departments to assess both compliance and capacity of the system. Billing and customer service have typically looked at the customer data on a monthly or bi-annual basis but due to the advent of smart meters there is the potential to look at customer data, in order to support them on a much more frequent basis. Data is only a part of the story as the accuracy and availability of data, certainly in an operational context, is actually used to produce information which is in turn used to bring about the concept of situational awareness. It is in the concept of situational awareness that the true power of Water 4.0 (or Digital Transformation) can be seen. Taking the concept of the stakeholder who is in the control centre. This particular stakeholder needs to be aware of the situation within the operational environment just sufficient enough to make a decision as to whether or not something needs to be done, if an alarm needs to be responded to and someone needs to attend to site. This begs the question as to whether or not the data that is collected needs to be accurate or not. In this particular case, the answer is possibly not, unless any errors in data are sufficient enough to cause a false alarm. In reality data inaccuracy can cause thousands of false alarms each year which end up causing inefficiency in call-outs for out of hours staff and puts personnel in unnecessary risk. It also costs money. On the opposite end of the spectrum, when it comes to customer data (i.e. how much water a customer uses) or in an operational or regulatory environment the accuracy of the data is absolutely paramount as it directly affects how much the customer is billed each month (in the case of smart meter data). When it comes to data in the water industry it is really a tool to enable the water company and its different stakeholders to have situational awareness. Data and its sources (the instrumentation) does need to be looked after as practically missing or inaccurate data has a cost associated with it that far outweighs the cost of maintaining the data (i.e. the instruments that are the source of that data). Due to the sheer plethora of sources one of the first actions for any company to take if they are to “digitally transform” is to analyse the informational/data requirements to limit the number of instruments to the minimum required. In this way the operational and maintenance needs can be limited to what is needed. This is the start of Water 4.0 for any practitioner. Once this is established then the different applications of Water 4.0 can be looked at. Horizontal versus Vertical So what structure do we have for Water 4.0? Do we as an industry look at doing everything or do we look at concentrating in different areas. The reality is we look at a bit of both looking at the potential applications of Water 4.0 both horizontally and vertically. What do I mean by this? With a horizontal structure we are looking at the different levels of the Smart Water Industry, closely following the SWAN Forum Layers diagram or the Purdue model insofar as Level 1 – Infrastructure – the physical asset Level 2 – Instrumentation & Control – the monitoring Level 3 – Communications – how the data is transmitted Level 4 – Visualisation – how the information is shown to the stakeholder (be this person or machine) Level 5 – Analytics – what the information means and the actions that need to be taken to optimise the performance of the system. This structure is in reality a pyramid with each level determining the success of the level above it. Without the infrastructure in place and working there is no point to monitoring and controlling it. Different technological solutions exist within the horizontal layer and their application exists within the vertical segment. The vertical segment looks at the application of Water 4.0 within the water industry as a whole is partly shown in figure 2 Figure 2: A snapshot of a potential vertical segment for the water & sewerage industry Page 13
  14. 14. Probably the most developed of these within the water industry is that of non-revenue water use (i.e. water distribution) where the costs of water loss from the network distribution system are very well understood. For non-revenue water the cost per ML brings about a very clear benefit in terms of the business case which is probably the main reason as to why this particular area is very well developed within the smart water industry. Where the benefit is less clear, say for wastewater collection, then the industry has found that the development of Water 4.0 has been less developed. Looking into the different areas what exactly are the applications? For water system management this is basically the source to tap approach but with a overall environmental responsibility over water resources. What this area within the whole system looks like is looking at the efficient production of water and delivering it to the customer whilst minimising losses and minimising the environmental impact of abstraction. With this approach it is a case of balancing the cost of water treatment versus the environmental cost of abstraction from the different water sources (i.e. borehole versus riverine sources) ensuring that the best overall cost of water is used. Passing forward into water treatment it is a case of ensuring that there is sufficient supply to ensure there is sufficient water for the customer by keeping the treated water reservoirs at an optimal level for supply to the distribution system. Within the water distribution system it is about keeping a sufficient water pressure within the network to supply the customer keeping the water age as young as possible by ensuring a sufficient flow through the network whilst minimising losses from non-revenue water use and minimising the costs of pumping by ensuring there is sufficient enough water in the elements of the network to supply just enough water. In this way through Water System Management we can see that it is a balance of environmental cost, financial cost of the water system and ensuring there is a sufficient supply of water for the customer. This can be delivered by monitoring the available water resources, the cost of treatment and the non-revenue water by utilising a number of different technological solutions including: • Estimation of water consumption and required water abstraction patterns and looking at the water quality to look at predictive patterns over what supplies are best utilised and at what rate of production at what source. • Use of rate of change models to look at the water consumption in the District Metering Areas to look for unusual patterns of consumption to predict where potential leakage points • Pressure management of the water distribution network to ensure there is sufficient pressure to supply the customers with water at a sufficient pressure whilst minimising the pressure to limit water losses from the distribution network. • Estimation of water usage enabling pump scheduling ensuring water towers have sufficient levels of supply For the customer the point of Water 4.0 is to serve the customer in the best way possible but also to influence the customer in terms of water consumption patterns and the per capita consumption. The smart water meter forms an integral part of any solution insofar as it can look at what the customer is consuming and when identifying potential problems with any particular pattern which may alert the customer to something that is potentially going wrong (i.e. customer side leakage that is the customers burden). Combined with the concept of smart water meters more and more nowadays there is the concept of the smart home. Some water companies are already empowering their customers to pay for water bills through connected devices such as Amazon Alexa. This can go a step further with a number of these devices have home displays there is the potential to develop an application for the customer to be able to monitor their own water use through these devices. This isn’t just limited to the water industry but to all potential utilities using the connected device as a home management system. This is also a potential portal for the water company to connect with the customer in customer assistance and support in both directions. For example in lieu of a physical leaflet drop when supplies are due to be off for maintenance a simple push notification to a customers smart home system or mobile phone become relatively simple. However there are the risks surrounding cybersecurity. There have also been technological and social solutions around gamification of water use encouraging customers to be more water efficient. Moving forwards to the wastewater system a systematic approach needs to be taken. From a monitoring and control point of view currently the inputs into the system are not monitored and are in fact incredibly difficult, from a practical point of view, to monitor. It is not practical to monitor for the wastewater discharged from the customer and in the main the wastewater discharged is a calculated factor based upon the proportion of water used if the customer is metered, If not it is an estimated use depending upon the per capita consumption. As the use of universal smart metering proliferates then this situation will improve. Inputs into the system from industrial customers are monitored as they form the fundamental basis of the amount the industrial customer is charged based upon both the flow & concentration that is being discharged utilising the Mogden Formula. The last input into the system is rainfall and run-off which by its very nature can’t be measured but can be monitored and predicted and this is where developments in both sensing technology and modelling approaches can be used to predict what the inputs into the system are. There is one other “input” into the system that is even more difficult to monitor (i.e. impossible to monitor) and that is infiltration into the gravity system. As the wastewater collection network deteriorates cracks or weaknesses around joins in the pipe or manholes develop and these cause infiltration into the network. At its most serious infiltration has been know to make up more flow into the system from external sources than all of the other inputs into the system even within dry weather flow as underlying soil conditions mean that, in wet weather, the soil fills and can take several months to release the stored water into the sewer environment. All of this has to be taken into account when looking to monitor and control the wastewater system and looking at it as a whole it is important to look at the strategy of how the wastewater system needs to be monitored and controlled. There is underlying philosophy to a smart wastewater system and that is: “To manage the system by monitoring & control where there is a defined need to; and to have enough information to manage the system where there isn’t a defined need.” The ultimate aim for the wastewater system is for it to manage all of the flows that should enter the network whilst detecting flows that should not be entering the work and convey them to the wastewater treatment works in a balanced fashion. This ultimate aim is changing from the need to treat wastewater to limit the impact on the aquatic environment with resource recovery this moving more towards the recovery of elements within wastewater. Historically this has been focused on recovering biosolids and power but more and more the focus is shifting towards recovery of other elements such as nutrients turning the wastewater treatment plant into a water resource recovery facility (WRRF). Page 14
  15. 15. Technological solutions Within the whole horizontal and vertical framework is a number of technical solutions for different aspects. The problem is that a large number of the solutions are seen as “widgets” within the industry although this is changing. Examples of this are: Drones, UAVs & satellites for surveying – There are numerous case studies for utilising a number of different aquatic & airborne techniques for monitoring both large areas and locations with a challenging access to quickly survey assets. This has included looking at water leakage by identifying areas of unusual soil moisture, the risk of tree root penetration into sewers and the monitoring of water towers among a whole of applications. Augmented reality – Augmented reality for field staff support is something that has been proposed for a number of years using technologies such as Microsoft Holo-Lens (amongst other technologies). This can be utilised to support field technicians putting manuals in front of them as needed as well as the potential of technical specialists giving advice through the technique. This has a much larger area for potential development through the interaction with smart instrumentation that can self-diagnose any potential errors. Linking this through supply chain to enable on-site ordering of spare parts through CRM software means that the field technician receives a much great level of support. This has also developed into providing 3-D modelling of underground infrastructure for water & wastewater network operatives linking to BIM Building Information Modelling – BIM was originally designed for the building industry for the construction of buildings but has been adopted by multiple industries as “Better Information Management.” This is a combination of different aspects including electronic modelling of aspects of the water system including providing 3-D rendering of water & wastewater networks but will also link to the “Digital Twin” approach. Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning – The concept of AI & ML in the water system sounds fantastical and yet this is something that has been already readily adopted in the water system but has the potential to adopted more readily. The concepts surrounding artificial neural networks, multi-variate process control and potentially in the future the operational use of process based models all incorporate aspects of artificial intelligence. In reality there are a number of different technological solutions that can be used to deliver the concepts of Water 4.0 in order to digitally transform the water industry but in order to justify the investment any technology needs to show the benefits that it will bring and that there is a need to adopt the technological solutions that are available. Within the water industry there are always area of the business that need investment. In order for technological solutions they need to clearly show the benefits that they bring and aren’t just using technology for the sake of utilising technology in order to merge the cyber-physical system. Page 15
  16. 16. Article: Advancements in flow meter technology Throughout 2018, several trends in flowmeter technology were simply expansions, updates and refinements to existing technology, but two trends are turning the flowmeter industry on its ear: advances in flowmeter diagnostics and the adoption of smartphone-like technology to improve access, communications and, in the not-too-distant future, the displays attached to flowmeters. This article reviews trends involving tiny flowmeters, specialty flowmeters, advanced diagnostics, improved communications between flowmeters and the enterprise, and the looming trend toward embodying smartphone technology into flowmeters. Tiny flowmeters packed with capabilities Some flowmeters have been getting smaller over the years. Dozens, if not hundreds, of compact, small and relatively inexpensive flowmeters are on the market. Electromagnetic flowmeters (magmeters) probably lead the trend toward miniaturization, mainly because the size of the flow element only needs to be barely bigger than the pipe or tube carrying the conductive liquid. For 2019 and beyond, look for the miniaturization trend to continue expansion into other measuring technologies as well. Like most flowmeter technologies, magmeters provide a volumetric flow measurement, but many applications require mass flow measurement — an area where Coriolis flowmeters excel. Measuring mass flow According to Grand View Research: “the magnetic segment holds the largest share in the market. However, ultrasonic and Coriolis are expected to register the highest CAGR during the forecast period owing to advancements in technology that make ultrasonic and Coriolis flowmeters highly reliable and accurate.” Grand View projects the use of Coriolis flowmeters will rise significantly over the forecast period. “Widespread adoption of Coriolis flowmeters in the oil and gas, chemicals and refinery sectors is anticipated to influence the market positively.”1 One of the main reasons for this increase is the ability of these flowmeters to measure mass flow. Previously, this capability came with a substantial price premium, but the price difference between mass flowmeters and volumetric flowmeters is dropping, spurring its use. Ultrasonic flowmeters are non-contact and can be used in large line sizes. In the past, Coriolis flowmeters were mostly used on smaller line sizes, but another trend is its increasing size. Several companies offer Coriolis flowmeters in line sizes of more than 10 inches, making them more suitable for use in ship-loading and offloading applications. For 2019, expect a continued incursion by Coriolis meters into the overall flow market. Additionally, users are recognizing that Coriolis meters have many advanced capabilities beyond basic measurement. For example, most Coriolis meters measure not only mass flow rate but also density and temperature; some even measure viscosity. These qualitative parameters create a world of possibilities for users, and there is a growing trend of viewing Coriolis meters as process analysers. For example, in the oil and gas industry, Coriolis meters can offer a variety of values such as density in American Petroleum Institute (API) reference correction of volume and density, as well as net oil and water cut measurement. In the food and beverage industry, these same density and temperature measurements can be used to derive Brix, proof or percent concentration of binary mixtures, among other possibilities. While reduction of price between Coriolis and volumetric flow measurement technologies is certainly a consideration, it is the additional precision and multi- variability that is tipping the scales in favour of Coriolis meters for many users. Specialized flowmeters In olden days, instrument engineers sometimes had to “make do” with standard flowmeters. When an application was particularly difficult — abrasive, hot, cold, acidic or otherwise unfriendly toward conventional flowmeters — engineers specified stainless steel, ceramic or other liners for flowmeters and hoped for the best. This sometimes led to premature failures. Today, the availability of exotic materials such as tantalum, Hastelloy C, Monel, Inconel and a host of specialty alloys makes it possible to fabricate a flowmeter that can handle almost any fluid or gas. In addition, flowmeter manufacturers are more than willing to design and build devices to meet the needs of specific industries. Complicating the situation are the never-ending and ever-changing regulations from agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Union (EU), American Gas Association(AGA),U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)anddozensofotherscallingfor instrumentation to meet various specifications. For example, a hygienic flowmeter may need to meet ASME Bioprocessing Piping and Equipment (BPE), European Hygienic Engineering Page 16
  17. 17. and Design Group (EHEDG) and 3A standards, and it may need to provide full good manufacturing practices (GMP) compliance for sterile processes, while also withstanding clean-in-place and sterilize-in-place operations and high-pressure wash-downs. This calls for a specialized flowmeter (as shown in Figure 2). While the instrumentation world has always had specialty flowmeters, the trend is that manufacturers are producing more devices to meet new regulations, solve new application problems and provide flowmeters for smaller market niches. Due to improved manufacturing techniques, laser 3D printing, computer modelling and simulation and advanced microelectronics, manufacturers can now produce specialty flowmeters much faster than before, allowing them to quickly dominate a market. Smart flowmeters are getting smarter Smart flowmeters have been used for decades, but they are getting much smarter and are capable of self-diagnostics and self-verification. Self-diagnostics means that the flowmeter is capable of detecting when it has a problem by continuous monitoring of relevant internal parameters related to its mechanical, electromechanical and electronic components. Typically, a failure mode, effects and diagnostic analysis is used during the flowmeter’s design phase to identify critical components in the signal chain, starting at the process-wetted parts and followed by the electromechanical components, amplifier board, main electronic module and outputs. A proper margin of safety is then assigned to every critical path or component. Firmware in the transmitter continuously monitors the entire signal chain for deviations. For example, if the diagnostics detect an error, Endress+Hauser’s Heartbeat Technology sends an event message that conforms to NAMUR recommendation NE 107. The event is displayed on the flowmeter’s front panel and can be sent as a message over a digital communication link to the automation system. The message also includes troubleshooting tips and remedial instructions. Today, it is possible to design flowmeters with a self-diagnostics coverage of 94 percent or higher (in accordance with IEC 61508) and low rates of undetected failures. Many but not all flowmeter manufacturers employ a similar type of self-diagnostics, but a new trend is toward self-verification. Depending on the industry, flowmeters must be calibrated periodically. For example, the chemical industry has requirements for proof testing per IEC 61508 and IEC 61511, while the oil and gas industry must adhere to contractual agreements between buyer and seller and comply with government agency mandates. But why remove a flowmeter and take it to a lab for calibration if it does not need it? Enter self-verification. A self-verification is done on command from the automation system or at the instrument itself. During self-verification, diagnostics perform checks and then a report is generated, which can be used to verify that the device is still working properly. Endress+Hauser’s Heartbeat Technology complies with the requirements for traceable verification according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2008, Section 7.6a, “Control of monitoring and measuring equipment.” Self-verification is a trend that will expand in 2019 because it saves time and money. Performing self-verification on a flowmeter can extend calibration cycles by a factor of 10 or higher. In some cases, it may even be possible to replace wet calibrations completely with self-verification. Enterprising flowmeters In the past, flowmeters were wired back to an automation system via a simple but limited system involving 4-20 mA wires encased in conduit and/or laid in a cable tray. At the automation system, the single process variable flow signal was used for control and monitoring of a unit or a process. The trend today is to instead use a digital data link to send not only the flow process variable to an automation system but also many other data points related to other variables, diagnostics, calibration and others. HART, FOUNDATION Fieldbus and PROFIBUS PA/DP have been available for many years, but there is a rise in industrial ethernet protocols such as EtherNet/ IP and PROFINET. Wireless transmission protocols, such as ISA100 and WirelessHART, are also available with some types of flowmeters. For flowmeters not available with wireless communications, adapters are available to convert a 4-20 mA or HART output to WirelessHART. With modern microelectronics, today’s flowmeters offer many communications options. One recent advancement is the incorporation of new protocols to ease the connection to enterprise networks. For example, a flowmeter can have an OPC-UA server application package built into the flowmeter that allows the device to communicate with an OPC-UA client and be integrated into Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications. This is accomplished through networking the flowmeter via either LAN or WLAN, which allows the DCS or PLC to be dedicated to the control function, while this additional path of communication can be dedicated to diagnostic, monitoring and/or reporting purposes. This means flowmeters can now shortcut the once-complex procedure of getting flow and status information to SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), CMMS (computerized maintenance management system), ERP (enterprise resource planning) and other enterprise-level networks. With these new communication capabilities, the software can easily access the data it needs directly from the device. For 2019, the trend will be more flowmeters that offer direct connection to enterprise networks. Wireless capabilities Mobile technology is also working its way into flowmeters. Today’s flowmeters can already have wireless, Bluetooth and web server capabilities, which means flowmeters can be accessed, probed, configured and diagnosed over smartphones, tablets and handheld devices. In the future, the incursion of smartphone technology will be expanded. For example, many displays today feature optical or infrared “buttons” so that maintenance can interact with the devices through the cover. This allows for operation in hazardous areas and ensures the housing remains sealed from environmental effects such as humidity and rain. We will continue to see improved interaction with flowmeters, which more closely mirrors the way we interact with smartphones and tablets. Page 17
  18. 18. Article: Drones, digital twins, & connected sensor grids Managing the City of Toronto’s plumbing takes a lot more than a few wrenches and plungers these days. Toronto Water is using drones, augmented reality, and Internet of Things (IoT) connected smart maps to better manage the megacity’s drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater. It’s only been in the last several years that the municipal division has bucked the status quo of managing the extensive network of pipes underneath the streets. A new, experimental culture has taken hold that is probing how it can provide improved customer service and make the most of existing resources in a city with growing demands. Waterway inspections by drones from above and below Toronto Water is taking to both air and water in its early experimentation with drones to help conduct inspections in hard-to-reach areas. Its fleet of aerial autonomous craft is more advanced, with several drone units on hand including the DJI Phantom 4, the Inspire 1 Pro, and the Mavic Air. The drones fly over the storm sewer outfalls connected to Toronto’s more major waterways, such as the Don River, to inspect them for any blockages. All it takes is one persistent beaver to cause problems that could potentially lead to clogs in the system. Toronto Water started exploring drone use three years ago, seeking a solution to conducting inspections on hard-to-access areas for staff. “Things have broken over the years and nobody has been able to find them, because you literally have to hike through the woods,” Farajian says of some of the backwoods storm sewers. “Or your vehicle is getting stuck and you have to call a tow truck.” With drones, the division has been able to discover old and decayed infrastructure on the system’s periphery. There’s even one submarine drone in the fleet, the DeepTrekker DTG2, suitable to pilot into Toronto’s larger pipes and handle high volumes of flow, even plunging out into Lake Ontario at times. It allows inspectors to visually inspect pipe integrity without donning a scuba mask and HazMat suit themselves. Farajian says he’s piloted it personally as many as 20 times. “It has a joystick very similar to PlayStation, it’s pretty fun to use,” he says. “You swim out to the lake and you see fish and you see plants and stuff and it’s almost like you’re scuba diving.” Toronto Water is also conducting experiments with smart balls, a tennis ball-sized electronic ball that can be rolled down a pipe to inspect for cracks or blockages using ultrasonic scanning. Farajian stresses that these have only been tried a couple of times, and may not be suitable because of the limitations on what type of pipes it can reliably inspect. Augmented reality mapping of infrastructure under the streets Standing at the corner of an intersection near York Mills shopping mall, a man wearing a white hard hat and a black City of Toronto jacket reaches out his right hand and pinches the air in front of him. He’s wearing a Microsoft HoloLens unit, viewing through it not only the road, traffic lights, and cars passing through, but also the subterranean pipes and valves. “We’ve created an augmented reality app so that you can use your smartphone or tablet to see what underground infrastructure there is beneath the street,” Farajian explains.” Just like you can see the Pokemon standing on the corner of the street, you can point your smartphone to see our wastewater infrastructure.” He’s referring to the Pokemon Go game that suddenly made augmented reality a popular concept in the summer of 2016. It challenged players to hunt for adorable digital fantasy animals in the real world, using their smartphone as the lens to experience the game. After a year of development, Toronto Water is in the process of rolling the app out to its employees. City engineers worked with Toronto-based software developer Meemin Inc. to create the solution, integrating with the data on its Esri ArcGIS platform. Figure 1: Submersible drones have significant benefits in water inspections Figure 2: The use of augmented reality provides huge uses in wastewater network mapping Page 18
  19. 19. Google Maps with an infrastructure layer Toronto Water also worked with Redlands, Calif.-based Esri, a geographic information system (GIS) platform that has long provided it a way to track its many thousands of assets across the city. “Think of Google Maps, but on every street, it has lines and polygons and points that refer to all our assets,” Farajian says. “Look at Yonge Street and you see a blue line for a water main, a red circle for a sewer.” For 20 years, it served as a planning tool for building out subdivisions and industrial lots. In the past three to four years, the system has started being connected with sensors and a web of interconnected infrastructure. “If you’re putting a brand new hydrant on the street, as soon as you put it in your asset database, you have a connection that can turn on and off,” he says. The system can detect the amount of flow and pressure being supplied to different points by using a suite of sensors connected to Bell Canada’s LTE-M network, designed for Internet of Things devices. The sensors are composed of a remote terminal unit (RTU) that is about the size of your hand and provides the processing power. Then there’s either a pen-sized pressure detector, or a soup bowl-sized ultrasonic sensor. Two hundred such sensors are deployed across the city at present. It’s a pilot program that could potentially lead to thousands of such devices being connected to a smart grid, but that will require more funding commitments. Doing so could save Toronto Water resources over the long term. For example, when the city receives a 311 call complaining about water pressure problems or outages, it has to send out a worker to investigate at present. With a connected smart grid, it could provide a water outage map that residents could access to see the source of the problem. The business case for Toronto Water’s technology investment is all about providing a higher level of customer service, Farajian says. “Are we maintaining pressure in our water main? If it’s too high, pipes could break. If it’s too low, it won’t’ get to your house,” he says. “It’s critical for us to maintain.” Digital twins of pumping stations The Esri map will more than just a flat maze of pipes and sewers. It will also showcase the 3D models of pumping facilities. Toronto Water operates 85 sewage pumping stations across the city, most of them three or four floors of operations. Every time the city wants to introduce something new to a pumping station today, a worker has to take measurements in person to see if the equipment will fit. Toronto Water - digital twin Ashbridges Bay To eliminate that, Farajian wants to create precise 3D models that serve as digital twins. Take for example the model of Ashbridges Bay, seen in the image above. “We can do it all behind a computer without wasting the time to go to these stations to check things out,” he says. So, starting in the eastern section of the city, along the Scarborough section of Kingston Rd. that runs along the lakeshore, pumping stations are being thoroughly 3D scanned. A combination of photography, LiDAR scans, and AutoCAD diagrams of pump and electrical cabinets compose a layered and accurate representation of the physical building. Page 19
  20. 20. Page 20 Conferences, Events, Seminars & Studies Conferences, Seminars & Events January 2019 WWT Wastewater 2019 29th January 2019 Birmingham, UK Hosted by Water & Wastewater Technology Remote Environmental Monitoring 29th January 2019 Birmingham, UK Hosted by Sensors for Water Interest Group Sponsored by Xylem March 2019 WEX Global 2019 4th - 6th March 2019 Porto, Portugal Hosted by WEX Global Flow Metering in a Smarter Water Industry 6th March 2019 Swindon, UL Hosted by Sensors for Water Interest Group WWT Smart Water Networks 21st March 2019 Birmingham Hosted by Water & Wastewater Technology May 2019 Flow Metering in a Smarter Water Industry 6th March 2019 Swindon, UK Hosted by Sensors for Water Interest Group September 2019 17th International Computing & Control for the Water Industry 2nd-4th September 2019 Exeter University, UK Hosted by University of Exeter Intcatch Conference 4th -6th September 2019 London, UK Hosted by Intcatch2020 Conferences Coming Soon Remote Environmental Monitoring Where: Freshwater Biological Association, Dorset, UK When: 30th January 2019 The workshop will provide an update on the drivers coming through from UK environmental monitoring policy, and how sensor and communications technologies are addressing these challenging requirements for permanent, semi-permanent and portable monitoring systems, both in the sensing and communications hardware and data delivery to the client. The workshop will include presentations from organisations implementing policy, monitoring system users and providers, and academic presentations on novel remote monitoring systems. This workshop is sponsored by Xylem Analytics and is organised by the Sensors for Water Interest Group Flow Metering in a Smarter Water Industry Where: Swindon Steam Museum, Swindon, UK When: 6th March 2019 The water industry has been challenged to make further significant cuts in leakage and consumption in the next 10 years. Technology, in the form of smarterandmoredatadrivensystems,isexpectedtoplayamajorroleinhelping meet these targets. Flow is likely to remain one of the most fundamental and important parameters for understanding and managing networks from source to tap. So how will the demands on flow measurement and metering change? Will it, for example, be for better accuracy, low flow sensitivity, data availability or assurance of data quality? How will the flow measurement and metering systems being developed and installed now meet those needs? This seminar will look at the demands on flow measurement and metering in tomorrow’s networks and the solutions being developed and implemented to meet those challenges Smart Water Networks Where: Birmingham Conference & Events Centre, Birmingham, UK When: 21st March 2019 The transition between PR14 and PR19 has seen the water industry expe- rience a paradigm shift, making innovation and smarter ways of working a strategic imperative. The increased drive to understand infrastructure in real time and pre-empt network issues have become an essential aspect to providing a resilient and improved service to the customer. From smart metering to IoT and AI, technology optimisation is key to improv- ing day-to-day operations in addition to ensuring the long-term success of the industry.
  21. 21. WEX Global is the place to create new business in the water industry. The global exchange is for suppliers, utilities and the leading thinkers in water and energy to work together, meeting and talking in person over three important days. FEATURED SESSIONS INCLUDE: ‘WATER 4.0’ SMART WATER SESSIONS AT WEX (IN ASSOCIATION WITH WIPAC) 1. Communication & Security in Water & Wastewater 2. Instrumentation & Control in the Water Industry – Sponsored by Hach 3. BIMS and the Water Sector 4. Improving Asset Management using Intelligent Monitoring Solutions 5. Turning Data into Informed Decision-Making 6. Digital Desalination in the Circular Economy: Intelligent Water for the Future Sponsored by Acciona THE INNOVATIONS FORUM SPONSORED BY AQUALIA An interactive forum featuring six game-changing new technologies presented by invited companies. Judged by an international panel of distinguished experts, the winner will receive the Aqualia Innovation Award, to be presented at the WEX Global Gala Dinner on 5th March 2019. Contact us to find out more about attending WEX Global and to see the full agenda! SPEAKERS 2019 With more than 30x countries represented to date and counting, WEX hosts speakers from both commercial and technical backgrounds, working across the public and private sectors. Meet directors or equivalent from companies including the following live at WEX:- • Aguas de Gaia • Aguas do Porto • Aguas do Portugal • Aguas do Tejo Atlantico • Algerian Energy Company • Anglian Water • APG–Neuros • Asian Water Magazine • BESIX • BeWater • Black & Veatch • Budapest Waterworks • CDM Smith • City of Cincinnati • Cole Engineering • Czech Water • EPPA - Switzerland • EPAL • FCC Aqualia • Finnova Foundation • Green Tech Challenge • Guyana Water Inc • Hach • Hydrolia Water Works • Kalundborg Utility • Krevox • L’Oréal • Nairobi Water • National Water & Sewerage Corporation • NWWEC • ONEE • Portuguese Water Partnership • Remondis Aqua International • SABESP • Sonede • South East Water • Stantec • Suez • Sweco • Jamaica National Water Commission • Uganda National Water & Sewerage Corporation • United Utilities • Utico • Veolia • WRc • Yorkshire Water …and more being added every day! ‘WEX has a remarkable reputation in the water industry as the go-to place to do significant networking and to meet the right partners to move your technologies forward.’ Malcolm Fabiyi, Drylet Applying Intelligence to the Circular Economy in Water and Energy 4–6 MARCH 2019 | PORTO, PORTUGAL +44 (0)1772 429808 info@wex-global.com www.wex-global2019.com SPONSORS INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORTERS Page 21

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