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WIPAC Monthly - April 2018

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Welcome to the April 2018 edition of WIPAC Monthly the magazine brought to you by the LinkedIn Group Water Industry Process Automation & Control..

In the latest edition, along with the latest news from the Water Industry we have, amongst others, articles from

Nick Mclauchlan of Cyberprism who discusses the upcoming Network & Information Systems directive and its implications to the Water Industry

Doug Anderson of Vega Controls talking about Bluetooth and its application in instrumentation interaction and maintenance in the Water Industry

A "Focus On" article by Group Manager Oliver Grievson about the basics of instrumentation maintenance & calibration.

Enjoy the latest edition

Oliver

Published in: Engineering
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WIPAC Monthly - April 2018

  1. 1. Page 1 WIPAC MONTHLYThe Monthly Update from Water Industry Process Automation & Control www.wipac.org.uk Issue 4/2018- April 2018
  2. 2. Page 2 In this Issue From the Editor.................................................................................................................... 3 Industry News................................................................................................................. 4 - 9 Highlights of the news of the month from the global water industry centred around the successes of a few of the companies in the global market. What is the NIS Directive and what does it mean to you in the Water Industry.................. 10-12 The Network and Information Systems Directive comes into force on the 10th May before GDPR comes into force. In this article by Nick Mclauchlan of Cyberprism we will understand more about the implications that NIS will have to the Water Industry Digital Engineering for the TOTEX Environment................................................................. 13-14 TOTEX is a concept that has been around for a few years now and it is a concept that seems to be developing in the Water Industry. In this article by Black & Veatch we look at a project in United Utilities that has been used to produce Intelligent Process & Instrumentation Drawings to data capture and asset manage what is put in the ground. Resilient Data Communications support reliable flood protection in Switzerland............... 15-16 In this Case Study from Switzerland we look at the resilience of data communications in situations where the criticality of the data is such that failure is not option. The case study looks at setting up a data communication system that is resilient enough to support reliable flood protection Bluetooth - Back to the Future?......................................................................................... 17-18 Bluetooth has been around for many years and was originally used to connect mobile phones to wireless headsets. With the developments of the Bluetooth protocols its use in online instrumentation has become a viable concept. In this article by Doug Anderson of Vega Controls we look at the use of Bluetooth as a vital tool in instrumentation communication and programming Maintenance & Calibration in Wastewater Instrumentation............................................. 19-21 A vital part of the industry that is often taken for granted is the maintenance and calibration of online instrumentation. In this latest “Focus On” article some of the principles of maintenance and calibration, its importance and how to do it is discussed. Workshops, Conferences & Seminars................................................................................... 22-23 The highlights of the conferences and workshops in the coming months WIPAC Monthly is a publication of the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group. It is produced by the group manager and WIPAC Monthly Editor, Oliver Grievson. This is a free publication for the benefit of the Water Industry and please feel free to distribute to any who you may feel benefit. All enquires about WIPAC Monthly, including those who want to publish news or articles within these pages, should be directed to the publications editor, Oliver Grievson at olivergrievson@hotmail.com
  3. 3. Page 3 From the Editor It seems everywhere that I go this month the subject that is on everyone is talking about is that of data quality and instrumentation maintenance. It is of course one of the most basic things that we must do everyday. If the Water Industry is going to move towards a data-driven “Smart Water” industry then we must make sure that all the data that we collect is representative of what is being measured. If it isn’t then the information that we are going to rely upon will be fundamentally flawed. What we end up risking is another run around where instrumentation and the data that it produces isn’t believed and then we will end up “resisting the effective use of instrumentation a subject that was one of the first things that was discussed at the foundation of WIPAC almost seven years ago now. At the recent Sensors for Water Interest Group workshop on maintenance of sensors it was clear that in installing instruments there are several factors to take into account, the right sampling, the right measurement and the right transmission of the data. If we end up introducing errors in any part of this chain then we end up basing “the Smart Water Industry” on what the Scottish would call a “Shuggly Nail,” or an insecure foundation and we will set ourselves up to fail. What this must drive is consideration of the Instrumentation Life Cycle, a concept that is relatively simple, but relies on the instruments only be installed where they have a use but if this use is confirmed and an instrument is actually needed then its installation, operation and maintenance should be prioritised. In the main the Water Industry has worked on a concept of fix on fail and this strategy is appropriate for some situations such as floats and contact probes where they are basically simple switches alluding to state. But if the instrument is critical then the principle of “fix on fail” is not appropriate in the future industry as the data it collects feeds information that the business relies upon. If we are serious about the Smart Water Industry then we must be serious about the instrumentation that we use. Part of the problem is the skills set in instrumentation and this is something that we, as an industry, need to address. We need to understand the instruments that we use and understand how to operate and use them. This is why at this year’s Water, Wastewater & Environmental Monitoring Conference we have initiatives as the WWEM Instrumentation Apprentice Competition and the new WIPAC Learning Zone (on top of the Flow Forum as well). It is a case of driving this instrumentation skills into the Water Industry as a whole, if necessary person by person. All of the details are starting to come together and I hope in the next couple of months to be able to release all of the details for people to sign up for the various sessions that are available. As an industry we have the need to move towards a “Smart Water Industry” as we drive towards greater and greater process efficiencies then instrumentation and control systems will come to the fore. What we must understand is that it will all come crashing down around our ears unless we understand that we must look after the basics. Have a good month Oliver
  4. 4. Evoqua Named Water Company of the Year by Global Water Intelligence (GWI) & DEWA win Smart Water Company Evoqua Water Technologies has been named the Water Company of the Year and the Dubai Electricity & Water Authority (DEWA) has been named Smart Water Company of the year by Global Water Intelligence (GWI), the leading market resource for the water industry, as part of the Global Water Awards held in conjunction with GWI’s Global Water Summit. Evoqua was cited for its transformation from the former Siemens Water business to “undisputed leader in the field of water treatment, the shrewd roll-up of water technology companies, followed by a highly successful initial public offering in 2017, under the leadership of CEO Ron Keating.” “We appreciate an organization such as GWI and its readers recognizing the great work our approximately 4,000 employees do each day to further our Purpose of Transforming Water and Enriching Life,” said Evoqua’s Keating. “Our vision to be the world’s first choice for water solutions is underpinned by our Values of Integrity, Customers and Performance, so it is gratifying to see the marketplace sees the impact we are making.” In naming Evoqua Water Company of the Year, GWI said, “By simplifying the company’s internal structure and re-energizing its workforce to engage more closely than ever with industrial and municipal end customers, Evoqua has built a fearsome reputation in the water industry as the king of systems supply, product sales, and service. It enjoys top-tier market positions in a range of industry segments, from electrochlorination right through to biological nutrient removal. GWI continued: “Evoqua embarked on an ambitious $400 million acquisitions program which culminated in 2017, improving its earnings profile and strengthening its flowsheet by allowing it to enter new adjacencies. With a revitalized culture and a balance sheet to match, the company is delivering on its promises to its customers globally.” DEWA, in winning the Smart Water Company of the year had the goal of reducing non-revenue water and improving the emirate of Dubai’s resilience in the face of severe water scarcity, DEWA undertook one of the largest advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) projects the world has ever seen. Completing the replacement of a phenomenal 245,000 water meters in 2017, DEWA has advanced the availability of meter readings to a near-perfect 99.9%, while reducing non-revenue water to 7%. Despite being one of the most water-stressed countries in the world, the United Arab Emirates has one of the highest per capita water usage rates, making water conservation essential. With the water meters successfully installed, DEWA was able to detect and resolve almost 10,000 leaks and identify 3,300 defective meters. The utility’s efforts were rewarded with substantial increases in billable water, amounting to AED46.7 million ($12.7 million) in extra revenue. DEWA has demonstrated remarkable in-house capabilities, replacing fibre optics with an internally built machine -to -machine solution – an innovation later adopted by the manufacturer – and creating five operational dashboards to monitor the smart network, generating total savings of AED5.2 million ($1.4 million). DEWA was awarded an international patent for its internally developed one-way data transmission system which automatically collects data from desalination plants, enabling operators to monitor assets from anywhere at any time, and providing crucial protection against the ever-growing risk of cyber- attacks. The Mecca Smart Operations Project was named the Smart Water Project of the year at the same ceremony with a project led by Saudi Arabia’s National Water Company who implemented a SAR50 million ($13.3 million) Smart Operations Project in Mecca, switching from manual to automated operations. The project covered a 25.5km2 area, encompassing a colossal 996km pipe network and 28 reservoirs. The project involved the National Water Company as the project leaders, while International Aramoon Company, a local leak detection and sewer repair specialist, acted as the main contractor. The breadth and complexity of the solution is reflected in the broad range of partners, which include Xylem’s data analytics holding, Sensus, automated solutions provider ABB, and valve manufacturer VAG Valves. Mecca faces unique water consumption challenges, with over 2 million pilgrims descending on the Islamic holy site for a six-day period every year. Because of this, 90% of the region’s assets exist solely to support the water supply throughout this holy period. During Hajj, pilgrims must undertake physical activities under sweltering conditions, resulting in enormous peaks in water consumption at certain times of the day. The ensuing network pressure fluctuations make maintenance of a continuous water supply extremely challenging. The installation of an advanced SCADA system and an army of online pressure sensors enables network pressure to be measured every second. The in-house development of a smart operations system that automatically operates control valves based on live pressure measurements ensures that water pressure is continuously maintained throughout the Hajj season. The combined result of NWC’s pioneering innovations enabled the successful pumping of 30 million m3 of water into Mecca and the Al Mashaer region during the 2017 pilgrimage season, maintaining the quality of water services during peak flows and boosting customer satisfaction to new levels. A selection of the awards winners and the companies that received distinctions were Water Company of the Year Evoqua Water Technologies (Winner) Aqualia (Distinction) Desalination Company of the Year Suez (Winner) Metito (Distinction) Smart Water Company of the Year DEWA (Winner) Schneider Electric (Distinction) Breakthrough Water Technology Company of the Year Voltea (Winner) Moleaer (Distinction) Smart Water Project of the Year Mecca Smart Operations Project (Winner) Christchurch Sewer Project (Distinction) Water Technology Company of the Year Xylem (Winner) LG Water Solutions (Distiniction) Water Technology Idol CosmosID (Winner) Via Seperations (Distinction) Page 4 Industry News
  5. 5. Yorkshire Water hosts Hackathon Yorkshire Water gathered the finest minds in data for its first solveIT hackathon event as the firm ramps up its plans to proactively prevent flooding and pollu- tion incidents. The firm is looking to discover technology led and data driven opportunities which could have a substantial impact on operational performance in predicting potential problems such as internal flooding, in the network. With help from organisers Add+ Strategy, the firm attracted 53 attendees from 13 companies at the Digital Catapult Centre in Bradford and tasked them with identifying relationships in the available data sets. This would allow Yorkshire Water to prioritise alarms in the control room and to provide information which will enable it to make the right intervention, in the right place, at the right time. There were three different competitions across the two days, with Mott McDonald claiming the prize for refinement and validation of a logic model for prioritis- ing event alarms. The team from 1Spartial Ltd produced the best entry for ‘demonstrated new approach to integrated alarms’, while Invenio Systems Ltd won the bonus challenge for producing the highest calibre model for practical definition of ‘best’ location of sensors. Yorkshire Water Project Manager, Claire Green, said: “We have been very clear that we have a company goal to reduce internal sewer flooding by 70% and reducing pollution incidents by 40%. “Proactive alarms play a key role in this which is why we are working with the best minds in the business to help us with this. “The event was a huge success and we will arrange follow up discussions with a number of the attendees, not just the prize winners, to discuss their ideas and analytical tools in more detail and to determine which, if any we want to take to a Proof of Concept stage.” To help reach the target of sewer flooding reduction by 70%, Yorkshire Water has begun a targeted campaign to build awareness of the dangers of flushing wet wipes down the toilet. KANDO Joins The Smart Water Networks Forum Kando, an innovative Israeli-based smart wastewater company, has announced its plans to join the Smart Water Networks Forum (SWAN), the leading global hub for the smart water and wastewater sectors. With rapid population growth, unpredictable weather patterns, and increased regulations regarding sewage and contamination events, there is a growing need for utilities worldwide to improve their wastewater infrastructure and become more resilient; together with the need for wastewater recycling that brings the control of the upstream in cities at most importance. “We are witnessing a rising interest in the implementation of real-time surveillance in the global wastewater industry – therefore, the time is now for the adoption of smart wastewater technologies.” Said Ari Goldfarb, CEO of Kando. “Kando is committed to harnessing IoT technology to disrupt the wastewater arena. We envision a future with every sewage network in cities around the globe becoming a smart system. We are looking forward to working closely with our colleagues at SWAN and learning from their experience in providing effective solutions to today’s environmental challenges. “ “A smart water future must also address wastewater challenges and prioritise real-time based solutions”, said Amir Cahn, Executive Director of the SWAN Fo- rum. “With Kando joining the global SWAN network, we are excited to welcome this leading smart wastewater company to our global hub of industry experts. We believe that given their ongoing work with utilities on adopting technological solutions for monitoring, early detection, control and management of waste- water networks, they will bring their own level of expertise to propel the smart wastewater sector forward.” Kando develops an end-to-end wastewater management solutions for smart cities. Kando’s solution allows water utilities and industrial customers, for the first time, the ability to detect, track and anticipate pollution events in real-time. Kando game-changing IoT solution is offered as a cloud based SaaS solution together with the unique wireless hardware measurement units that allow collecting real-time data from the sewage network. The innovative, proprietary machine learning and data analytics tools enable customers to see their network in a way that has never been previously possible. For more information, visit http://www.kando.co.il/ - /. Page 5
  6. 6. Dragan Savic appointed new CEO of KWR Dragan Savić will join KWR as its new CEO on July 1. He will succeed Wim van Vierssen, who has been serving as the institute’s CEO from 2007, and will step down due to retirement on July 1. Prof. Dragan Savić is currently the director – and co-founder – of the Centre for Water Systems in Exeter, which is an internationally recognised group for excellence in water and environmental science research. The Centre grew in size over the last 20 years to its current complement of over 80 staff, with funding exceeding £5M per annum. Dragan Savić is the first Professor of Hydroinformatics in the UK having held this post in the College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences since 2001. Dragan Savic’s research interests cover the interdisciplinary field of Hydroinformatics, which transcends traditional boundaries of water/environmental sciences, informatics/computer science (including Artificial Intelligence, data mining and optimisation techniques) and environmental engineering. His recent work has concentrated on the theoretical development and application of Artificial Intelligence methods that have been applied to many fields of environmental science. GUTERMANN And TaKaDu Combine Data-Driven Technologies For Heightened Water Efficiency TaKaDu, a global leader in Integrated Event Management solutions for the water industry, and GUTERMANN, a world leader in acoustic leak detection technology, are teaming up to deliver a comprehensive data-driven solution for improving efficiency. TaKaDu’s platform is being seamlessly integrated with GUTERMANN’s fixed network leak detection technology, leveraging TaKaDu’s ability to integrate network events from external systems as well as from its own analytics engine. For joint customers, TaKaDu’s Integrated Event Management platform can act as the central layer for all network events detected by both systems. Receiving alerts from two different sources wil l increase operational confidence about each event, save time and provide information for better decision making – enabling operational teams to validate and find the location of leaks more easily. Uri Gutermann, Head of Business Development & CFO, GUTERMANN, said “With our constant focus on innovation, we strive to provide utilities with the best possible tools for efficient non-revenue water reduction. Our collaboration with TaKaDu is therefore another stepping stone in GUTERMANN’s strategy to make water leakage a central theme for utility managers and to facilitate a more transparent and holistic view on leaks and pipe bursts and how they are handled.” Gutermann continued, “Combining the automatically correlated and pinpointed leak locations from our acoustic sensor network with TaKaDu’s big data analyt- ics and event management offers joint customers the most reliable, precise and comprehensive solution for network management.” “We’re delighted to collaborate with GUTERMANN, which provides a critical data source and event detection for leakage events. Our combined solution is showing excellent results at Mei Carmel in Haifa, Israel, and we’re also seeing huge potential worldwide.” said Amir Peleg, Founder & CEO, TaKaDu. “TaKaDu’s customers already integrate events from a variety of sources such as call centre (consumer reports) and work order systems (predictive maintenance and repair activities). This latest integration with GUTERMANN strengthens the capability of users to manage events even better, helps to break silos, and improves collaboration between the back office and field teams.” GUTERMANN is a global technology leader and innovator in intelligent water loss technologies. Its product range includes both the conventional leak detection equipment as well as state-of-the-art permanently installed and fully automatic, correlating network monitoring systems enabling utilities to pinpoint leaks automatically within the shortest time. TaKaDu is a global leader in Integrated Event Management solutions for water utilities. TaKaDu’s cloud-based service enables utilities to detect, analyse and manage network events and incidents, such as leaks, bursts, faulty assets, telemetry and data issues, operational failures, water quality and more. TaKaDu performs as the central management layer for all network events detected by its own data analytics engine and other external alerting systems (e.g. acoustic loggers, customer calls, sensor alerts). TaKaDu is integrated with other IT systems (e.g. work order, CRM, call centre and asset management), as well as being part of a comprehensive Smart City solution. Page 6
  7. 7. SUEZ to implement Aquadvanced for Bristol Water Bristol Water has awarded SUEZ a contract to implement Aquadvanced Energy across its entire water distribution network. Aquadvanced Energy, formerly known as Derceto’s Aquadapt, is a network-wide optimiser that will allow Bristol Water to operate its system more efficiently by reducing the energy consumption and environmental footprint. The Aquadvanced system will monitor and control all pumps, valves, water treatment plants and storage in the network to meet customer demand at minimum cost and in real time. The Aquadvanced implementation process will be completed by September 2019, after which pumping and resource control will be fully automated. Matthew Stephenson, director of water utilities at SUEZ Water Technologies and Solutions, said: “The Aquadvanced system is a highly advanced network optimiser that typically reduces overall pumping energy bills by 10-15 per cent – a significant saving for most water companies. “We are delighted to see that Bristol Water have committed their whole distribution network to be optimised, and they follow a growing number of forward-thinking water companies around the world who have opted to move their water distribution into the digital age.” Aquadvanced Energy utilises SCADA and telemetry systems to read live data and issue commands to pumps and valves throughout an entire distribution system, producing the correct volume of water when and where it is needed. Ian Badcock, asset management IT projects manager at Bristol Water, said: “We are always looking to do things differently. This really helps us achieve that and makes us much more efficient. This system contributes to our business plan objectives to lower our costs and our energy usage; it makes us a better, more efficient company.” In contrast to point-to-point optimisers, Aquadvanced looks at operational efficiencies through the whole network and takes into account how distant assets interact with each other. Therefore, benefits include not only the more common load-shifting savings but system efficiencies such as reduction of water production, improved water quality and increased system resilience. Anglian Water plans £500 million-plus strategic water grid Anglian Water is planning to invest more than £500 million to build a Strategic Grid of new pipes to move water around the region more easily, significantly reducing the likelihood of severe drought restrictions in future. The new Grid is among a raft of proposals for more than £800 million of investment set out in the water company’s draft Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP). Anglian Water is kick-starting its long-term WRMP programme with an immediate investment of £65 million in the next two years – paid for through a reduction in shareholder dividends – on immediate measures to protect the region against water shortages. The utility has launched a consultation seeking customers’ views on the Plan, which includes £250 million of investment to roll out money-saving smart meters across the region, tackle leakage and help customers become more water efficient. As the driest region in the country, water resources in the East of England are under increasing pressure from a rapidly growing population, climate change and the needs of the environment. The draft WRMP sets out the plans Anglian Water believes are necessary to manage water resources in future in light of these challenges, to secure water supplies for generations to come. The new strategic grid would mean installing more large water mains across the Anglian Water region to allow water to be easily diverted from one area to another to boost supplies if necessary. It would feature a new main pipeline running from Elsham in North Lincs to South Lincolnshire, allowing millions of litres of clean, safe drinking water to be supplied every day to customers in Greater Lincolnshire, and further south if needed. Under the Plan, nearly every county in the East of England will see multimillion pound investment and new pipeline installations to join up the region. £44 million would also be invested to install and upgrade the Water Treatment Works in Elsham so it can serve the new, larger grid accordingly. Aside from the plans for the strategic grid, £250 million of proposed future investment includes: • £50 million to drive leakage down by a further 23% by 2025. This will take Anglian Water to a world-leading low level of leakage • £180 million to roll-out money-saving smart meters to thousands more customers • £21 million to continue Anglian Water’s water efficiency campaigns and initiatives with customers saving 30 million litres of water a day by 2045. The plan also outlines proposals to work with neighbouring water companies to share water resources across the country. Jean Spencer, Anglian Water’s Director for Growth and Resilience said: “Ensuring we have enough fresh water for the future is the biggest challenge we face. Our draft plan sets out how we make the best use of the water we already have but also what measures we need to put in place now to become more resilient to severe drought and the impacts of climate change in the future. “We already put less water into supply today than in 1989, despite a 34% increase in the number of properties we serve. That’s because we’ve tackled leakage, and helped our customers become more water efficient. “One thing is certain, we will always need water. Continuing to manage the demand in the future will only be possible by working with customers, stopping more leaks than ever before and thinking about how the water industry can work more collaboratively in the future, she added. Page 7
  8. 8. Southern Water tests super-intelligent SmartBall Southern Water is testing the revolutionary SmartBall device which travels along water pipes and can detect weakened pipes before they become bursts. SMARTBALL Supported by partners Pure Technologies and Water Research Centre Ltd (WRc), Southern Water’s technology team are applying the bowling ball-like device developed for use in the oil and gas industry in the 13,000 km of pipe line that make up its water network. The brains of the ball are housed in a small hardened globe which contains acoustic sensors which can ‘hear’ a leak of as little as 0.11 litres/min. Other detectors can spot unevenness in pipes and pockets of air in a pipe. The data is transmitted to surface stations placed along the pipe’s path or downloaded when the ball is recovered. The brains are covered with a bright blue protective sponge layer making SmartBall look like a bowling ball from a distance. ‘We have worked very hard on finding new ways of finding and fixing leaks with a goal of eventually reducing wasted water from our vast network to zero,’ said Sarah Elliman, research and development project manager, ‘Innovation and collaboration go hand in hand at Southern Water - we look for the best technology and the best partners and work together to deliver the best solutions to the challenges we face’. Keith Walker - Head of Infrastructure at WRc – commented: “We are really pleased with how smoothly the SmartBall project went for Southern Water, and in collaboration with our partners Pure Technologies. The combination of SmartBall and Sahara - a tethered tool for inspecting pipes - means we can inspect rising mains of any length with minimal disruption to service. In-pipe inspection provides the confidence to target replacement and maintenance activity most efficiently, and we look forward to supporting Southern Water in the future - now we’ve got the ‘ball rolling’.” Leak detection has long relied on simple techniques. Hand held listening tubes held against pipes in the hands of a skilled operative are still used. More modern acoustic logging devices perform a similar role with sensitive digital technology. Finding where to look relies on metering the inputs to sectors of the network and comparing with meters at outputs. Southern Water is working in collaboration with WRc on the project. Northumbrian Water Group has announced the 13 major questions it will tackle when its Innovation Festival returns this summer. It was confirmed last week that the festival will take place at Newcastle Racecourse from 9 to 13 July, doubling in size after a successful debut last year. The five-day event will see major national and global companies working with innovation experts, regional businesses, local universities, schools and members of the public to come up with and explore innovative ways to help change the world. The group has now confirmed that the following questions will be tackled at this summer’s event: • Starting from scratch – How do you create the ‘perfect’ water company? • Going deeper underground – Can we build an underground map of the UK? • Smart Objectives – Smart devices are filling up our homes. How can we improve customers’ lives by making the most of Smart technology? • Fans for life – How to build advocacy with our communities and customers • ‘Testing the water’ – How can the use of Digital Twins improve our future? • Moving on – What will the future of transport look like? • Green planet – How can we become a carbon positive company? • Smiling happy people power – How can we create a happier more productive workforce? • Building blocks – How can innovation and tech improve design, construction operation and maintenance? • Vision of the future – How can we improve the lives of people who are visually impaired? • Every drop counts – How and why do we need to save water? • Blue Planet: Teenager sprint – How can we reduce the impact of single-use plastics? • Fighting flooding – How can we reduce the risk and build for the future? Nigel Watson, Northumbrian Water Group information services director, said: “The Innovation Festival is back for 2018 and it’s going to be even bigger and more ambitious than last year! “We have some of the most innovative and creative minds from across the globe taking part in this celebration of creativity and we’ve set them one, pretty major and important, task – to try and change the world... so not that tough then! “We’re asking some big questions that affect us all – how can the world save water? What is the future of transport? How can we help save the environment through single plastic use, pollution and by saving energy? And we’ve got experts from all of these areas together in one place for one week to come up with some solutions. “Last year saw some truly amazing ideas come out of the festival and into fruition and I can’t wait to see what this year brings. It’s going to be a fantastic event for everyone involved, the north east region and hopefully the whole world!” Northumbrian reveals its ‘big questions’ for Innovation Festival Page 8
  9. 9. Digitalization increases efficiency and security of supply in the water industry At the IFAT 2018 trade show for environmental technologies, Siemens will be focusing on the digitalization of water and waste water plants. The solutions on display will cover the entire life cycle of plants - from planning through to operation and maintenance, helping to sustainably reduce energy consumption and lower the overall costs. Companies and municipalities are increasing both the efficiency and security of supply by, for example, planning, simulating and optimizing plants and processes using a digital twin. Innovations include new hardware concepts and industry-specific modules for the Simatic PCS 7 process control system, as well as automation over the TIA Portal using Simatic S7-1200 and S7-1500 and cloud-based solutions for the optimized use of pumps. A digital twin of the real plant provides users with significant advantages over the entire life cycle of the plant. Siemens will be illustrating this with its main exhibit “From Integrated Engineering to Integrated Operations” demonstrating the integration of processes, operations and information across the plant’s entire life cycle: Comos engineering software, the latest version 9.0 of Simatic PCS 7, and the Simit simulation software. The latter enables virtual plant commissioning and operator training, enabling faster and error-free commissioning. Comos innovations will be also showcased, such as pre-configured sample solutions for the water industry covering all engineering, electrotechnical and automation aspects and the integration of technological and geographical information into digital maps. A comprehensive device management (based on a modern IT infrastructure with “Comos as a Service”) will also be on display. Tailored scalable automation solutions Siemens offers pre-configured sample solutions (engineering templates) for Simatic PCS 7 and WinCC specifically for the water industry covering electrification, automation and drive systems. The templates include all functions required for control and regulation, including ergonomic visualization and operation. The scalable automation solutions can be adapted and adjusted to fit all needs: From TIA Portal for small and autonomous stations through to the WinCC SCADA system for distributed and heterogeneous water networks and complex plants using the Simatic PCS 7 process control system. This helps to significantly reduce the costs of plant engineering, operations and maintenance over the entire life cycle. New data-based possibilities to optimize operations Data networking can make processes more efficient and reduce costs in operations as well. Here, Siemens offers smart solutions: SIWA Leak and LeakControl help detect insidious leaks in water pipelines and networks. This solution supplements existing control systems and continuously supplies operators with information on the current status of the water pipes, providing them with a detailed data basis for making informed decisions on suitable action to be taken in the event of a leak. The SIWA Optim app, which will be also available as a MindSphere solution, will support staff in creating and optimizing pump and valve schedules for water supply networks helping to reduce energy consumption and costs by up to 15% whilst safeguarding the supply at the same time. Industrial security for critical infrastructures Security plays a vital role in water supply systems as it constitutes a critical infrastructure. To protect industrial plants against cyber-attacks, Siemens offers its “Defense in Depth” concept. Industrial Security Services support early detection of potential vulnerability and threats. Together with the customer, Siemens then implements proactive measures of system hardening, anti-virus management, and network segmentation for long-term plant protection. Scalance S is one of the product ranges serving as a basis to secure communication networks in an industrial environment together with their integration into the security structures of the office and IT worlds. The Automation Firewall range serves to protect industrial plants by implementing special protective mechanisms for Simatic PCS 7 and Simatic WinCC. The Sinema Remote Connect management platform helps users to obtain convenient and secured remote access to widely distributed plants, stations or remote control centers. As early as in the design and development stages of products and systems, Siemens attaches utmost importance to IT security (including certification of compliance with, for example IEC 62443 and ISO 27001). Process instrumentation An industrial water model on display at the fair, which is entirely integrated into Simatic PCS 7, demonstrates a wide range of process instrumentation solutions and the seamless integration into the complete control system. Also on view will be such devices as the Sitrans FST020: With its Sitrans FSS200 clamp-on sensors, the powerful measuring transducer forms a digital flow metering system, measuring virtually any liquid with a consistently high accuracy of one per cent of the flow velocity. The battery-powered Sitrans F M MAG 8000 flow meter can be fitted almost anywhere without compromising accuracy or performance. The battery-powered device meets legal metrology requirements in accordance with water meter standards MID and OIML R49. It is specifically designed for autonomous water applications such as water intake, distribution, consumption billing and irrigation. Services for higher efficiency in commissioning and maintenance Service activities such as commissioning and maintaining field devices can be supported by modern communication media through remote access. In addition to maintaining the hardware platform, the life cycle costs of a process control system are determined to a significant degree by the maintenance and upkeep of the installed software components. Innovative concepts such as “Simatic Virtualization as a Service” help customers to reduce their capital expenditure on hardware considerably as well as spending on service and administration. Moreover, a central software and system administration makes for simpler implementation of security-related measures. Page 9
  10. 10. Article: What is the NIS Directive? and what does it mean to you in the Water Industry? Summary The Network and Information Systems (NIS) Directive is an EU initiative that becomes effective as UK law on 10th May 2018 – two weeks before the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) comes into force as UK law. It applies to Operators of Essential Services (OES) who are required to take appropriate measures to protect the security of network and information systems, to promote a culture of security awareness and to report any cyber security incidents. Penalties for non-compliance will include fines up to £17m, The Network & Information Systems Directive The formal title of the NIS Directive is ‘Directive (EU) 2016/1148 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2016 concerning measures for a high common level of security of network and information systems across the Union’. It was adopted by the European Parliament in July 2016 and member states have 21 months to transpose the Directive into their national laws. This means that the UK government will transpose the directive into UK law on the 9th May 2018, and all organisations deemed ‘Operators of Essential Services’ must comply from this date or face the prospect of a fine of up to £17million. The UK government conducted a consultation during August and September 2017 and has now published their response, which at this stage allows us to prepare for the law coming into effect. The first concern is ‘Does this apply to me?’ For a company operating in the UK Water Industry, the answer is a qualified yes – generally it applies to operators supplying more than 200,000 people with potable water. Interestingly it specifically refers to households, not commercial or industry, and is only concerned with potable water not waste water. Why do we keep referring to ‘a company operating in the UK Water Industry’? Because although the directive is aimed at operators, that is the water company’, the consultation response specifically states ‘Identifying the systems that support the services will need to be carried out by the Operators, as part of understanding how they can comply with the security requirements.’ Additionally there is a specific reference to the supply chain, ‘The organisation understands and manages security risks to the network and information systems supporting the delivery of essential services that arise as a result of dependencies on external suppliers. This includes ensuring that appropriate measures are employed where third party services are used.’ To summarise, if you are a supplier to one of the UK water companies it is not unreasonable for them to expect you to meet the requirements of the NIS Directive because as we saw in the Target data breach of 2013 attackers are targeting the supply chain and pivoting to the ultimate victim because in the case of the water industry they will assume a CNI operator will have a higher security posture than a comparatively smaller supplier such as a systems integrator. What do you need to do? The NCSC has started to publish guidance on how the UK Government will implement the NIS Directive on its website, and is providing technical support and guidance to other Government Departments, Devolved Administrations, Competent Authorities (CAs) and operators of essential services (OES). As part of a government consultation 4 NIS Directive objectives have been established which contain a total of 14 high level security principles, these are summarised as: Objective A. Managing security risk A1. Governance Putting in place the policies and processes which govern your organisation’s approach to the security of network and information systems. A2. Risk Management Identification, assessment and understanding of security risks. And the establishment of an overall organisational approach to risk management. A3. Asset management Determining and understanding all systems and/or services required to maintain or support essential services. A4. Supply chain Understanding and managing the security risks to networks and information systems which arise from dependencies on external suppliers Objective B: Protecting against cyber attack B1. Service protection policies and processes Defining and communicating appropriate organisational policies and processes to secure systems and data that support the delivery of essential services. B2. Identity and access control Understanding, documenting and controlling access to essential services systems and functions. B3. Data Security Protecting stored or electronically transmitted data from actions that may cause disruption to essential services. B4. System security Protecting critical network and information systems and technology from cyber-attack. B5. Resilient networks and systems Building resilience against cyber-attack. B6. Staff awareness and training Appropriately supporting staff to ensure they can support essential services’ network and information system security. Page 10
  11. 11. Objective C: Detecting cyber security events C1. Security Monitoring Monitoring to detect potential security problems and track the effectiveness of existing security measures. C2. Proactive Security Event Discovery Detecting anomalous events in relevant network and information systems. Objective D: Minimising the impact of cyber security incidents D1. Response and recovery planning Putting suitable incident management and mitigation processes in place. D2. Lessons learned Putting suitable incident management and mitigation processes in place The NCSC website goes further and provides information and guidance on how to meet the objectives, and it is important to remember that not every one of the recommendations are going to apply to your organisation – the key is to start by reviewing which ones do apply, conducting a gap analysis in order to allow you to prioritise which ones you need to apply, generate a compliance plan and only then start to implement the necessary risk mitigation measures. Taking one principle as an example: Principle A4 – Supply chain. The NCSC have published very specific guidance on the subject of supply chain security within this guidance are 12 principles contained within 4 sections, each section representing a stage in the process of securing the supply chain, these are; understand the risks, establish control, check your arrangements and continuous improvement. If we take the example alluded to earlier, that of a UK water company using the services of a systems integrator, and apply the principles as a general use case for one section: Understand the risks 1. Understand what needs to be protected and why The sensitivity of the contracts you let or will be letting. These contracts will likely be for the control of critical process control, possibly with safety consideration (in which case IEC61511 Clause 8.2.4 applies: A security risk assessment shall be carried out to identify the security vulnerabilities of the SIS. It shall result in…...…a description of identified threats that could exploit vulnerabilities and result in security events (including intentional attacks on the hardware, application programs and related software, as well as unintended events resulting from human error)). These contracts are sensitive, failure of the systems could result in a significant disruptive effect. The value of your information or assets which suppliers hold, will hold, have access to, or handle, as part of the contract. These contracts will likely include information on the design of the control networks such as IP addresses, asset and node information including manufacturer details, firmware details, security measures put in place as part of the contract including firewall settings, usernames and passwords for the system. All of which is valuable information, to both you as the client and also any potential attacker. 2. Know who your suppliers are and build an understanding of what their security looks like – you should know: Who are your suppliers? You will need to think about how far down your supply chain you need to go to gain understanding and confidence in your suppliers. You may know your Tier 1 contractor, but who are they subcontracting to and who is auditing their security posture? The maturity and effectiveness of your suppliers’ current security arrangements. You could use CPNI Personnel Security Maturity Model to assess the maturity of your suppliers’ people security arrangements as it is all well and good you mandating your supplier conduct a criminal record check through the Disclosure & Barring Service but if their subcontractor makes no checks this erodes the security chain. What security protections you have asked your immediate suppliers to provide, and what they, in turn, have asked any sub-contractors to do? Your standards may mandate the level of encryption to be used when data is at rest and in transit, network designs and Functional Design Specifications are all valuable pieces of data and your supplier may meet those requirements but again the security chain is eroded if their subcontractor leaves the data unencrypted on insecure servers or uncontrolled printouts are left lying around in offices with poor physical security. 3. Understand the security risk posed by your supply chain Sources of risk Risks to and from the supply chain can take many forms. As noted above, a supplier may fail to adequately secure their systems, may have a malicious insider, or a supplier’s members of staff may fail to properly handle or manage your information. Page 11
  12. 12. You have ISO27001 – Surely you are compliant? Well, to put it bluntly ‘No’. ISO27001 is part of the solution, and yes it does go some way to meeting the objectives, however there are a number of other means of applying the principles laid out in the NIS Directive, and in many cases there is no ISO27001 equivalent. This defence in depth, holistic approach, is very much industry best practice and is the only way to truly mitigate risks – there is no such thing as one standard or technology to rule them all. How will you be assessed? The NCSC will be issuing a Cyber Assessment Framework by the end of April, it will be this that the Competent Authority, who will be specified in the legislation and take into account the devolved parliaments around the United Kingdom, will use to assess the extent to which OES are achieving the outcomes specified by the 14 NIS principles. What impact will Brexit have? None – the government response to the consultation specifically notes: It is the UK Government’s intention that on exit from the European Union these policy provisions will continue to apply in the UK. Where can you get help? Beyond reading the NCSC website and doing it yourself there are companies such as ourselves, Cyber Prism Process, which will come in and work collaboratively with you to help you develop a security posture which will meet the objectives of the NIS Directive – as a bonus these will also almost certainly help with your compliance with the GDPR legislation. Cyber Prism Process is offering a 1 day free initial evaluation until 1st September 2018, which will provide you with a report documenting which objectives, principles and guidance apply to your organisation – contact us via email: contact@cyberprism.net . NCSC chief wants ‘more resilience’ amid cyber threat National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) CEO Ciaran Martin has said it is vital the UK develops more resilience in the battle against cyber attacks amid concerns the water sector could be targeted. The UK and US issued a joint warning earlier this month over the threat of “malicious cyber activity” from Russia following the sanctions against the country, and Martin – who is reported as telling the recent CYBERUK 2018 conference that water, gas and electricity are potential targets – has repeated his claim from January that an attack is a question of “when, not if”. In a column for the Sunday Telegraph, Martin said it is an “urgent national priority” to protect “critical infrastructure, services and ourselves at all levels from cyber attacks” as well as cyber crime. He continued: “Absolute protection is neither possible nor desirable; it’s about having more resilience in the systems we care about the most, those where loss of service would have the most impact on our way of life.” The Telegraph reported that Martin was believed to be referring to power and water supplies, internet and transport networks, and the health service, which was subject to the Wannacry ransomware attack in 2017. The newspaper added that senior representatives of utility, transport and internet firms and the NHS have attended intelligence briefings with the NCSC. Martin added: “We have said that it is a matter of when, not if, the UK faces a serious cyber attack. So last week we presented detailed plans to government departments about the priority areas where the NCSC will work with them, industry and law enforcement to improve the cyber resilience of the most important systems.” Martin said a 21-page document issued by the UK and US this week “tells companies and public bodies how to identify and remove this hostile Russian presence” and said: “We should avoid the temptation to despair when we think about cyber attacks. “There is cause for realistic optimism: the threats are there, but whether they’re from Russia, criminals or anyone else, we are putting in place national-level defences as good as anywhere in the world. But we cannot do it alone. This week has shown that we have the partnerships at home and abroad to secure our digital future and we need a national-level effort from all parts of our community to make those defences as effective as they can be.” About Cyberprism Cyber Security covers a complex set of inter-connected factors. It’s not just an IT problem and people are often the weakest link. As a first step Cyber Prism carries out a top-down Cyber Survey to identify all Cyber Assets and their Vulnerabilities and Threats. Cyber Prism uses the right combination of tools and services to harden systems and improve procedures, delivering protection for the business critical cyber assets and personnel against the full range of threats that exploit weaknesses in the cyber environment. Cyber Prism has a full range of support services and tools which can provide an alert and will then contain, remediate and recover from attacks minimising down time and business impact. Systems and Data can usually be fully restored. The Cyber Prism Team consists of leading experts in the Cyber Security Industry covering a range of specialised sectors who have carried out Cyber Security work at the highest level in Government security agencies and in the Armed Forces . Members of the Team are affiliates of the University of Warwick’s Cyber Security Centre which carries out innovative multi-disciplinary research, focusing on transformative solutions for the UK Government and major UK Industry. Selected partners deliver specialised cyber security capability and services. Page 12
  13. 13. Article: Digital engineering for the totex environment Digitalisation of the design and construction process as well as the use of intelligent piping and instrumentation diagrams made for a successful outcome on the Oldham and Royton Integrated Strategy (ORIS) wastewater treatment project. The use of intelligent piping and instrumentation diagrams (iP&ID) can play a key role the digitalisation of design and construction process on water industry projects, as exemplified by the recent Oldham and Royton Integrated Strategy (ORIS) wastewater treatment project. Embedding digital tools during the capital delivery phase has the potential to yield legacy benefits later in the asset’s lifecycle. Overlaying the capital delivery and asset management spheres is important in a totex environment. A P&ID shows the piping and related components of a physical process flow – in the case of ORIS, a wastewater treatment process. They provide a schematic illustration of the functional relationship of piping, instrumentation and equipment components used for performance measurement, or functional control. P&ID’s functions include: • Designing a conceptual schematic representation of the WwTW • Evaluating construction interfaces and supplier scope boundaries • Forming recommendations for cost estimates, equipment and pipe design • A basis for the system control programming • A basis for operations and maintenance documentation • A basis for a Hazards in Operation (HAZOP) Study • Providing a common language for discussing plant functionality Black & Veatch’s Information Management and Analytics team has extended P&IDs’ potential by configuring exclusive software to enhance functionality. The software – compatible with standard design tools such as OpenPlant – facilitates the creation of schedules populated with equipment information that can be used to expedite commissioning activities, as well as generate asset inventories, as extensions of the P&ID. Using Excel as part of the user interface enables data from virtually any source – clients, suppliers, subcontractors and other Black & Veatch professionals – to be incorporated into the iP&ID’s database. For example, details such as physical size, connection flange, power rating, flow capacity, part number, cost and manufacturer for each pump in the treatment process can be stored in the P&ID database. The synchronisation of the database and the P&ID software makes the asset identification tag the common link between the two, relating asset information directly to the diagram symbol. These intelligent P&IDs (iP&ID) allow the extrapolation of a BIM environment 3D model with 4D (time) and 5D (financial, such bas unit costs) data. This functionality sources data from a common database, ensuring that throughout an asset’s lifecycle, the data is relative, current and available from a live, single version of the truth. Figure 1: iP&ID application showing the Interstage Pumping Station, with open information box showing a section of the asset attribution for one of the electromagnetic flow meters Page 13
  14. 14. The project United Utilities’ Oldham wastewater treatment works (WwTW) and Royton WwTW are major wastewater treatment facilities in Oldham, northeast of Manchester. The Oldham and Royton Integrated Strategy (ORIS) project will combine the functions of both sites into a single, integrated solution, meeting both wastewater treatment and wastewater network drivers. The project requires the decommissioning of Royton WwTW and creating a 4.2km sewer to transfer flows formerly treated at Royton to Oldham WwTW. The Oldham works will be expanded to manage the increased capacity and the standard of treatment increased to meet new discharge consents. Stormwater storage capacity at both sites will be expanded, so excess flows can be retained and released for treatment when capacity at Oldham WwTW allows. The main design/build contract was awarded to Black & Veatch in Spring 2015, with a project approved budget of £78.2 million. The existing Oldham WwTW treats a population equivalent (PE) of 157,000, and Royton treats a PE of 28,000. Both works discharge into the tributaries of the River Irk. The ORIS project will ensure compliance with two new requirements: Oldham WwTW Freshwater Fish Directive – a higher final effluent consent of 6 mg/l BOD and 1mg/l ammonia; and Oldham and Royton Storm Tank UIDs – both WwTWs storm discharges were deemed to be unsatisfactory intermittent discharges (UID). Black & Veatch is delivering ORIS using a BS1192 configured Common Data Environment (CDE) – Bentley ProjectWise. Non-graphical asset data is being presented and managed through the use of the company’s iP&ID software operating with Bentley OpenPlant. Tag and data synchronisation Black & Veatch has reconfigured the standard software functionality and is using it to allow asset tagging and asset data to be synchronised with the information on the P&ID, and held in a common database. The intelligent link between the non-graphical asset data and the P&ID means that a change in one will be updated in the other. This creates a common single source of project information, so any inconsistencies between schematic and database information are flagged as errors to be addressed – using the tag as the intelligent link. This is the first large-scale project to benefit from an intelligent link between asset information and schematic representation. The benefit is that no asset can be added or removed from either the P&ID or schedule without flagging an inconsistency. Multiple changes are highlighted quickly and automatically and removes traditional long hand paper checking tasks. This saves time, reduces errors and prevents excessive or under procurement of items. The company is using its iP&ID Data Exchange system to manage and manipulate the asset data into equipment schedules for procurement. The intelligent link gave confidence that the schedules accurately transposed the requirements as set out on the P&ID, and allowed schedules to be generated more quickly that using a traditional approach. Valve and instrument schedules are generated from the database. The data needed for procurement is inputted via Excel. This ensures all supplier asset information is stored in one place and one format rather than in multiple places and multiple formats. We are also using this database information to automat- ically pre-populate commissioning sheets stored in our Common Data Environment, saving significant data entry time and maintaining one version of source data. Creating this “single source of the truth” will have benefits that extend beyond the capital delivery phase of the project. The as-built 3D model and iP&ID database will form key components of the client’s as-built asset information model. This will mean, for example, that United Utilities will receive a master asset management schedule as part of the handover process. As such, the use of iP&IDs is the first step in the creation of a single source of asset information for the wastewater treatment infrastructure created by the ORIS project, which can be drawn upon and updated throughout the asset’s operational life. LG Sonic Takes Water Quality Monitoring To A Next Level LG Sonic is working on the development of a new solution to monitor water quality at different depths in a water body, called MPC-Lab. The system will communicate with MPC-View, a user-friendly cloud software that stores and analyses all received water quality data. The development of the MPC-Lab highlights LG Sonic’s approach to the water industry market, offering innovative solutions that use water quality data and environmentally friendly technologies to provide a complete solution. In 2014, LG Sonic introduced the MPC-Buoy, a unique solution for controlling algae in large water reservoirs in an environmentally friendly way by combining water quality data and LG Sonic ultrasound technology. With the MPC-Buoy, LG Sonic received different innovation awards, like the AquaTech Innovation Award and Shell LiveWIRE Award. Measuring Water Quality At Different Depths LG Sonic MPC-Lab will combine the most innovate methods to monitor water quality. MPC-Lab can be pre-set to take samples from different depths in a water body and measure any parameters on the platform. For data transmission with the MPC-View water quality software, the system will use GPRS, 3G, or satellite. MPC-View water quality software allows the customer to find an overview of the water quality of one or multiple water bodies. The software provides real-time insights into water quality and allows users to set up specific alarms to inform about changing parameters or maintenance activities. In addition, LG Sonic will make use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to further develop the software algorithm which will make it possible to predict algal blooms based on water quality data automatically. From Chlorophyll A To PO4 (Phosphate) To offer a complete overview of the water quality, MPC-lab will monitor the following parameters, PO4 (Phosphate), NO3 (Nitrate), NH4 (Ammonium), Chlorophyll a, and COD (Chemical oxygen demand) etc. The water quality sensors are equipped with a wiper mechanism for automatic cleaning of the sensors after each reading, keeping the maintenance to a minimum and the readings accurate. Page 14
  15. 15. Article: Resilient Data Communications Support Reliable Flood Protection In Switzerland Extreme weather is becoming increasingly common throughout the world, making flooding a growing threat. Flood defence measures have traditionally been based on mechanical equipment , but innovative automation technology can now be used to provide greater protection for people and the local environment. AWA - the Office for Water and Waste in the Swiss canton of Berne - is using this latest technology to regulate water levels at the region’s Brienzersee, Thuner and Bielersee lakes, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. “Water level regulation must protect people from flooding and prevent damage - ideally in an economically justifiable way,” said Dr Bernhard Wehren, head of maritime regulation at AWA. “Some of our important control operations are particularly time-critical, but until recently, we relied on dataloggers that only sent the different measurements we require every few hours or so. Now, thanks to the new state-of-the-art technology we have implemented, this happens in real time. It is therefore very important that the data communications technology supports this by reliably meeting all the challenges and requirements of our unique mission-critical communications infrastructure.” Modernising facilities To help provide the most reliable flood protection, AWA decided to modernise its water regulation facilities for the lakes, encompassing four historic locks, the large Port of Bruggweir and accompanying hydropower plant, and a flood relief tunnel. Due to the increasing demand for the availability of more data, AWA also decided to upgrade all the measurement stations with state-of-the-art technology. The measurement stations play a crucial role in regulating water levels in the lakes. When developing a plan to modernise the equipment, great attention was paid to both operational safety and system redundancy. There was a need to address the obsolete electrical engineering at Port of Brugg. This would include the conversion of all existing drives and the renewal of the energy supply, a large part of the cabling and the control and monitoring elements for the five weirs. Regulation and control technology also needed attention. Not only was there a need for redundancy in the event of a device failure or a line interruption, but also in case of communication disruptions, such as interruptions to the internet connection. BKW Energie AG was appointed as the technical service provider and after a thorough review of suitable data communications technology companies, they chose Westermo to provide its robust networking solutions for the project. Fast communication performance “Crucial to the selection of Westermo was that their products met our high standards and requirements for the project. This included fast communication performance, multiple routing ports per device, high MTBF periods, extended temperature ranges and very low power consumption,” said Rénald Marmet, project engineer at BKW Energie. “Another factor was the operation and parameterisation of the networking hardware via the WeOS operating system. Also, the extremely efficient and time-saving update capability provided by the WeConfig network management software, which enables the central configuration and management of all Westermo devices.” The main control network incorporates the AWA control centre in the capital, Berne,and further control centres at the water locks, Thun and Interlaken, each with one SCADA server and redundant controller. The control centres connect to 29 substations (measuring points). Eight SCADA clients access these servers. There is also a SCADA server located in the hydropower plant, providing BKW employees with access. The hydropower plant part is monitored by the BKW control centre in Mühleberg. Westermo networking technology allows all data to be transferred in real-time between the participating sites. Should an emergency arise, this enables those responsible to take the appropriate measures immediately to ensure the best possible protection against flooding. Also, maintenance and software updates for all the installed Westermo networking devices can be performed easily and quickly with just a few mouse clicks. In total, Westermo provided thirty of its RFIR-227 Industrial Routing Switches, twenty-seven VDSL Routers, twenty-fiveMRD-4554G Mobile Routers, thirty-five Lynx 210-F2G Managed Ethernet Switches with Routing Capability, thirty-six L110-F2G Industrial Layer -2 Ethernet Switches, and over eighty 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps SFP fibre optic transceivers via multimode and single-mode fibre for distances up to 80km. Greater network redundancy The three control centres all have two firewall routers connecting them to the internet providers and enabling them to receive or set up the IPsec and OpenVPN tunnels. There are also two redundant Siemens Simatic S7-400controllers installed in a demilitarized zone (DMZ) and a WinCC SCADA server connected to the local network. The AWA SCADA station has the same design, but without the control functionality. BKW took care not only to create network redundancy, but also to set up redundant routes to the internet providers. The VDSL routers use the service provider Swisscom, and the MRD-455 4G mobile radio routers are equipped with SIM-cards from Sunrise. The heart of the main network - the three control centres and the AWA control centre- are linked by IPsec-VPN Tunnels and Generic Routing Encapsulation(GRE) and form the automation backbone via Open Shortest Path First(OSPF) technology. Page 15
  16. 16. The result of this is that even should there be simultaneous connection failure to an internet provider in one location and the other provider at another station, or the total failure of one provider, communication between all centres, the connected remote stations and the remote access by BKW or AWA is still possible. For increased safety, the external zones are segmented further. The service technicians can connect to the control centres through an OpenVPN tunnel and have access to all measuring stations on the network. There are two different types of measuring stations. The high availability station consists of two completely separate networks. Each PLC is installed ‘behind’ a Westermo Lynx 210 device, which acts as a firewall and establishes the connection to the control centre via an OpenVPN tunnel. The redundant internet access is provided either via a VDSL router, which is connected to Swisscom, or a MRD-455 with Sunrise as the provider. A ‘standard’ station has only one PLC with a Lynx 210 acting as a firewall router and building the VPN tunnels in parallel via the two internet routers. Security requirements As well as network redundancy, security was also part of the requirements to guarantee high communication availability. The network implemented by BKW and Westermo provides the necessary security in accordance with recommendations found in the BDEW whitepaper and IEC-62443 standard. The outstations not only form their own zone, but other areas are also segmented where necessary. The network for the SCADA servers in the control centres is also decoupled from the backbone using two VRRP routers. The flood defence system now has one of the most modern data communication systems in Switzerland. Explaining why this is so important to AWA, Dr Bernhard Wehren said: “Protection against flooding must be guaranteed at all times. Depending on the meteorological or hydrological situation, the availability of the required measured values is critical. Because access to the measuring stations in the extensive regions of the canton is generally very time-consuming, network device failures and communication interruption must be kept to a minimum. It is therefore extremely important that all components of our communication systems meet the highest standards, offer extreme reliability and can be upgraded to meet new requirements.” “We were able to simplify processes, make them secure, redundant and transparent for the engineering department via VPN connections. This contributes significantly to the simple, safe and efficient maintenance of the system,” Rénald Marmet said. “Thanks to the extensive cooperation with Westermo network engineers, we were able to create the ideal solution that meets all requirements and was delivered on time. Westermo’s reliable networking technologies have given AWA and BKW the opportunity to build individual data communication solutions for critical industrial applications, while providing scalable, future-proof applications. The solution also offers all involved a high degree of investment security.” Loggers In Lebanon EBML, the water authority of Beirut and Mount Lebanon, has installed i2O’s dNet solution to gain detailed insight into the performance and condition of its water network. Water demand is soaring in the Lebanese capital due to a growing population. A consistent all year round supply of fresh water is also a challenge because of low rainfall levels. EBML has been working with engineering integration firm AutomatiX to install i2O’s data loggers across its water network in Beirut to record detailed data relating to water demand, flow, pressure , asset condition and transients. Encrypted data is then communicated securely over the mobile phone network so that it can be integrated with EBML’s SCADA system, analysed using i2O software and used to inform decision making. Imad Maalouf, General Manager at AutomatiX Group, comments: “EBML needed accurate and reliable data to inform decision making and i2O’s dNet solution was the perfect fit for its needs. dNet provides the data logging and visualisation functionality EBML requires and i2O’s loggers are easy to install and integrate with existing systems. We hope to use its solutions more widely in Lebanon and throughout the Middle East.” Joel Hagan, CEO of i2O, comments: “EBML, like many water companies, faces challenges around population growth, urbanisation and water scarcity that place huge strain on its water supply and distribution networks. We are pleased to be working with AutomatiX and proud that our solutions will provide the accurate view of network performance EBML needs to cut leakage, reduce bursts and improve the supply of water to customers in Beirut.” Page 16
  17. 17. Article: Bluetooth – back to the future? With the launch of a number of devices across the industry, is the process industry ready for instrument adjustment and diagnosis with Smartphones or Tablets? Wireless communication for industrial field transmitters has been a popular topic over recent years, with as many pro’s and cons as there are standards. But what about using an accessible and simple means of instrument set up and operation using a smartphone or tablet? Bluetooth has been a familiar feature in our everyday lives for many years now. For instance, every modern car has hands-free phone and music, keyboards and mice, remote controls, televisions and portable speaker systems in our homes are all using this communication protocol to increase safety and provide convenience. It’s secure too, every day, in shops and restaurants, we put debit and credit cards into wireless payment terminals that use Bluetooth communication for securely transmitting sensitive financial information. Now it is beginning to find its way into the process industry. This technology has the potential to configure, adjust, analyse and retrieve data in sensors from a safe distance using every day devices, whether they are supplied by the company or the users ‘own’. ‘Bring Your Own Device’ (BYOD) is becoming a more familiar term in our language, not just at the ‘hi-tech’ companies. In industry it is emerging and already available on products like data loggers, controllers, analytical systems and valve positioners, now it is also being introduced to field transmitters for set up, monitoring and asset management. This is facilitated by the development and implementation of Bluetooth 4.0, which is now low power enough to be used on ‘loop powered’ field based sensors. What is Bluetooth & where did it come from? Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz[3]) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. The development of the “short-link” radio technology, later named Bluetooth, was initiated in 1989 by Nils Rydbeck, CTO at Ericsson Mobile in Lund, Sweden, and by Johan Ullman. The purpose was to develop wireless headsets, according to two inventions by Johan Ullman, SE 8902098-6, issued 1989-06-12 and SE 9202239, issued 1992-07-24. Nils Rydbeck tasked Tord Wingren with specifying and Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson with developing. Both were working for Ericsson in Lund.[8] The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology. Bluetooth operates at frequencies between 2402 and 2480 MHz, or 2400 and 2483.5 MHz including guard bands 2 MHz wide at the bottom end and 3.5 MHz wide at the top. This is in the globally unlicensed (but not unregulated) industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum. Bluetooth divides transmitted data into packets, and transmits each packet on one of 79 designated Bluetooth channels. Each channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. It usually performs 800 hops per second, with Adaptive Frequency-Hopping (AFH) enabled. Bluetooth Low Energy uses 2 MHz spacing, which accommodates 40 channels. The current specification for Bluetooth which is Bluetooth 4.0 includes Bluetooth Low Energy and was adopted in 2010 and was previously known as previously known as Wibree, is a subset of Bluetooth v4.0 with an entirely new protocol stack for rapid build-up of simple links. As an alternative to the Bluetooth standard protocols that were introduced in Bluetooth v1.0 to v3.0, it is aimed at very low power applications running off a coin cell. Chip designs allow for two types of implementation, dual-mode, single-mode and enhanced past versions. The provisional names Wibree and Bluetooth ULP (Ultra Low Power) were abandoned and the BLE name was used for a while. In late 2011, new logos “Bluetooth Smart Ready” for hosts and “Bluetooth Smart” for sensors were introduced as the general-public face of BLE. Compared to Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy is intended to provide considerably reduced power consumption and cost while maintaining a similar communication range. In terms of lengthening the battery life of Bluetooth devices, BLE represents a significant progression. This has been further developed when Bluetooth 5.0 came out in 2016 with new features that were mainly focused on emerging Internet of Things technology. Bluetooth 5 provides, for BLE, options that can double the speed (2 Mbit/s burst) at the expense of range, or up to fourfold the range at the expense of data rate, and eightfold the data broadcasting capacity of transmissions, by increasing the packet lengths. The increase in transmissions could be important for Internet of Things devices, where many nodes connect throughout a whole house. Bluetooth 5 adds functionality for connectionless services such as location-relevant navigation of low-energy Bluetooth connection Security? One of the most worrying points with any remote communication method is the question “is it secure?” This is probably the first and foremost question. Bluetooth communications are founded on three procedures: Authentication & Authorization - This is the process of determining who is at the other end of a Bluetooth link and if their device should have access to yours. Encryption & Data Protection - Bluetooth encrypts your data (128 bit) and only allows approved devices to decrypt it, making it much more difficult to for unauthorized users to capture and decipher your information. Privacy & Confidentiality - In addition to encrypting the data being transmitted, the latest Bluetooth 4.0 also makes it possible to encrypt the address of the Bluetooth device itself Working with Bluetooth at a plant level Heat, dirt, noise, dust or gases (or even just horrible weather!) are just some of the hazards to personnel out in the process plant. Bluetooth 4.0 has a range typically around 25m, further, (50m+) in clear areas, enabling devices to be accessed and operated from a more secure, sheltered position. Another reason can be the location or position of the device itself, this can avoid prolonged awkward working positions, working at heights or even reduced exposure Page 17
  18. 18. risk to harsh toxic chemicals. These challenges all offer strong safety and productivity benefits to the user. It also offers a more practical way of interacting with the instrumentation itself as where some remote communication isn’t utilised then access to the instrument or controller itsef is essential necessitating in some cases platforms for access to the instrumentation itself on a regular basis resulting in much large installation costs. This can particularly be the case in hazardous areas such as digester compounds. Smart phones and tablets with Hazardous Area cases and approvals are also becoming both more commonplace and affordable. Up until now, any sensor requiring set up in a hazardous area needs either key pads on or adjacent to the transmitter, via specialist communicator devices, or it can be done via remote communication methods such as HART protocol, with typically a hand-held terminal or PC. But this is not always practical, it requires opening of housings, connection into junction boxes or cabinets (with associated time consuming ‘Hot work permits’), and the communication speeds can sometimes be slow. As Bluetooth carries no energy in itself, as long as the communication devices at each end (e.g. sensor and smart phone) are appropriately protected and certified, there is no compromising of the hazardous area. Alternatively, with a 25m+ range, the Smartphone can also be used from a place of designated safety. Back to the future! As Bluetooth technology has developed since its inception in 1994 the technology has become more and more available to a much wider variety of industries changing from its original use to develop wireless headsets to its application in process industries. This has been done by the incremental development of the technology and its various iterations with Bluetooth 4.0 in 2010 making it widely available to the process industries. With the further development of Bluetooth 5.0 and the thoughts of it being used as part of the Internet of Things the use of Bluetooth on the process plant level for instrumentation communication and adjustment has become much more accessible and simplifies instrumentation interaction on sites. This not only addresses problems with instrumentation communication which could be a challenge but can also reduce costs in installation and health and safety risks in areas were accesability is an issue. One of the companies that have led this is Vega Controls whose devices now come with Bluetooth. Their radar sensors for the Water Industry have Bluetooth as a standard and their VEGA PLICSCOM universal display and adjustment module now has a Bluetooth and ATEX certified version. This is secure and encrypted, on/off switchable communication for both Android/IOS smartphone/tablet set up and diagnosis. Amazingly, it is also fully backward compatible with all plics® level and pressure transmitters manufactured since 2002, it can be easily retrofitted without any software update. There is also a Bluetooth dongle for PC connection via FDT/DTM / PACTware. These options offer a great opportunity for existing users to try out the future today. The use of tablets with an application basis are becoming more common in the Water Industry thanks to the use of Bluetooth Accessability can be an issue that is addressed by the utilisation of Bluetooth technology About the Author Doug Anderson is a specialist with 25 years experience in the Industry. He is the Marketing Manager for UK territory of VEGA Industrial Instrumentation products. He is responsible for product launches, planning and execution of all types of events, seminars and campaigns, along with internet marketing, SEO, blogging, experienced in technical writing, PR and publishing for both printed and e-media, content writing and publishing, customer training and seminars. VEGA is a global manufacturer of process instrumentation. Its product portfolio includes level measurement sensors, point level switches, pressure transmitters, and equipment and software for integration into process control systems. VEGA employs over 1,200 people worldwide, 600 of whom work at its headquarters in Schiltach in the Black Forest. This is where, for over 50 years now, solutions to demanding measuring tasks are being conceived and brought to realization: for chemical and pharmaceutical plants, the food industry, drinking water supply systems, sewage treatment plants, landfills, mining, power generation, oil platforms, ships and airplanes. Page 18
  19. 19. Focus On: Maintenance & Calibration in Wastewater Instrumentation When it comes to the maintenance and calibration of instruments in the wastewater industry there tends to be quite a bit of confusion as to what can be done, what should be done and what is actually done. A lot of what is done within the Water Industry is very much dependent upon the instrument or sensor, its criti- cality to the process and the skills that are present within the industry. With the advent of the Digital or “Smart” Water Industry the accuracy of instrumentation is going to be come much more critical within the water industry and this will very much depend upon, at least partly, on the maintenance and calibration of the instrumentation that measures the state of the wastewater system. The fundamentals of instrumentation in the Wastewater Industry There are some fundamentals of instrumentation and sensing within the water industry that are specific to the industry and there are some fundamentals that are exactly the same. To understand all of this we need to understand the basic instrumentation chain and what affects can be seen within this chain that are specific to the wastewater industry. To understand this we need to take a look at the path of the data that an instrument collects and the journey that it takes from the media that it is measuring (usually wastewater or sludge) to the mimic in telemetry. In this journey that the data takes the first step is the measurement of the media itself and the very nature of the media that is being measured. In the wastewater this can be very variable with the media being measured full of rag, grit and faecal matter in the wastewater collection network or at the inlet of the treatment works to something that resembles tap water at the end of the process, to a gel like material in low solids sludges to powder-like substances with de-watered sludges. This is mainly the challenge of the instrumentation selection but once the correct instrument is in place it is a factor of the correct maintenance regime being followed to prevent fouling of the sensors themselves and erroneous measurement readings. The variability and fouling potential of sensors makes their measurement a challenge and in measuring wastewater the “sampling” and application of the sensor makes it vital, particular care needs to be taken in this “sampling element” Outside of these particular challenges the number of instruments across a wide range of site types, processes and geographical regions makes managing the instrumentation asset base a logistical challenge. Within the UK Wastewater Industry alone there are hundreds of thousands of instruments monitoring over 10,000 wastewater treatment works and many more pumping stations. This necessitates the maintenance and calibration of wastewater instrumentation to be managed on an asset base approach. Outside of this approach there are similarities between the wastewater industry and other industries that use instrumentation the only exception being the number of plants across wide geographic regions. The similarities do exist insofar as the communication of data from the instrument to the telemetry system for display. Within the wastewater industry the majority of communication is still using 4-20mA analogue loops. These rely on the instrument having a scale set within them and outputting an electrical signal between 4mA (usually the zero point of measurement) to 20mA (the maximum measurement that the instrument is set to measure. This electrical signal travels from the instrument through an outstation where is transmitted to the centralised operational control centre to the data historian and the visualisation system where the electrical signal is converted back into a numeric measurement using the scale within the telemetry system. Although the majority of signals are transmitted in this way it is not all inclusive and some signals are transmitted by GSM/GPRS and some are transmitted by radio-link. What is necessary is to check that all the way through the system that what is being measured on site is being measured correctly and that measurement is being transmitted so that no errors in the transmission create a false result. This starts with ensuring that the instrument is recording correctly and is calibrated So what is Calibration? This is where confusion usually creeps in as there are such things as dry calibration, wet calibration and verification. So let’s go to the basic principles of what calibration actually is. Calibration is a comparison between the reading of a device and that of a standard. The process which establishes this relationship is a set of interrelated measurements and operations which provide the comparison. Flow measurement does not rely on a single operation and so neither does a flow based calibration. You would be right if you thought that this definition is pretty incomprehensible but basically it is the comparison of what we measure whether it be in the laboratory or in the field and a known traceable standard. However this is not the whole story as a calibration is not an absolute operation. It is a comparison between the measuring instrument, in this case the instrument, and the standard. Through this comparison, a relationship between the quantity measured by the device under test and the measurement of the same quantity derived from the standard is established. This is expressed in some way which gives a meaningful expectation of how the device will perform in use. When the relationship is established this can be programmed into the instrument and the accuracy of the instrument is established. However with any measurement instrument the accuracy is important but so is the repeatability. To obtain confidence in a measurement it is expected that the measurement should be able to be repeated and give the same result. In practice measurements only repeat to within a certain band over a short time and a (probably) wider band over a long time period or under different circumstances. It is generally expected that a calibration should give some indication of the repeatability of an instrument; however it is not likely that one calibration will show the reproducibility. Repeated calibration Page 19
  20. 20. may of course be carried out perhaps over many years to show this parameter. That’s what it is technically but in the real world of the treatment works what does this look like in practice? Well, it very much depends upon the instrument that is being used and how it is treated and what its criticality is. Taking an example of a flow measurement system which is regulated and comprises a flume and level based measurement device. Typically the flume would need to be kept clean of any debris, it would need to be installed so that it is free discharging and the level based device would need to be accurately measuring the level. To calibrate the system the flme dimensions would need to be measured and checked against a standard flume of its particular size. This is a calibration as it is being checked against an ideal standard. The ultrasonic level meter would also need to be checked against some sort of reference level device that in turn is calibrated, typically this is a engineer’s level device. If I were to stick a steel rule into the flume (whilst not disturbing the flow) this would be a verification not a calibration as the rule is not a traceable measurement. Staying with the subject of flow and moving onto electro-magnetic flow meters the verification of the device has got to a point where it can be achieved electronically to check that the instrument is recording correctly. With this type of instrument the device is calibrated in a traceable manner when it is built in the factory and this is compared to a standard. Built into the electronics is a verification system that allows the function of the device to be check either using an external device or internally within the device itself. This is an electronic verification and checks whether the instrument is recording correctly. What it does not check is the flow measurement system which includes the pipe itself and the state that the pipe is in. This is sometimes known as secondary verification although if a traceable method is used it is in essence a calibration albeit no instrumentation settings are necessarily changed. This is particularly important in terms of maintenance & calibration as fouling within the measurement system can cause a large amount of error to develop over time. Verification, although it is not calibration still has a very useful place within the Water Industry. There has been a lot of product specific verification methods unique to individual supply companies there is a move in the Water Industry to better use the HART protocol. It is something that has been around for many years within the Water Industry and has been the fundamental basis of some of the industry verification tools but it has a tendency to be very much under utilised in the installed asset base of a number of the water companies. The HART Communication Protocol (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) is a hybrid analog+digital industrial automation protocol. Its most notable advantage is that it can communicate over legacy 4–20 mA analog instrumentation current loops, sharing the pair of wires used by the analog only host systems. According to Emerson, due to the huge installed base of 4–20 mA systems throughout the world, the HART Protocol is one of the most popular industrial protocols today. HART protocol has made a good transition protocol for users who wished to use the legacy 4–20 mA signals, but wanted to implement a “smart” protocol. The protocol was developed by Rosemount Inc., built off the Bell 202 early communications standard in the mid-1980s as a proprietary digital communication protocol for their smart field instruments. Soon it evolved into HART and in 1986 it was made an open protocol. Since then, the capabilities of the protocol have been enhanced by successive revisions to the specification. Basically it can be used to monitor the health of an instrument, in this way by tracking the deterioration of the instrument through successive downloads of the instrument parameters can show deterioration in the measurement. It is one of the options When it comes to quality instruments, there is another group of instruments that self-calibrate by running a calibration sequence within their normal operation. This is simply done by using a traceable calibration solution and depending upon the result that is acheived changes being made to the readings automatically. This is only part of the story though checking that the instrument that is doing the monitoring is working correctly which can be checked using verification methods and that what the instrument is measuring is representative and traceable as checked by calibrating it against a traceable calibration source. This is only part of the story however as once the measurement of the medium has been checked that it is working correctly the transmission of this data has to be checked as accurate. As inaccuracies of the data transmission can counteract the accuracy of the instrument itself. But surely this is just a factor of making sure that the analogue loop is correct? Well, actually no it isn’t, firstly we need to understand what analogue loops are and how they work. In industrial process control, analog 4–20 mA current loops are commonly used for electronic signalling, with the two values of 4 & 20 mA representing 0–100% of the range of measurement or control. These loops are used both for carrying sensor information from field instrumentation, and carrying control signals to the process modulating devices, such as a valve. Field instrumentation measurements are such as pressure, temperature, level, flow, pH or other process variables. A current loop can also be used to control a valve positioner or other output actuator. Since input terminals of instruments may have one side of the current loop input tied to the chassis ground (earth), analog isolators may be required when connecting several instruments in series. The relationship between current value and process variable measurement is set by calibration, which assigns different ranges of engineering units to the span between 4 and 20 mA However is what is being outputted from the instrument and what is received at the transmission device the same or is there some interference that is suppressing the analogue output. So the first calibration of the analogue loop is to check whether the signal coming out of the instrument and being received at the outstation is the same. Page 20

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