Session 1 stefan johansson

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Session 1 stefan johansson

  1. 1. Beyond Climate NeutralClimate Positive UrbanDistricts and theStockholm Royal Seaport(SRS) as an ExampleStefan JohanssonPhD Candidate, Division of Industrial Ecology (IE), KTH, Stockholm
  2. 2. Presentation topics• The process to climate positive and IE’s work together with CCI and the City• How to account emissions – scopes & boundaries• Some preliminary results on the road towards climate positive• How can a very ambitious target such as climate positive play a role in a climate neutral city or district?
  3. 3. The climate positive process (1/2)• The process has been developed using CCI’s climate positive development program• It has then been refined by IE into two instruction documents and one Excel tool regarding:- How to compile a baseline of emissions according to CCI’s specifications- How to track emissions, emission reductions and credits• Is being implemented in Stockholm (SWE), San Francisco (US) and Pedra Branca (BRA)
  4. 4. The climate positive process (2/2)
  5. 5. CCI in practice• Focuses on low energy use, a high degree of renewables, local energy generation AND a system of credits (if necessary)• A very local urban district focus with three main emission categories; energy, transportation and waste• Allows for technology and policy actions that reduce emissions in the surrounding areas called credits• Emission reductions through flexible Kyoto mechanisms such as CDM, JI and ETS are not allowed
  6. 6. CCI’s scopes & boundaries (1/3)Target A climate positive urban district where GHG emissions are < 0 once the entire urban district is completeUnit of measure Ton CO2e/capita, year 49 000 person (19 000 residents & 30 000 workers)System boundaries- Geographical SRS’s geographical area (*transportation an exception)- Activity Direct emissions from energy use stemming from activities within SRS’s geographical area- Temporal Annual emissions once the entire area is built- Life cycle (LCA) LCA emissions from fuels and energy carriers
  7. 7. CCI’s scopes & boundaries (2/3)Primary emission categories- Energy Heating/Cooling Electricity (building & household/commercial) Emission reductions from local energy generation (solar pv, biogas) Infrastructure Water- Transportation 40% of all trips starting or ending in SRS Residents (private trips & commuting) Workers (commuting & business trips) Goods & services- Waste Collection & treatment
  8. 8. CCI’s scopes & boundaries (3/3)Excluded emissionsExcluded due to geography Services that is common for a normal person living in Stockholm - Hospitals - Libraries - Municipal government - Sports and recreational centres - Long distance travelExcluded due to time - Construction emissionsExcluded due to the - Consumption of goods and foodmethodology itself
  9. 9. Basic principle for GHG accounting Activity x Emission factor = EmissionsCommon activities Corresponding emission factor(s)Heating [kWh/year] g CO2e/kWh of district heatingPKM by biogas car [PKM/year] g CO2e/PKM of biogas car
  10. 10. An example of calculating emissions using data from the SRS baseline (1/2)Residential buildings in SRS Data value & unitDistrict heating* 42.5 kWh/m2, yearHot water* 25 kWh/m2, yearBuilding electricity* 15 kWh/m2, yearHousehold electricity 30 kWh/m2, yearDistrict heating emission factor 99.46 g CO2e/kWhNordic electricity emission factor 74.76 g CO2e/kWhTotal residential area built 1,143,400 m2*Included in energy requirements regarding building energy efficiency
  11. 11. An example of calculating emissions using data from the SRS baseline (2/2)District heating energy use:1,143,400 m2 * 42.5 kWh/m2, year = 48,594,500 kWh/yearEmissions from district heating:48,594,500 kWh/year * 99.46 g CO2e/kWh = 4,833 ton CO2e/year Emissions [Ton CO2e/year] District heating 4,833 Hot water 2,843 Building electricity 1,282 Household electricity 2,564 Annual residential building emissions 11,522
  12. 12. SRS baseline emissions
  13. 13. So far not climate positive  time forroad mapping• Three basic types of road mapping actions:1. Energy efficiency – For example more energy efficient buildings. The fuel or energy carrier however stays the same
  14. 14. So far not climate positive  time forroad mapping• Three basic types of road mapping actions:1. Energy efficiency – For example more energy efficient buildings. The fuel or energy carrier however stays the same2. Fuel switching – Switching from Nordic electricity to electricity generated by wind power. The amount of energy used is however the same
  15. 15. So far not climate positive  time forroad mapping• Three basic types of road mapping actions:1. Energy efficiency – For example more energy efficient buildings. The fuel or energy carrier however stays the same2. Fuel switching – Switching from Nordic electricity to electricity generated by wind power. The amount of energy used is however the same3. Behavior change – Actions that focuses on either energy efficiency or fuel switching through behavioral change
  16. 16. Some preliminary examples ofpossible roadmapping actionsEnergy Road mapping ActionsBuildingsEnergy efficient buildings – 55 Energy efficient buildings – 45kWh/m2, year kWh/m2, yearSolar PV cells – 30 % of building Solar PV cells – 80% of buildingelectricity electricityLocal Energy ProductionReduced energy use to clean and Reduced energy use to clean anddistribute water distribute waterBiogas production (sewage) – Biogas production (sewage) – LouddenHenriksdalBiogas production (food waste) – Biogas production (food waste) –Henriksdal Loudden Biogas production (cruise ships) – Loudden Remaining biogas (sewage) - Henriksdal
  17. 17. Visual representation of the process Baseline and Road map example350003000025000 Infrastructure20000 Waste Water15000 Transportation10000 Building Energy Energy Production5000 0 Baseline After Energy After Fuel- After Credits-5000 Efficiency Switching
  18. 18. Roadmapping so far• So far SRS has reduced annual per capita emissions from roughly 0.55 ton CO2e/cap, year• Down towards 0.3 to 0.2 ton CO2e/cap, year
  19. 19. Still not climate positive  credits?• Credits aim to increase local collaboration between the urban district and the surrounding city by reducing the city’s emissions either through:1. Physical infrastructure such as energy, transportation and waste
  20. 20. Still not climate positive  credits?• Credits aim to increase local collaboration between the urban district and the surrounding city by reducing the city’s emissions either through:1. Physical infrastructure such as energy, transportation and waste2. Decisions made through the process of the urban district
  21. 21. Why use a method such as CCI’s?• Compared to many of the other tools Nils showed CCI has an extremely ambitious and explicit goal – climate positive
  22. 22. Why use a method such as CCI’s?• Compared to many of the other tools Nils showed CCI has an extremely ambitious and explicit goal – climate positive• Transparency is the key, otherwise comparisons between other urban districts are impossible and valuable experiences and solutions are lost
  23. 23. Why use a method such as CCI’s?• Compared to many of the other tools Nils showed CCI has an extremely ambitious and explicit goal – climate positive• Transparency is the key, otherwise comparisons between other urban districts are impossible and valuable experiences and solutions are lost• The process of baseline, roadmap and credits offer a wide variety of different kinds of solutions and also offers the urban district to test how far different actions will get them
  24. 24. Thank you!Questions?Contact info: sjindeco@kth.se

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