Climate neutralcampus report_olgasafonova

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Climate neutralcampus report_olgasafonova

  1. 1.    How to make ASB Fuglesangs Allé a climate neutral campus? A report within Social Marketing subject          Olga Safonova, MSc. in MarketingAarhus School of Business, University of AarhusDecember 2008
  2. 2. Table of contents Introduction......................................................................................................................... 3Current situation on campus............................................................................................... 4Problem delimitation........................................................................................................... 5Theoretical framework ........................................................................................................ 6Change objectives ................................................................................................................ 6Target group ........................................................................................................................ 6BCOS model..........................................................................................................................7Competition ......................................................................................................................... 8Means of intervention.......................................................................................................... 9Progress measurement ....................................................................................................... 11Supplementary measures ................................................................................................... 11Conclusion ..........................................................................................................................12References...........................................................................................................................13Bibliography........................................................................................................................14Appendix 1. Interview with PhD. Researcher at MAPP Berit Kamp, conducted on 22ndof October 2008..................................................................................................................15Appendix 2. The questionnaire results ..............................................................................18 2
  3. 3. Introduction  The mission of Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University is to contribute addedvalue to the society through its primary activities - research, education and dialogue onthe creation and development of companies and organisations1. No doubts, ASB hasmade significant advances in many fields, providing business community with researchbased knowledge and well educated graduates, equipping the students with theknowledge that is relevant and required in the international labor market and fosteringfurther development opportunities for students, researchers and community as a whole.ASB is EQUIS accredited2 which makes it one of the best business schools worldwide.Currently ASB hosts more than 7000 students3, which makes it one of the Europeslargest educational institutions.Being such a large institution also makes ASB one of the entities, having significantimpact on the environment. This impact is produced both directly - through ASBseveryday operation activities and indirectly - through the activities initiated by itsstudents and employees. Keeping in mind ASBs mission is to contribute added value tothe society, it would be quite logical to assume that ASB should strive to minimize itsenvironmental impact.But does ASB really do that? Having carefully studied ASBs strategy for the next 4years, its mission and vision I could not find any mentioning of ASB policy regardingthis matter. Being a student at ASB myself, I hardly notice any communications fromthe administration to the students on this topic. Although there have been someactivities (for instance, launching educational programs such as BSc. program inBusiness Administration and Sustainability4 , Erhvervsøkonomi og erhvervsjura medfokus på miljø og bæredygtighed5 and Master i Energi og Miljø6;) and initiatives byASB employees (see for example transcript of the interview with PhD. ResearcherBerit Kamp, Appendix 1), there seem to be lack of attention to the question of theenvironmental impact from the top administration. 3
  4. 4. At the same time, environmental issues are being constantly raised in the public agenda,both worldwide and on the national level in Denmark. ASB itself is listed asparticipating in Climate initiative by Aarhus University. A range of campaigns iscurrently running in Denmark (for example, campaign "1 ton less"7 by the DanishMinistry of Climate and Energy). Denmark is also going to host UN Climate changeconference in Copenhagen in 20098.Current situation on campus A group of 4 students (ThuyTien Luong, Ana Mocanu, Rotem Avni and myself) hasconducted a preliminary research, which outlined several factors that need to beimproved to move ASB towards greater sustainability. These factors were presented inclass on October 21st, 2008 and include the following aspects: • Resources consumption (including energy, paper, and water); • Recycling practices – garbage sorting, waste reduction; • School procurement policies – agreements with service providers: catering, cleaning, green plants service, building and construction, etc.; • Encouraging students and staff to get more involved in the environmental issues.Later on we have created and sent out a questionnaire to find out the students attitudetowards the topic and particular behaviors performed by students. The results of thisquestionnaire (see Appendix 2) will be used as a starting point for my intervention.These results have demonstrated that generally students at ASB have a positive attitudetowards making ASB a sustainable campus; however, sometimes they do not have anopportunity to behave in a way, that would contribute into achieving this goal – forinstance, there is hardly any opportunity to separate the garbage for further recycling atASB. Also, some aspects can scarcely be controlled by the students. With respect to theefficient energy consumption, these are not the behaviors of the students, but thestructural conditions on campus that would allow saving the energy and/or using it in anefficient manner. Those structural conditions can be buildings insulation, overallbuildings design, the type of windows and doors, the heating equipment and its 4
  5. 5. regulation, the type of electrical equipment, lighting, etc.There is a tremendous knowledge and expertise base on how universities and othereducational institutions worldwide cope with the challenge of minimizing theirenvironmental impact. However, if the changes are to be made and success is to beachieved, the main aspect is an organization-wide commitment to the problem.Problem delimitation In my report I would concentrate primarily on upstream activities. Upstreaminterventions are aimed at structural changes. Donovan and Henley (2003) defineupstream approach as an approach that “addresses the preventive measures that can beput in place by agencies and organizations that will bring about desired individualbehavior, sometimes without the individual conscious volition”. Andreasen (2006)argues that upstream approach is often more efficient than downstream. Thøgersen andÖlander (1995) emphasize the importance of structural conditions as an ‘objectivepreconditions for behavior’. However, in order to really bring the change about and toreduce the environmental impact created by ASB, a holistic (i.e. both upstream anddownstream) approach is necessary. Therefore, in the last chapter of my report I willmention some supplementary downstream measures that would be compatible with theproposed intervention.A note of caution has to be made regarding the results of the questionnaire: due to therelatively small sample and time constrains, the generalizations of the results to thewhole population (i.e. all of the ASB students) can hardly be made. However, solely forthe purpose of this report, it is assumed that the majority of ASB students would expresssimilar attitudes, should they have a possibility to participate in the survey. Anotherissue to be mentioned is that due to the nature of some questions, the answers can bebiased. Individuals tend to picture themselves as always complying with socially desiredbehavior (Schwarz & Oyserman, 2001). 5
  6. 6. Theoretical framework To initiate a positive change and to persuade people in charge (in our case, ASB topmanagement) to pay more attention to the subject of making ASB Fuglesangs Allé aclimate neutral campus, a targeted approach should be applied. Stages of Change model(Prochaska et al., 2002; Andreasen 2006) will be used as a theoretical framework toaddress the problem. The target audience for the present intervention will need to besegmented into supporters, opponents and “undecideds” (Andreasen, 2006). After that,BCOS (Benefits, Costs, Others and Self-assurance issues) model will be applied andpotential competition will be outlined.Change objectives The specific change objective is the degree of attention given to environmental andclimate issues by ASB administration. In other words, the aim is to move the issue upthe public, media and policy agendas (Andreasen, 2006) within the ASB. Survey hasrevealed that students are willing to behave in an environmentally friendly manner, butoften do not have an opportunity to do so. The ASB management has a power andauthority necessary to facilitate this opportunity and to influence the situation oncampus. ASB administrations actions would be more efficient and effective.Target group The primary target group for this intervention is therefore ASB top management,including Dean, Academic Council, Advisory Boards and ASB Management. Thesecondary target groups are the students attending various educational programs, theresearchers, lecturers and other employees, working on campus.The primary target group can be partially attributed to precontempators and partially tocontemplators. The lack of attention to the practical environmental issues on campuscan be explained by the presence of precontemplators in the decision-makingauthorities. Other issues are considered by those precontemplators as more relevant, or 6
  7. 7. as having higher priority. At the same time, the launch of several educational programshaving a direct connection with the sustainability and environment, signals that thereare some persons in the top management who realize the importance of the problem andpromote it within the school’s policy.Thus, the supporters of the problem might be the professors, who will have to educatethe students in the newly launched programs; the researchers, which have a professionalinterest in the environmental issues; finally, some members of the advisory board mighthave a personal preference toward the issues of the environment and climate impact.The opponents are those individuals, who consider other topics to be more importantand therefore would be reluctant to put their attention to the problem of making ASB aclimate neutral campus. Also, when the budget has to be drawn up, the opponents mightwant a bigger “piece of pie” to be devoted to their particular projects and initiatives. Theymight therefore justify these projects as having a bigger importance and a higher priorityfor ASB.Besides, there might be “undecideds”, who neither for nor against the environmentalissues at ASB.BCOS model After the set of target candidates is identified, Andreasen (2006) recommends findingpossible points of influence. That can be done with help of BCOS model.So now the challenge is to frame and present an issue in a way that the benefits of thepositive change will be higher than the costs; the target audience has also to bepersuaded that it is actually possible for them to make a change (self-assurance issues)and that others involved in the change may facilitate it.The benefits of making ASB Fuglesangs Allé a climate neutral campus, as they should 7
  8. 8. be communicated upstream, include several aspects. Firstly, a positioning of ASB as asustainable campus would enhance its image, both among current and potentialstakeholders. Secondly, the implementation of certain initiatives (for example, ensuringproper buildings insulation) would allow ASB to save significant amount on operationalcosts and thus increase its operational efficiency. Thirdly, ASB would be able to serve asa concrete real-life example and a material for case-studies, which could then be used inall the newly launched educational programs connected to the environment andsustainability.The costs of making ASB a climate neutral campus can include the development andlaunch of initial policies and initiatives. Another aspect is setting up the budget andplanning of the campaigns. The lack of experience might also be perceived as a cost.The next factor of BCOS model, others, can include allies who would be able to helpASB to become more climate neutral campus. Those might be companies, who either tryto present themselves as socially responsible organizations, or whose business is, forexample, the development and selling of the efficient energy consumptions solutions.The range of the companies is very wide – from building contractors and architects tohigh-tech engineering companies. Other educational institutions, both in Denmark andworldwide, can act as a facilitators, know-how providers or cooperation partners inbringing about the positive change at ASB. Besides, the sustainability enthusiasts and“green citizens” can have an impact as well – among those are some ASB students as wellas researchers with particular interest in and knowledge about environmental issues.Finally, self-assurance issues of BCOS model might involve small initiatives withinASB, as well as previous experience of bringing about the change on campus (notnecessarily in the field of environmental issues).Competition Every social marketing campaign or intervention faces a real competition. Suchcompetition may take the form of the organizations, entities or individuals, who is trying 8
  9. 9. to get their own behavior adopted. In other situations, it is just status quo that offers thetarget audience some important benefits, which they do not want to give up (Andreasen,2006).In the case of making ASB Fuglesangs Allé a climate neutral campus, a competition isgenerally those agents within ASB who pursue goals other than sustainabledevelopment. The members of ASB management who sees the aggressive growth ofASB as a preferable direction for the development, might be interested in spending thebudget on acquiring more buildings and getting more students enrolled, withoutthinking of the environmental impact this might cause.With respect to the resource usage, companies who make significant revenue on sellingthose resources to ASB might be competitors as well. Such companies are interested ingetting campus consume more rather than less. Stationary and electronic equipmentcompanies can be listed as example.Finally, individuals employed at ASB and students attending educational programs canbe resistant to change because they are perfectly fine with how the things work rightnow. They might not want to invest their time into learning new habits or changing theold habits. They also might resist to adopting the new routines – like, for instance,sorting out the garbage and bringing the paper garbage to the specially designated sites;lowering down the temperature at their offices to save the energy; reducing theirprintouts or switching off the electrical devices when they are not in use.Means of intervention Below I would like to suggest initial step of an upstream intervention in order to get ASBtop management to pay more attention to environmental issues on campus. The idea isto move the issue up the agenda within ASB. Andreasen (2006) pinpoints three agendasin which social problems can be addressed. First, there is a public agenda. This agendareflects what is important in general public’s perception. In the case of making ASBFuglesangs Allé a climate neutral campus the students and the employees at ASB can be 9
  10. 10. referred to as a public. Such delimitation is made since this particular topic may not beof interest to the more general public, say the entire population of Denmark. On theother hand, the students and employees at ASB are present on campus on day-to-daybasis and therefore the topic might be relevant for them.Second, a media agenda plays an important role in getting the attention to the issues ofsustainability. For ASB Fuglesangs Allé, media players operating within ASB will have tobe part of the intervention. Those media players are basically all online and offlinepublications, created at ASB and for ASB: Commerciel and Focus magazines issued byStudenterlauget, blogs at ASB, ASBYou social network, etc.Finally, the policy agenda can be affected by different “political” organizations at ASB.Those are Studenterlauget, the union of international students at ASB called ASBIS, thestudent unions for different educational programs, for instance MarS for Marketingstudents, Communis for Corporate Communication students, FIBU for Finance andInternational Business students, etc.The idea is to get in contact with all the agents that have a possibility to act on a media ora policy agenda. By highlighting the issue in the “local” ASB media and bringing it up inon the policy agenda, it would then be possible to attract the attention of the topmanagement to the problem of making ASB a climate neutral campus. As for the publicagenda, a very wide range of activities has to be done to bring the issue to the generalpublic attention. In our case, the initial step will be creating a group on the popularsocial media application Facebook. Why Facebook is chosen for this step? It isextremely popular service among students in general, and ASB students are notexclusion. Almost every student at ASB has a profile on Facebook and uses it on a dailybasis. Facebook became a means of communication among students, a means ofexpressing the attitudes and simply a life-streaming tool where people keep theirnetwork of friends updated on what is happening to them. Moreover, some features ofFacebook allow easily creating and disseminating the message among its users. It thuscan be used to reach the students who care about the environmental issues. It canprovide a way for people to act collectively to address social problems, a key component 10
  11. 11. of sustainability, and also engage in environmental activism.Progress measurement The process of moving the issue up the public, media and policy agendas can not happenovernight, because this process involves many different elements and the interactionsbetween those elements are complex. Nevertheless, the progress can and should bemeasured. The measures need to include the following: - controlling if the policy regarding environmental issues had been formulated and disseminated by ASB top management; - monitoring the media issued at ASB to get the track of the topic highlighted; - conducting yet another research (questionnaire) aimed to measure the opportunities to perform the environmentally friendly behavior (for example, recycling) as perceived by the students; - measuring students and employees awareness of the ASB environmental policy.In order to sustain intervention goals in the longer run, a working group dealingexclusively with this issue has to be created. This working group should design anddevelop concrete recommendations on how to reduce the impact of ASB on theenvironment. Cooperation with the public institutions involved in the environmentalissues on a higher level has to be established – for example, the Ministry of Climate andEnergy or the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. Partnering with theschools and Universities which are already pursuing climate neutrality can also bereinforcing for the goal of making ASB a sustainable, environmentally friendly campus.Supplementary measures In order for the intervention to have an effect, a supplementary measures need to beimplemented. These measures are downstream approach campaigns, teaching thestudents and employees concrete behaviors, for example where and how to recycle orhow to use fewer resources. In case of paper usage a solution can be teaching people toprint less out and do more on a computer. The library or lecturers at ASB maycontribute, for instance, by conducting seminars introducing best practices of note 11
  12. 12. taking on a computer.Campaigns on reducing CO2 emissions by following simple steps of turning down theheat in the offices or switching off the equipment consuming electricity, when theequipment is not in use, can also be introduced. The important issue in such type ofcampaigns is to demonstrate people how much they can actually reduce the CO2emissions by their own actions. The real numbers, showing the impact, the detailedfeedback and vivid visualization are powerful tools in persuasion (Thøgersen & Grønhøj,2008).Conclusion The present report has outlined the initial steps that need to be taken in order to makeASB Fuglesangs Allé a climate neutral campus. The upstream approach was chosen forthe intervention, since it is more efficient and effective. Stages of Change theory wasused to identify the target group and BCOS model was applied to define points ofinfluence within this target group. After that, possible competition was described. Theprocess of moving the issue of environmental impact up the public, media and policyagendas was suggested as a necessary tool to initiate the positive change at ASBFuglesangs Allé. Finally, means of progress measurement and supplementary measureswere suggested for the present intervention.I would like again to emphasize, that the steps described in the present report areneeded to initiate the process of change at ASB. In order to get the real results, a long-term commitment to the issue is necessary. A holistic approach to this problem has to beadopted. Significant amount of time and efforts has to be put into planning anddesigning the interventions (both upstream and downstream). 12
  13. 13. References  1. ASB Mission statement, retrieved 16th of December, 2008 from http://asb.dk/article.aspx?pid=4533,. 2. The European Quality Improvement System, retrieved 16th of December, 2008 from http://www.efmd.org/index.php/component/efmd/?cmsid=040929rpku 3. Facts about ASB, retrieved 16th of December, 2008 from http://asb.dk/article.aspx?pid=4523 4. The description of BSc in Business Administration and Sustainability educational program, retrieved 16th of December, 2008 from http://www.asb.dk/article.aspx?pid=17795 5. The description of educational program ’Erhvervsøkonomi og erhvervsjura med fokus på miljø og bæredygtighed’ , retrieved 16th of December, 2008 from http://asb.dk/article.aspx?pid=18120 6. The description of educational program ‘Master i Miljø- og Energiret’, retrieved 16th of December 2008 from http://www.asb.dk/article.aspx?pid=3095 7. A campaign by the Danish Ministry of the Climate and Energy on reducing CO2 emission, retrieved 16th of December 2008 from http://www.1tonmindre.dk/ 8. United Nations Climate Change Conference, Copenhagen 2009, retrieved 16th of December 2008 from http://www.cop15.dk 13
  14. 14. Bibliography Books:Andreasen, A. (2006). Social marketing in the 21st century: Sage.Donovan, R. J., & Henley, N. (2003). Social marketing: Principles and practice.Melbourne: IP Communications.Articles:Thørgersen, J., Ölander, F. (1995). Understanding of consumer behaviour as aprerequisite for environmental protection. Journal of Consumer Policy, 18, 345-385.Schwarz, N. & Oyserman, D. (2001). Asking questions about behaviour: Cognition,communication, and questionnaire construction. American Journal of Evaluation, 22,127-160.Prochaska, J. O., Redding, C. A., & Evers, K. E. (2002). The transtheoretical model andstages of change. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & F. M. Lewis (Eds.), Health behavior andhealth education: Theory, research, and practice (3rd Ed., pp. 99-120). San Francisco:Jossey-Bass.Sutton, S. (2005), "Stage theories of health behaviour," in Predicting health behaviour,2nd ed., Mark Conner and Paul Norman, Eds. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.Thøgersen, J., Grønhøj, A. (2008). Providing feedback as a means to empowerhouseholders to save electricity: A social cognitive approach. Conference paper. 29thInternational Congress of Psychology, Berlin Germany. 14
  15. 15. Appendix 1 Interview with PhD. Researcher at MAPP  Berit Kamp, conducted on 22nd of October 2008  1. Is there any way of measuring the school print-outs/ink? Measuring the school print-outs by the amount of paper loaded in the printers is difficult since as soon as the paper for each printer is finished the IT department just fill it up without controlling the number of papers. It is possible to do it, but still, nobody did it so far. Another way of measuring the print-outs is by following up with the students printing accounts. Nobody is doing it either and it only concerns the consumption of paper among the students. The ink consumption measurement was never considered. 2. Did the school do anything in order to reduce the no of printings? So far the school doesn’t do any thing in order to reduce the number of printings. It is only a matter of individual initiative, which is generally inconsistent in time. New politics and rules should be considered in this respect. 3. Are there any future projects focused on reducing print-outs/saving ink? There are no specific future projects focused on reducing print -outs or saving ink; only thoughts. 4. What are the methods used in saving energy/heating consumption in school at present? Are there any new ideas in the pipe for the future? In present, the methods used in order to save energy are the sensors located in each class, which turn off the lights automatically when there is no movement detected for a while in the class rooms. The lights turn on automatic when some one enters the class. ASB collaborates with some energy saving consultant. The analysis 15
  16. 16. handled so far proved that there are little amounts to be saved with the energy in thefuture; there is little to be done. But still they are first trying to get features(numbers) in order to have something consistent to rely on.In terms of saving the heating consumption, there were few tentative that failed inthe past, so that this issue stopped being of concern in any way for a while now. Atpresent it is more up to people and their initiative (teachers, PhD students, etc whohave their own office) to turn off the heating when leaving the room, or to keep it abit down when working there. There are some plans for the future. They are willingto start by mapping the heating consumption (numbers) in the buildings belongingthe Aarhus University and ASB. They consider trying to reduce the overalltemperature in the offices and classes by 2 – 3 degrees. There is also a plan to closethe heating at night in the areas which are not populated so much.5. Are there any plans regarding the garbage shorting for recycling in classes, cafeteria, and library? (glass, paper, plastic, batteries, metal, etc.)So far there are no plans regarding the garbage shorting. In the past the school triedto sort the garbage in the offices at the Statistics & Marketing department, but it wasa failure since the company that pick up the garbage throw it all in the same track.The plan for the future is to work on an agreement with both cleaning assistants andpeople in charge with picking up the garbage, in order to make the initiative ofsorting the garbage have sense and not being an action in vane.6. Are the catering and cleaning services outsourced?The cleaning services in ASB are outsourced; the cleaning company is called ESS.There is only some of the food served in the cafeterias which is outsourced. The restis cooked indoor.7. Is ASB considering serving any organic food in the near future?There are no future plans in terms of serving organic food in school.8. Are the chemicals used in ASB for cleaning environmentally friendly? 16
  17. 17. Most of the chemicals used in ASB have Eco-label. Still the strident color of the chemicals raises some suspicions concerning their real ecological character. 9. Is there any plan to have more plants in the school? Who is in charge for this? Is it an outsourced service? The services concerning watering the plants in the school are outsourced by BC Plantemiljø A/S. The plants might have also been bought from the same company, if not still belong to the company, it is not for sure. Though, they might be bought by ASB from them. 10. Is there any plan ahead to heave more students involved in “green environmental” activities? There are no plans ahead in order to have more students involved in the “Green Environment” activities. It is as well a matter of initiative among them. There seem to be some groups of voluntary students at Aarhus University concerned with the “Green Environment”. But there is nothing systematic or consistent in general. 11. Is there any cooperation with the school’s management regarding these projects? The management of each department of the school is more or less concerned about these aspects. There were no organized/centralized initiatives at these levels. 12. What departments are involved in making ASB a climate neutral campus? Little known about it since there is nothing organized in this direction but it is more up to individuals to act in a direction.  17
  18. 18. Appendix 2 The questionnaire results I print out the slides because it is easy to write notes on the slides during the lectures.Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (1) 6%3 (0) 0%4 (0) 0%5 (1) 6%6 (0) 0%7 (1) 6%8 (3) 19%9 (2) 12%Absolutely agree 10 (7) 44%Total of votes : 16I generally print more than one page per sheet.Absolutely disagree 1 (0) 0%2 (0) 0% 18
  19. 19. 3 (0) 0%4 (0) 0%5 (1) 6%6 (0) 0%7 (1) 6%8 (0) 0%9 (1) 6%Absolutely agree 10 (13) 81%Total of votes : 16I print out all the slides/ hand outs for my lectures.Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (1) 6%3 (0) 0%4 (0) 0%5 (3) 19%6 (2) 12%7 (2) 12% 19
  20. 20. 8 (3) 19%9 (0) 0%Absolutely agree 10 (4) 25%Total of votes : 16I try to reduce my print-outs, because I care about the environment.Absolutely disagree 1 (2) 12%2 (0) 0%3 (5) 31%4 (0) 0%5 (2) 12%6 (1) 6%7 (2) 12%8 (0) 0%9 (1) 6%Absolutely agree 10 (3) 19%Total of votes : 16I try to reduce my print-outs, because I do not like having too much paper at my place. 20
  21. 21. Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (2) 12%3 (3) 19%4 (1) 6%5 (0) 0%6 (2) 12%7 (1) 6%8 (0) 0%9 (1) 6%Absolutely agree 10 (5) 31%Total of votes : 16I try to reduce my print-outs, because it is expensive.Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (0) 0%3 (0) 0%4 (0) 0%5 (0) 0% 21
  22. 22. 6 (1) 6%7 (3) 19%8 (1) 6%9 (2) 12%Absolutely agree 10 (8) 50%Total of votes : 16I am willing to separate the paper and food waste when I am at ASB.Absolutely disagree 1 (0) 0%2 (1) 6%3 (0) 0%4 (0) 0%5 (0) 0%6 (1) 6%7 (1) 6%8 (2) 12%9 (3) 19%Absolutely agree 10 (8) 50%Total of votes : 16 22
  23. 23. ASB has a clear policy about recycling.Absolutely disagree 1 (7) 44%2 (2) 12%3 (1) 6%4 (0) 0%5 (6) 38%6 (0) 0%7 (0) 0%8 (0) 0%9 (0) 0%Absolutely agree 10 (0) 0%Total of votes : 16There are no opportunities to separate the garbage at ASB.Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (0) 0%3 (2) 12%4 (1) 23
  24. 24. 6%5 (5) 31%6 (0) 0%7 (0) 0%8 (1) 6%9 (2) 12%Absolutely agree 10 (4) 25%Total of votes : 16I usually separate the paper garbage when I am at ASBAbsolutely disagree 1 (6) 38%2 (1) 6%3 (1) 6%4 (2) 12%5 (2) 12%6 (1) 6%7 (0) 0%8 (1) 6%9 (1) 24
  25. 25. 6%Absolutely agree 10 (1) 6%Total of votes : 16There are trash bins meant especially for paper at suitable locations at ASB (library,computer rooms).Absolutely disagree 1 (4) 25%2 (1) 6%3 (0) 0%4 (1) 6%5 (4) 25%6 (0) 0%7 (1) 6%8 (1) 6%9 (2) 12%Absolutely agree 10 (2) 12%Total of votes : 16I always print out the compulsory reading materials (articles). 25
  26. 26. Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (0) 0%3 (1) 6%4 (1) 6%5 (1) 6%6 (2) 12%7 (0) 0%8 (3) 19%9 (4) 25%Absolutely agree 10 (3) 19%Total of votes : 16I am comfortable with taking the notes on my computer rather than on paper/print-outs.Absolutely disagree 1 (3) 19%2 (2) 12%3 (5) 31%4 (1) 6%5 (2) 26
  27. 27. 12%6 (0) 0%7 (0) 0%8 (1) 6%9 (1) 6%Absolutely agree 10 (1) 6%Total of votes : 16There are a lot of green plants at ASB.Absolutely disagree 1 (0) 0%2 (3) 19%3 (2) 12%4 (4) 25%5 (3) 19%6 (3) 19%7 (0) 0%8 (1) 6%9 (0) 0%Absolutely agree 10 (0) 27
  28. 28. 0%Total of votes : 16I can buy healthy food at ASB.Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (3) 19%3 (1) 6%4 (1) 6%5 (7) 44%6 (1) 6%7 (2) 12%8 (0) 0%9 (0) 0%Absolutely agree 10 (0) 0%Total of votes : 16Generally students at ASB care about the environment.Absolutely disagree 1 (0) 0%2 (1) 6%3 (2) 28
  29. 29. 12%4 (4) 25%5 (9) 56%6 (0) 0%7 (0) 0%8 (0) 0%9 (0) 0%Absolutely agree 10 (0) 0%Total of votes : 16I would like ASB to be more environmentally friendlyAbsolutely disagree 1 (0) 0%2 (0) 0%3 (0) 0%4 (0) 0%5 (4) 25%6 (1) 6%7 (3) 19%8 (3) 19%9 (1) 29
  30. 30. 6%Absolutely agree 10 (4) 25%Total of votes : 16I would like to be able to buy organic food at ASB.Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (1) 6%3 (3) 19%4 (0) 0%5 (4) 25%6 (1) 6%7 (1) 6%8 (2) 12%9 (0) 0%Absolutely agree 10 (3) 19%Total of votes : 16I, personally, can influence the situation at ASB with regards to environmental impact.Absolutely disagree 1 (0) 0%2 (0) 0% 30
  31. 31. 3 (1) 6%4 (2) 12%5 (3) 19%6 (3) 19%7 (1) 6%8 (1) 6%9 (2) 12%Absolutely agree 10 (3) 19%Total of votes : 16Generally students at ASB try to reduce their impact on the environment.Absolutely disagree 1 (0) 0%2 (3) 19%3 (3) 19%4 (1) 6%5 (5) 31%6 (1) 6%7 (2) 12%8 (1) 31
  32. 32. 6%9 (0) 0%Absolutely agree 10 (0) 0%Total of votes : 16I am interested in making ASB more sustainable campus.Absolutely disagree 1 (0) 0%2 (1) 6%3 (0) 0%4 (0) 0%5 (2) 12%6 (2) 12%7 (3) 19%8 (4) 25%9 (2) 12%Absolutely agree 10 (2) 12%Total of votes : 16ASB is an environmentally friendly institution.Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 32
  33. 33. 6%2 (0) 0%3 (1) 6%4 (6) 38%5 (4) 25%6 (1) 6%7 (2) 12%8 (0) 0%9 (1) 6%Absolutely agree 10 (0) 0%Total of votes : 16I would like to contribute into making ASB more environmentally friendly.Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (1) 6%3 (0) 0%4 (0) 0%5 (4) 25%6 (1) 33
  34. 34. 6%7 (3) 19%8 (3) 19%9 (1) 6%Absolutely agree 10 (2) 12%Total of votes : 16ASB administration makes an effort to be a sustainable campus.Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (2) 12%3 (3) 19%4 (1) 6%5 (5) 31%6 (0) 0%7 (2) 12%8 (0) 0%9 (1) 6%Absolutely agree 10 (1) 6%Total of votes : 16 34
  35. 35. ASB issues too many printing materials (magazines, brochures on study programs,etc.)Absolutely disagree 1 (1) 6%2 (0) 0%3 (1) 6%4 (2) 12%5 (2) 12%6 (0) 0%7 (2) 12%8 (3) 19%9 (1) 6%Absolutely agree 10 (4) 25%Total of votes : 16I prefer to get information from ASB via online channels rather than on paper.Absolutely disagree 1 (0) 0%2 (0) 0%3 (0) 35
  36. 36. 0%4 (0) 0%5 (1) 6%6 (1) 6%7 (1) 6%8 (6) 38%9 (3) 19%Absolutely agree 10 (4) 25%Total of votes : 16I generally print all the slides/ hand outs in school.Absolutely disagree 1 (2) 12%2 (1) 6%3 (2) 12%4 (0) 0%5 (0) 0%6 (1) 6%7 (4) 25%8 (2) 36
  37. 37. 12%9 (0) 0%Absolutely agree 10 (4) 25% 37

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