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oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.sa
O. Ovcharenko, V. Kazei, D. Peter, T. Alkhalifah
Transfer learning for low frequency extrapol...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Team 2
Vladimir Kazei,
Post-doctoral Fellow
Oleg...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Team 3
Vladimir Kazei,
Post-doctoral Fellow
Oleg...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Previous work 4
2017
2018
Today
“Low-Frequency D...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Limitations of real-world acquisitions 5
Lack of...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Low-frequency data in FWI 6
- Inverts large-scal...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
FWI with different misfits 7
(Bozdag 2011, Choi &...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
FWI with update conditioning 8
(Alkhalifah, 2015...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
9Extrapolation of low-frequency data
Pros:
- Che...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
10
This work: shot-to-shot extrapolation
Beat to...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Why extrapolation should be possible? 11
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
12Why extrapolation should be possible?
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
One trace, one shot, one dataset 13
Accuracy
Com...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
14Mono-frequency shot gather
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Supervised learning to link data in frequency do...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
ML to learn the phenomena 16
High Low
?
Non-line...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
17
Training dataset
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Generators which didn’t work well 18
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Generator on 1D profiles 19
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Realistic random models based on wavelets and st...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Size of training dataset 21
Total training sampl...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
22
Deep learning model
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Selection of network architecture 23
Custom desi...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Selection of network architecture 24
Custom desi...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Learned filters applied to a different dataset 25
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Benchmark of network architectures 26
(Bianco et...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Benchmark of network architectures 27
(Bianco et...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
MobileNet (Howard et al., 2017) 28
NVIDIA Titan ...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
29
Examples
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
30Input and target data
(R x F x 2) (R x 1 x 2)
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
31Parametrization
(R x F x 3) (R x 1 x 2)
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
32
Example 1/2. Central part of BP 2004
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
FWI for the central part of BP 2004 benchmark mo...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Extrapolated low-frequency data for 0.25 Hz 34
T...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Extrapolated low-frequency data for 0.55 Hz 35
T...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Extrapolated low-frequency data for 0.93 Hz 36
T...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Initial model 37
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Conventional regularized FWI 38
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
39
FWI
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
40
What can go wrong with inversion?
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
41
What can go wrong with inversion?
FWI
Frequen...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
42
What can go wrong with inversion?
FWI
Frequen...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
43
What can go wrong with inversion?
FWI
Frequen...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
44
What can go wrong with inversion?
FWI
Frequen...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
45
What can go wrong with inversion?
FWI
Frequen...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
46
What can go wrong with inversion?
FWI
Frequen...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
47
It is a rocky road
Training
Misfit
Solver
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
48
FWI
True vs Extrapolated
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
0.25 Hz 49
0.25Hz
0 5 10 15 20
km
0
2
4
6
km
2
3...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
0.55 Hz 50
0.55Hz
0 5 10 15 20
km
0
2
4
6
km
2
3...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
0.93 Hz 51
0.93Hz
0 5 10 15 20
km
0
2
4
6
km
2
3...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
4.5 Hz 52
0 5 10 15 20
km
0
2
4
6
km
2
3
4
km/s
...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
53
Do we overfit the data?
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
54Left part of BP 2004
True Pred Diff
Re
Im
Phase
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
55Marmousi II
True Pred Diff
Re
Im
Phase
True Pre...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
56
Example 2/2. One shot from field
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Streamer acquisition 57
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Single shot 58
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Time domain 59
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Frequency domain 60
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Low-frequency part of spectrum 61
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Used range 4 - 10 Hz 62
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Regular sampling of the range 63
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Raw input data for extrapolation 64
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
65Normalized input data for extrapolation
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Train one net for each frequency 66
13 frequenci...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Extrapolated low frequency 67
Synthetic Field
A ...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Extrapolated low frequency 68
Synthetic Field
Ex...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Extrapolated low frequency 69
Synthetic Field
Ex...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
70
Trained on synthetic, tested on synthetic = OK
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
71
Trained on synthetic, tested on field = ???
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Conclusions 72
Wavenumber analysis justifies feas...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Acknowledgements 73
Mahesh Kalita (KAUST/ION)

X...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
References 74
Alkhalifah, T., 2015. Conditioning...
oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers
Conclusions 75
Wavenumber analysis justifies feas...
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Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 1 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 2 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 3 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 4 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 5 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 6 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 7 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 8 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 9 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 10 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 11 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 12 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 13 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 14 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 15 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 16 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 17 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 18 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 19 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 20 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 21 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 22 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 23 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 24 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 25 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 26 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 27 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 28 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 29 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 30 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 31 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 32 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 33 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 34 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 35 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 36 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 37 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 38 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 39 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 40 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 41 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 42 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 43 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 44 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 45 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 46 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 47 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 48 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 49 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 50 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 51 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 52 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 53 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 54 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 55 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 56 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 57 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 58 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 59 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 60 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 61 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 62 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 63 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 64 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 65 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 66 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 67 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 68 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 69 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 70 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 71 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 72 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 73 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 74 Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications  Slide 75
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Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications

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Slides for my talk at EAGE 2019 in London this June. We attempt to extrapolate for missing low-frequency content in seismic data using a deep learning (DL) approach. We generate a set of random subsurface models and use those to produce a synthetic training dataset. We train a supervised DL model to infer a mono-frequency representation of a common shot gather, given respective data on multiple high frequencies. In the end, we show an example of FWI on extrapolated synthetic data and an example of bandwidth extrapolation on a single shot from field data.

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Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications

  1. 1. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.sa O. Ovcharenko, V. Kazei, D. Peter, T. Alkhalifah Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications June 6th, 2019
  2. 2. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Team 2 Vladimir Kazei, Post-doctoral Fellow Oleg Ovcharenko, PhD student Tariq Alkhalifah, Professor Daniel Peter, Assistant Professor KAUST Saudi Arabia Temperature on June 6th Max: 41°C Min: 23°C Average: 32°C Today in London: ~18°C
  3. 3. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Team 3 Vladimir Kazei, Post-doctoral Fellow Oleg Ovcharenko, PhD student Tariq Alkhalifah, Professor Daniel Peter, Assistant Professor KAUST Saudi Arabia Temperature on June 6th Max: 41°C Min: 23°C Average: 32°C Today in London: ~18°C
  4. 4. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Previous work 4 2017 2018 Today “Low-Frequency Data Extrapolation Using a Feed- Forward ANN”, 80th EAGE Annual conference, 2018 “Neural network based low-frequency data extrapolation”, SEG FWI Workshop: Where are we getting?  “Transfer learning for low frequency extrapolation from shot gathers for FWI applications”, 81st EAGE Annual conference, 2019
  5. 5. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Limitations of real-world acquisitions 5 Lack of low-frequency data - Due to instrumental limitations - Due to noise
  6. 6. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Low-frequency data in FWI 6 - Inverts large-scale velocity structures - Less chance to get stuck in local minima - Reveals deep model structures / below salt fHigh fLow Multiple local minima Smooth (Kazei et al., 2016)
  7. 7. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers FWI with different misfits 7 (Bozdag 2011, Choi & Alkhalifah 2013, Leeuwen & Herrmann, 2014 …) Pros: - Established workflow - Direct image quality control Cons: - Computational costs - Prone to event mismatching - Sensitivity hard to control Kalita et al., 2018
  8. 8. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers FWI with update conditioning 8 (Alkhalifah, 2015; Kazei, et al., 2016; Yao et al., 2018; Ovcharenko, et al., 2018 ) etc… Pros: - Easily accessible sensitivity - Direct image quality control - Can be used together with any misfit Cons: - Computational costs - Prone to event mismatching Ovcharenko, et al., 2018
  9. 9. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 9Extrapolation of low-frequency data Pros: - Cheaper computations Cons: - Not well explored robustness - Wavefield approximations Hu et al., 2014; Li & Demanet, 2015, 2016, Ovcharenko et al., 2018) etc…
  10. 10. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 10 This work: shot-to-shot extrapolation Beat tone inversion (Hu et al., 2014) Bandwidth extension for atomic events (Li & Demanet, 2015, 2016) Deep learning freq domain for CSG – Ovcharenko et al., 2017, Trace to trace deep learning – Sun & Demanet, 2018 Extrapolation of low-frequency data
  11. 11. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Why extrapolation should be possible? 11
  12. 12. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 12Why extrapolation should be possible?
  13. 13. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers One trace, one shot, one dataset 13 Accuracy Computational complexity Trace-to-Trace Shot-to-Shot Data-to-Data (Ovcharenko et al, 2017, 2018) (Sun & Demanet, 2018)
  14. 14. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 14Mono-frequency shot gather
  15. 15. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Supervised learning to link data in frequency domain 15 One network is trained to extrapolate for One frequency
  16. 16. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers ML to learn the phenomena 16 High Low ? Non-linear function
  17. 17. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 17 Training dataset
  18. 18. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Generators which didn’t work well 18
  19. 19. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Generator on 1D profiles 19
  20. 20. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Realistic random models based on wavelets and style transfer 20 “Style transfer for generation of realistically textured subsurface models”, Ovcharenko et al., SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2019 “Realistically Textured Random Velocity Models for Deep Learning Applications”, Kazei et al., 81st EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2019
  21. 21. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Size of training dataset 21 Total training samples = random models x shots in the model
  22. 22. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 22 Deep learning model
  23. 23. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Selection of network architecture 23 Custom design Ready-to-use design
  24. 24. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Selection of network architecture 24 Custom design Ready-to-use design
  25. 25. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Learned filters applied to a different dataset 25
  26. 26. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Benchmark of network architectures 26 (Bianco et al., 2018, "Benchmark Analysis of Representative Deep Neural Network Architectures”)
  27. 27. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Benchmark of network architectures 27 (Bianco et al., 2018, "Benchmark Analysis of Representative Deep Neural Network Architectures”)
  28. 28. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers MobileNet (Howard et al., 2017) 28 NVIDIA Titan V TensorFlow 1.12.0Python 3.6 Keras 2.2.4 Matlab R2016b Training for one frequency ~ 5 min Inference time < 1 sec Total params ~ 3.9M
  29. 29. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 29 Examples
  30. 30. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 30Input and target data (R x F x 2) (R x 1 x 2)
  31. 31. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 31Parametrization (R x F x 3) (R x 1 x 2)
  32. 32. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 32 Example 1/2. Central part of BP 2004
  33. 33. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers FWI for the central part of BP 2004 benchmark model 33 64 sources and receivers 32 known frequency in range 3-5 Hz https://github.com/vkazei/fastFWI Successive mono-frequency inversions at 0.25 0.55 0.93 2.04 2.66 3.46 4.50 Hz Acoustic
  34. 34. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Extrapolated low-frequency data for 0.25 Hz 34 True Pred Diff Re Im Phase
  35. 35. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Extrapolated low-frequency data for 0.55 Hz 35 True Pred Diff Re Im Phase
  36. 36. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Extrapolated low-frequency data for 0.93 Hz 36 True Pred Diff Re Im Phase
  37. 37. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Initial model 37
  38. 38. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Conventional regularized FWI 38
  39. 39. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 39 FWI
  40. 40. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 40 What can go wrong with inversion?
  41. 41. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 41 What can go wrong with inversion? FWI Frequency Extrapolation
  42. 42. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 42 What can go wrong with inversion? FWI Frequency Extrapolation Normalization Training data Training Assumption Implementation
  43. 43. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 43 What can go wrong with inversion? FWI Frequency Extrapolation Normalization Training data Training Misfit Solver Initial guess Formulation Implementation Assumption Implementation
  44. 44. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 44 What can go wrong with inversion? FWI Frequency Extrapolation Normalization Training data Training Misfit Solver Initial guess Formulation Implementation Assumption Implementation True Pred Diff Re Im Phase
  45. 45. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 45 What can go wrong with inversion? FWI Frequency Extrapolation Normalization Training data Training Misfit Solver Initial guess Formulation Implementation Assumption Implementation True Pred Diff Re Im 0.25 Hz
  46. 46. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 46 What can go wrong with inversion? FWI Frequency Extrapolation Normalization Training data Training Misfit Solver Initial guess Formulation Implementation Assumption Implementation True Pred Diff Re Im 0.25 Hz4.5 Hz
  47. 47. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 47 It is a rocky road Training Misfit Solver
  48. 48. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 48 FWI True vs Extrapolated
  49. 49. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 0.25 Hz 49 0.25Hz 0 5 10 15 20 km 0 2 4 6 km 2 3 4 km/s 0.25Hz 0 5 10 15 20 km 0 2 4 6 km 2 3 4 km/s True Extrapolated 0.25 0.55 0.93 2.04 2.66 3.46 4.50 Hz
  50. 50. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 0.55 Hz 50 0.55Hz 0 5 10 15 20 km 0 2 4 6 km 2 3 4 km/s 0.55Hz 0 5 10 15 20 km 0 2 4 6 km 2 3 4 km/s True Extrapolated 0.25 0.55 0.93 2.04 2.66 3.46 4.50 Hz
  51. 51. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 0.93 Hz 51 0.93Hz 0 5 10 15 20 km 0 2 4 6 km 2 3 4 km/s 0 5 10 15 20 km 0 2 4 6 km 2 3 4 km/s True Extrapolated 0.25 0.55 0.93 2.04 2.66 3.46 4.50 Hz
  52. 52. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 4.5 Hz 52 0 5 10 15 20 km 0 2 4 6 km 2 3 4 km/s 0 5 10 15 20 km 0 2 4 6 km 2 3 4 km/s True Extrapolated 0.25 0.55 0.93 2.04 2.66 3.46 4.50 Hz
  53. 53. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 53 Do we overfit the data?
  54. 54. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 54Left part of BP 2004 True Pred Diff Re Im Phase
  55. 55. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 55Marmousi II True Pred Diff Re Im Phase True Pred Diff Re Im Phase
  56. 56. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 56 Example 2/2. One shot from field
  57. 57. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Streamer acquisition 57
  58. 58. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Single shot 58
  59. 59. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Time domain 59
  60. 60. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Frequency domain 60
  61. 61. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Low-frequency part of spectrum 61
  62. 62. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Used range 4 - 10 Hz 62
  63. 63. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Regular sampling of the range 63
  64. 64. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Raw input data for extrapolation 64
  65. 65. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 65Normalized input data for extrapolation
  66. 66. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Train one net for each frequency 66 13 frequencies to extrapolate for: 0.1000 0.1334 0.1778 0.2371 0.3162 0.4217 0.5623 0.7499 1.0000 1.3335 1.7783 2.3714 3.1623 Hz
  67. 67. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Extrapolated low frequency 67 Synthetic Field A reference sample of low- frequency data for a random velocity model
  68. 68. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Extrapolated low frequency 68 Synthetic Field Extrapolated low-frequency data for a real-world shot
  69. 69. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Extrapolated low frequency 69 Synthetic Field Extrapolated low-frequency data for a real-world shot Expected patterns in low-frequencies
  70. 70. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 70 Trained on synthetic, tested on synthetic = OK
  71. 71. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers 71 Trained on synthetic, tested on field = ???
  72. 72. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Conclusions 72 Wavenumber analysis justifies feasibility of bandwidth extrapolation Pre-trained networks are applicable with mild retraining Need a priori constraints on random velocity models Lowest frequencies are better extrapolated Regularized full-waveform inversion to tolerate inaccuracies
  73. 73. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Acknowledgements 73 Mahesh Kalita (KAUST/ION) Xiangliang Zhang (KAUST) Gerhard Pratt (UWO) Tristan van Leeuven (Utrecht University) Yunyue Elita Li (NUS) ovcharenkoo.com ai.vkazei.com
  74. 74. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers References 74 Alkhalifah, T., 2015. Conditioning the full-waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy. Geophysics, 80(3), pp.R111-R122. Bozdağ, E., Trampert, J. and Tromp, J., 2011. Misfit functions for full waveform inversion based on instantaneous phase and envelope measurements. Geophysical Journal International, 185(2), pp.845-870. Choi, Y. and Alkhalifah, T., 2013. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative. Geophysical Journal International, 195(3), pp. 1904-1916. Howard, A.G., Zhu, M., Chen, B., Kalenichenko, D., Wang, W., Weyand, T., Andreetto, M. and Adam, H., 2017. Mobilenets: Efficient convolutional neural networks for mobile vision applications. arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.04861. Hu*, W., 2014. FWI without low frequency data-beat tone inversion. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014 (pp. 1116-1120). Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Kazei, V., Tessmer, E. and Alkhalifah, T., 2016. Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2016 (pp. 1157-1162). Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Kazei, V. and Alkhalifah, T., 2019. Scattering Radiation Pattern Atlas: What anisotropic elastic properties can body waves resolve?. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. Li, Y.E. and Demanet, L., 2015. Phase and amplitude tracking for seismic event separation. Geophysics, 80(6), pp.WD59-WD72. Li, Y.E. and Demanet, L., 2016. Full-waveform inversion with extrapolated low-frequency data. Geophysics, 81(6), pp.R339-R348. Kalita, M., Kazei, V., Choi, Y. and Alkhalifah, T., 2018. Regularized full-waveform inversion for salt bodies. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2018 (pp. 1043-1047). Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Ovcharenko, O., Kazei, V., Peter, D. and Alkalifah, T., 2017. Neural network based low-frequency data extrapolation. In 3rd SEG FWI workshop: What are we getting. Ovcharenko, O., Kazei, V., Peter, D., Zhang, X. and Alkhalifah, T., 2018, June. Low-Frequency Data Extrapolation Using a Feed-Forward ANN. In 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2018. Ovcharenko, O., Kazei, V., Peter, D. and Alkhalifah, T., 2018. Variance-based model interpolation for improved full-waveform inversion in the presence of salt bodies. Geophysics, 83(5), pp.R541-R551. Sun, H. and Demanet, L., 2018. Low frequency extrapolation with deep learning. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2018 (pp. 2011-2015). Society of Exploration Geophysicists. van Leeuwen, T. and Herrmann, F.J., 2014. 3D frequency-domain seismic inversion with controlled sloppiness. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 36(5), pp.S192-S217.
  75. 75. oleg.ovcharenko@kaust.edu.saLow frequency extrapolation from shot gathers Conclusions 75 Wavenumber analysis justifies feasibility of bandwidth extrapolation Pre-trained networks are applicable with mild retraining Need a priori constraints on random velocity models Lowest frequencies are better extrapolated Regularized full-waveform inversion to tolerate inaccuracies

Slides for my talk at EAGE 2019 in London this June. We attempt to extrapolate for missing low-frequency content in seismic data using a deep learning (DL) approach. We generate a set of random subsurface models and use those to produce a synthetic training dataset. We train a supervised DL model to infer a mono-frequency representation of a common shot gather, given respective data on multiple high frequencies. In the end, we show an example of FWI on extrapolated synthetic data and an example of bandwidth extrapolation on a single shot from field data.

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