Internet in Ukraine


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Presentation for 4th Euro-SSIG, July 2010

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Internet in Ukraine

  1. 1. Internet in Ukraine Actual Stats Critical Issues Olena Boltushkina for 4th Euro-SSIG Meissen, Germany July 27, 2010
  2. 2. One of the lowest levels of Internet penetration among European countries — 25% ► Approx. 46 million people ► Over 12 million Internet users ► Over 500 000 domain names registered in ccTLD .UA since 1992
  3. 3. .UA needs redelegation ► Company that is stated in IANA Delegation Record (Communication Systems Ltd.) doesn’t exist. ► People stated in the Record have established another private company (Hostmaster Ltd.) in 2001 to support ccTLD administration. It runs the domain today. ► There is another organization having a claim to run ccTLD — UANIC. It was created in 2002 by telecommunications providers and operators together with state telecommunications and security bodies. Its actions are mostly not concerted and non-transparent, but presented as a full-fledged Multistakeholder Approach. ► Ukrainian Telecommunications Law demands the organization running ccTLD to be non-governmental.
  4. 4. ‘Tough IG’ happens, and they call it ‘common European practice’ ► State law-enforcement authorities attack hosting providers in a rude way to confiscate servers with or without court decision. ► Sometimes they mix up addresses, and threaten people who have nothing to do with the ‘criminal’ servers. My former employer experienced that. ► These attacks are not frequent, but quite regular. Ministry of Internal Affairs presents them as a ‘common European practice’ of fighting cybercrime. ► The method is also used in censorship issues and business wars.
  5. 5. Parliament doesn’t care ► When you hear that Ukraine adopted a new law, you have to understand what the word ‘adopted’ means. You never know how many real and conscious votes were made. ► After voting on the last serious changes to national telecommunications law journalists asked Parliament members what they’ve just voted for. The common answer was ‘Oh, I don’t know!’.
  6. 6. The 404 Law: Fight against child porn or for total control? ► In October 2009 Parliament gave a new important telecommunications bill aimed at fighting child pornography its first reading. ► The bill arouse indignation among bloggers, ISPs, IT and law experts together with human rights organizations as technically illiterate and too dangerous for common Internet users. ► The bill received name 'The 404 Law' after the number of votes for it and after the HTTP 404 Error as an illustration of impact the bill could have on Ukrainian Internet users' experience.
  7. 7. The 404 Law: Fight against child porn or for total control? If The 404 Law was adopted in whole, ISPs could become obliged: ► to limit the access of their clients to certain websites indicated by law- enforcement authorities — without any court decision and precise conditions. ► to store and present to Government upon their request information about all their clients' connections to Internet — without any conditions of storing or type of data defined. ► to monitor the whole Internet activity of their clients and report every suspicious case to Government, though the core law doesn't give ISPs a right to conduct such investigations.
  8. 8. The 404 Law: Fight against child porn or for total control? If The 404 Law was adopted in whole: ► The new term 'Illegal Content' could emerge with no definition and huge opportunities of abusive interpretation by the Government. ► Internet users could become obliged to report illegal content to Government. ► Uncertain excessive definition of child pornography could emerge (though Ukraine ratified European Convention on Cybercrime wich already contains one), so even a picture of naked little baby from a family album could be interpreted and prosecuted as child porn. ► Any pictures or other information in spam messages or temporary files stored on user's computer hard drive without his awareness could make the user guilty of storing illegal content, and cause criminal liability.
  9. 9. The 404 Law: Fight against child porn or for total control? Due to the common efforts of Ukrainian Internet users, experts and journalists The 404 Law was adopted with significant changes on January 2010, but still remains dangerous: ► ISPs are obliged to store and present to Government upon their request information about heir clients' connections to Internet, but it's stated that certain procedure must be defined and adopted as a law. There's a big chance they will never adopt that law and use the judicial system to use this norm the way they need. ► The final law contains non-executable norms conflicting with the rest of national legislation.
  10. 10. Thank you! Please, feel free to contact me for questions or more information on the subject: