Session 1 nils brandt

395 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
395
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Session 1 nils brandt

  1. 1. Climate Neutral Urban Districts –approaches for benchmarking andaccounting?Nils Brandt, Associates Professor,Industrial EcologyRoyal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  2. 2. Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  3. 3. Cities in a leading role! City Climate mitigation – a lot of world wide support initiatives on going !• ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability; http://www.iclei.org• Covenant of Mayors ; www.eumayors.eu• C40; http://www.c40cities.org• Clinton Climate initiative; http://www.clintonfoundation.org• UNEP, Campaign on Cities and Climate Change; http://www.unep.org/urban_environment/issues/climate_change.asp• UN – Habitat , Cities and Climate Change initiative ; http://www.unhabitat.org• World Mayor council of Climate Change: http://www.worldmayorscouncil.org• Cities alliance; http://www.citiesalliance.org• ............... Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  4. 4. Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  5. 5. Cities in a leading role! City Climate mitigation programs – a lot of world wide support initiatives on going !• ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability; http://www.iclei.org• Covenant of Mayors ; www.eumayors.eu• C40; http://www.c40cities.org• Clinton Climate initiative; http://www.clintonfoundation.org• UNEP, Campaign on Cities and Climate Change; http://www.unep.org/urban_environment/issues/climate_change.asp• UN – Habitat , Cities and Climate Change initiative ; http://www.unhabitat.org• World Mayor council of Climate Change: http://www.worldmayorscouncil.org• Cities alliance; http://www.citiesalliance.org• ............... Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  6. 6. Cities and climate mitigation actions– needs of methods ?1. Baseline (inventory, benchmarking)2. Policy (goals and ambitions, processes, scenarios)3. Program and actions plans (road mapping and scenarios, processes)4. Implementation (processes and indicators)5. Evaluation ( inventory, indicators and benchmarking) Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  7. 7. Energy/CO2 flow analysis on City level : Two approaches”Bubble”- model (Production) “End-user”-model (Consumption) Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  8. 8. CO2/cap in City of Stockholm from a production perspectiveHeating = redTransport= blueElectricity = yellow Source: Miljöbarometern, City Stockholm Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  9. 9. Total carbon footprint of the average 6 household in Stockholm Average Stockholm household (2 persons): 16,2 ton CO2e/year 5 Eating out Miscellaneous 4 Air travelTon CO2e / year Personal care Other food Medical Reading 3 Public transportation Entertainment Vehicle maintenance Fruits & vegetables 2 Vehicle manufacturing Maintenance Oils & fats Household goods Fuel Indirect Dairy Home constructing Miscellaneous 1 Fish & seafood Personal business Motor vehicle fuel Info & communication Electricity Meat Clothing Energy Indirect Entertainment Bread & cereals 0 Energy Transportation Housing Food Goods Services Anders Nilsson 2013 Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  10. 10. Consumption perspective. Average Stockholm household (2 persons): 16,2 5 ton CO2e/year 4,5 Abroad 4 emissions (Total: 9,4 ton 3,5 CO2e)Ton CO2e / year Domestic 3 emissions 2,5 (Total: 6,8 ton CO2e) 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 Comparison of abroad and domestic emissions of an average Stockholm household. Consumption-based Carbon Accounting for Households in Sweden and KTH Stockholm using EIO-LCA Industriell Anders Nilsson Ekologi
  11. 11. Need of methods forbenchmarking andaccounting? Fig. 1. Changes in annual per capita greenhouse gas emissions for the sixC. Kennedy et al. / citiesEnergy Policy 49(2012) 774–777 Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  12. 12. Climate change and cities – what´s in and what´s out? How to define emissions? What type of city ?Scope 1—Internal Emissions;Scope 2—Core External Emissions S. Kennedy, S. Sgouridis / Energy Policy 39 (2011) 5259–5268Scope 3—Non-core Emissions. CONSUMPTION CITY – PRODUCTION CITY Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  13. 13. Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  14. 14. International frameworks for GHG emissions inventory on City level• The GHG Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard by the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development(WRI/WBCSD 2004)• Greenhouse Gases ISO 14064:2006. Specification with Guidance at the Organization Level for Quantification and Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Removals developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 2006)• ICLEI. 2009. International local government GHG emissions analysis protocol. Global reporting standard in the international local government GHG emissions analysis protocol (IEAP) Version 1.0 (ICLEI 2009)• Covenant of Mayors. 2009. (EC-CoM),Baseline emissions inventory guidelines. European commission, Part II In: How to develop a sustainable energy action plan (SEAP) baseline emissions inventory, (BEI).• UNEP, International Standard for Reporting Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Cities and Regions by UNEP, UN-HABITAT and the World Bank (2010)• Greenhouse Gas Regional Inventory Protocol (GRIP) developed by Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Manchester and UK Environmental Agency (GRIP 2008),• Bilan Carbone – Methodological Guide for Companies and Local Authorities developed by the Age`nce de l’Environnement et de la Maıˆtrise de l’Energie (ADEME 2007),• ICLEI, 2011. Community- Scale GHG Emissions Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013 Accounting and Reporting Protocol.
  15. 15. Latest developed framework• GLOBAL PROTOCOL FOR COMMUNITY-SCALE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (GPC) Pilot Version 1.0 – May 2012(http://www.ghgprotocol.org/about-ghgp) Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  16. 16. N. Ibrahim et al.Local EnvironmentVol. 17, No. 2,February 2012,223–241 Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  17. 17. The activities included in cities’ GHG emission inventoriesCity/cities Included activitiesCopenhagen, Stockholm Energy (heating, cooling, electricity), TransportsOslo Energy (heating, cooling, electricity), Transports, WasteHamburg, Münster Household emissions (heating, cooling, electricity, gas), Small & medium businesses (heating, cooling, electricity, gas), Industry, TransportationMalmö Energy, Industry, Transportation, Work machinesFreiburg Heating, Electricity, Transportation, FoodKramers, A. et al 2012 submitted Energy policy Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  18. 18. Climate neutral cities? – no generic definitions?1. Strictly Zero Carbon:No carbon is emitted within Scopes1 and 2; it follows that neitherbalancing nor offsets are allowed.2. Net Zero Carbon:All carbon emissions with in emissions Scope 1 are eliminated, andemissions within scope 2 are balanced through export of low or zerocarbon goods, internal or external sequestration, or import substitution(purchase offsets)3. Carbon Neutral:Any and all emissions for which the city is responsible under Scopes 1 and2 can be managed through the purchase of offsets from third parties thatlie outside the city’s boundaries:(S. Kennedy, S. Sgouridis / Energy Policy 39 (2011) 5259–5268) Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  19. 19. Urban district for Climate neutrality – possibilities or problems? - Strong holistic vision – sustain? - System borders; activity contra geographical - Responsibility for rest of the city emissions (hospitals, traffic, traffic etcCity + local stakeholder processes - local innovations and actions + Processes - Who is carrying the vision in the next step? + Credits driving force? Green Washing ? + Data quality for Climate benchmarking/indicators/evaluation– Neutral real-time data ? Urban ? scale – scope 1,2, 3 ? district ? - Relation to Sustainability Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  20. 20. The Climate Positive (neutral)urbandistricts process, action driven approachCCI – framework: Nils Brandt, 14 March 2013
  21. 21. Thank you !

×