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Added value biomass chains for energy and biobased products

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At Dutch-Ukrainian Forum “Biofuels Market in Ukraine: a step towards energy independence”
Walter Elbersen from WUR presented a future possible development of biomass use through adding value to biomass by producing biobased chemicals and materials. Dr. Elbersen also introduced a Horison2020 project MAGIC: Marginal lands for Growing Industrial Crop, which among partners involves a Ukrainian Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet.

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Added value biomass chains for energy and biobased products

  1. 1. Added value biomass chains for energy and biobased products Let’s work towards commodities Kiev 19 September 2017 Wolter Elbersen
  2. 2. Wageningen UR (University & Research centre) …to explore the potential of nature to improve the quality of life…  Two pillars: ● Wageningen University ● DLO – Specialized Research Institutes  Annual budget about >650 Milj €  6500 employees  >10000 BSc/MSc; 1200 PhD (>100 countr.)  Extensive international network  In the Dutch Food Valley
  3. 3. New biomass Pre-treatment & Separation/Isolati on Byproducts Crops Lignocellulose Fresh biomass Aquatic biomass Traditional crops Residues Feed&Food Materials Chemicals Energy & Fuels Biomass chain aspects: availability, quality, sustainability, logistics Oils&fats Sugars Fibres Proteins (Bio)chemical& Conversion Complete valorization chain Biomass Markets
  4. 4. Biobased Products Innovation Plant
  5. 5. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 10 20 30 40 50 €/ton €/GJ Multiproduct biorefinery Birefinery: Multiple products, more value Wood chips Straw (field) Straw (collected) Straw (washed) Rape meal Animal feed Protein Amino acids Ferment. substrates Ligno- cellulose Fibres Nutrients Rest 3 By prof. Johan Sanders
  6. 6. Building materials coatings & pigments Isolation wood modification Green plasticizers Compostable packaging Agro-fibre composites Bioplastics Sheet: Christiaan Bolck
  7. 7. Biomass valorisation pyramid 7 Soil organic matter NEW
  8. 8. Evolution of the biobased economy 8  Now largest new market if biomass for heat (and electricity)  And for transport fuels (ethanol and biodiesel)  In the (near) future electricity and heat also from other sources (windmills)  Biomass will move up the ladder towards: ● Industrial heat (high temperature) ● Long distance transport (jetfuel) ● Biobased chemicals and products
  9. 9. Biomass valorisation pyramid 9 Soil organic matter NEW
  10. 10. The biomass potential  Secondary residues + waste ● At factory gate  Primary residues: ● In the field  Crops: ● 2 to 5 million ha “surplus land” = 20 to 50 million tons of biomass?
  11. 11.  Tertiary by- products  Secondary by- products  Primary by- products  Dedicated crops Turnhollow, 1994 2017 Secondary + tertiary by-products Primary by-products Biomass crops Cost supply curve is starting
  12. 12.  Tertiary by- products  Secondary by- products  Primary by- products  Dedicated crops Turnhollow, 1994 2020 Secondary + tertiary by-products Primary by-products Biomass crops Byproducts and/or dedicated crops?
  13. 13.  Tertiary by- products  Secondary by- products  Primary by- products  Dedicated crops Turnhollow, 1994 2022? Secondary + tertiary by-products Primary by-products Biomass crops Byproducts and/or dedicated crops?
  14. 14. Crop residue removal vs soil quality ? Too little removal high biomass cost Too much  Soil quality loss  less organic matter and nutrients
  15. 15. Themal conversion quality Parameter Effect Ash  Cost of transport . Cost of ash removal. Higher dust emissions. Clogging ash removal system N  Easily volatile and release in gas phase during combustion at temperatures between 800 – 1100 C - NOx emissions – corrosion? - Loss of nutrients S  Easily volatile and release in gas during combustion. Produces gaseosus compounds SO3and SO4 - SOx emissions - Corrosive effects Cl  Easily volatile and release in gas during combustion - HCl formation  corrosion - Cl influences the formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD/F) - Agglomeration (with K) Ca  - - Increase the melting temperaturte of ash - Relevant plant nutrient, ash can be recycled as a fertiliser Mg  - - Increase the melting temperature of ash K  Lowering ash melting point: - Slagging and deposit formation in furnaces and boilers Main aerosol forming during combustion - Lowering of the efficiency, higher operating cost KCL formation in the gaseous phase - Raise emission of fine PM and increases fouling in the boiler. - KCL causes corrosion of heating surfaces and it is a catalyst of NOx Can be recycled as fertiliser Na  Lowering ash melting point: - Slagging and deposit formation in furnaces and boilers Main aerosol forming during combustion - Raise emission of fine particulate matter PM
  16. 16. Solutions for crop residues? • Harvest 1 in 3 years? • Strip harvesting: harvest seed first, harvest straw after leaching nutrients • No-till planting: allows for more straw removal • Introduce models to determine optimal straw removal rate • Harvest and pelletizing in one go? www.akkerwijzer.nl landmaschinen.krone.de
  17. 17. Counter current extraction  Remove nutrients  Better quality  Nutrient recycling 17
  18. 18. Perennial biomass crops on marginal land? - Woody crops: - Short rotation willow coppice - Poplar? - Perennial biomass grasses: - Miscanthus - Switchgrass
  19. 19. Growing switchgrass on marginal land 22% more expensive (Ukraine case) € 0 € 10 € 20 € 30 € 40 € 50 € 60 Low productive - No ILUC High productive - ILUC Costs(€pertonpellet) Transport to pelletizer Land rent Harvest and storage Field operations Inputs Ref: Lesschen et al 2012. Pellets for Power project
  20. 20. MAGIC: Marginal lands for Growing Industrial Crop H2020 project 2017 / 2021 Partners: -CRES (Greece) -IBC – Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet (UKR) - Wageningen UR (NL) + 23 others
  21. 21. END wolter.elbersen@wur.nl
  22. 22. New biomass Pre-treatment & Separation/Isolati on Byproducts Crops Lignocellulose Fresh biomass Aquatic biomass Traditional crops Residues Feed&Food Materials Chemicals Energy & Fuels Biomass chain aspects: availability, quality, sustainability, logistics Oils&fats Sugars Fibres Proteins (Bio)chemical& Conversion Complete valorization chain Biomass Markets
  23. 23. What are the solutions? Use land or biomass more efficiently ● Use un and under utilised biomass ● Waste ● Processing residues ● Crop residues ● Use surplus / marginal land? http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/biof/pdf/iluc_bioenergy_policies_paris/report_s3.pdf
  24. 24. Challenges  Food competition  Competition for land  Soil quality maintenance  Quality  Cost  Scale  Security of supply

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