Lecture for the course “The Library” at Leiden University, 3-11-2016
Olaf Janssen, National Library of the Netherlands
ola...
Lecture for the course “The Library” at Leiden University, 3-11-2016
Olaf Janssen, National Library of the Netherlands
ola...
Hi,
I’m Olaf Janssen
I’m the Wikipedia (& open data) Coordinator
of the KB
Wikimedia coordinator???
I initiate and coordin...
My presentation philosophy
This slidedeck is optimised
for
slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL
What I hope you’ll get out of this lecture
1. Basic understanding of what a digital library is
2. Understanding of some ba...
How does my talk fit in the overall course?
In my talk:
digital
In my talk:
front-end/UX of
digital libraries
In my talk:
...
Alright,
let’s go!
I’ll start with
a bit of
history
http://www.iupui.edu/~g115/assets/mod03/earth_history.jpg
http://www.iupui.edu/~g115/assets/mod03/earth_history.jpg
Not all of history,
only
human history
http://www.mitchellteachers.net/WorldHistory/templates/images/earlyhumans/humanancestorsmainpic.jpg
http://www.mitchellteachers.net/WorldHistory/templates/images/earlyhumans/humanancestorsmainpic.jpg
Not all of human
histo...
http://joaobordalo.com/files/topInternetHistory.png
Not all of internet
history, only
history of
websites
http://joaobordalo.com/files/topInternetHistory.png
Not all of internet
history, only
history of the web
http://www.everyjoe.com/2007/09/05/technology/pc-magazines-top-
100-classic-web-sites/
http://www.everyjoe.com/2007/09/05/...
Context
Historic development of the web : Rise of Web2.0
You read this article in preparation
http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html
Web2.0 key concepts
Tim O’Reilly ...
1. The long tail
2. Data is the next Intel Inside
3. Users add value
4. Network effects by default
5. Some rights reserved...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0
Not history of all the web,
only the web in library
context
 digital libraries (DLs)
First things first
What is a
digital library
(there is no unique definition..)
but let’s
give it a shot…
- aa
- aa
“a library in which collections are stored in
electronic media formats […] and accessible via
computers.
The electron...
“[..] at Stanford University, some discussion was held as to
what did we mean by the term "digital library“”. [..]
it woul...
“[..] at Stanford University, some discussion was held as to
what did we mean by the term "digital library“”. [..]
it woul...
“[..] at Stanford University, some discussion was held as to
what did we mean by the term "digital library“”. [..]
it woul...
The Digital Library Reference Model (2011)
(273 pages!)
“…a potentially virtual organisation, that comprehensively collects,
manages and preserves for the long depth of time rich...
- aa
- aa
- aa
“Digital libraries are organised collections of digital
content made available to the public.“
http://eur-lex.europa....
And there are many
more definitions…*
* Such as https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385d/readings/Borgman-1999-What_Are_Digit...
Let’s summarize the
red key phrases
we’ve just seen...
too
textual,
vague,
abstract
Is
?
No worries, let’s look at
11 real life examples of digital libraries
to improve our unde...
too
textual,
vague,
abstract
No worries, let’s look at
11 real life examples of digital libraries
to improve our understan...
too
textual,
vague,
abstract
No worries, let’s look at
11 real life examples of digital libraries
to improve our understan...
too
textual,
vague,
abstract
No worries, let’s look at
11 real life examples of digital libraries
to improve our understan...
4 cultural heritage domains
1. Library: publications
Books, magazines, newspapers
4 cultural heritage domains
2. Archive: primary documents
(unique & unpublished)
Public records, government docs,
legal ad...
4 cultural heritage domains
3. Museum: artefacts
Paintings, drawings, sculpture,
instruments, flora, fauna
2. Archive: pri...
I’m going to score each of the 11 DL-examples
on 5 criteria
1.Content/UX: What’s in it? (metadata, full-text, visuals, aud...
1. KB Catalogue
opc4.kb.nl
• Focus on raw metadata
• No full-texts
• No visuals
1. KB Catalogue
opc4.kb.nl
Web version of old card catalogue
• Content/UX: Raw metadata (no full-texts, no visuals)
• Cont...
2. LibraryThing
Librarything.com
• Focus on metadata, with user ratings & tags
• No full-texts
• Tiny visuals (book covers from Amazon)
Rating & tags
Members add metadata
(110M books so far)
Members add book reviews
(2.9M so far)
2. LibraryThing
Librarything.comSocial Web2.0 library catalogue
• Content/UX: Raw metadata-oriented (no full-texts, poor
v...
2. LibraryThing
Librarything.comSocial Web2.0 library catalogue
• Content/UX: Raw metadata-oriented (no full-texts, poor
v...
3. Delpher
Delpher.nl
Focus on visuals (scans),
not metadata
Focus on OCR (and scan),
not metadata
Metadata for
advanced search
The OCR of a
newspaper article
Metadata for
result filtering
Joint effort
Multiple institutional content partners
http://www.delpher.nl/nl/platform/pages/helpitems?nid=382
The OCR of a
newspaper article
Full-text historic Dutch publications
• Content/UX: Full-text: scans & OCR, with metadata-
...
4. Digital Library for Dutch Literature
dbnl.org
Focus on full-text…
Downloads
• PDF
• OCR
• Scans
• ePub
… with metadata for
searching & filtering
4. Digital Library for Dutch Literature
dbnl.orgFull-text Dutch literature database
• Content/UX: Full-text: OCR, PDF, sca...
5. Google Books
books.google.com
Focus on full-text
Joint effort
1. Many big libraries (incl.
KB) as content partners
Joint effort
2. Partner Program:
authors & publishers
5. Google Books
books.google.com
’The world's most comprehensive index
of full-text books’
• Content/UX: Full-texts: e-boo...
6. Project Gutenberg
gutenberg.org
Over 53,000 free ebooks
Focus on full-text
(ebooks)
self.gutenberg.org
Free public domain e-books
• Content/UX: Full-text e-books
• Content domain: library (books)
• Run by: not-for-profit comp...
7. Wikisource
wikisource.org
Sister project of Wikipedia
Focus on full-text
Content maintained by community of
2.8M people
Access ’90s – websites are T.F.O.’s
7. Wikisource
wikisource.orgSocial open full-text library & archive
• Content/UX: Righ...
Access ’90s – websites are T.F.O.’s
7. Wikisource
wikisource.orgSocial open full-text library & archive
• Content/UX: Righ...
8.Memory of the Netherlands
Geheugenvannederland.nl
22 results for ‘dansles’
Focus on non-hi-res image,
but metadata still manifest
 “visual catalogue”
Joint effort
• Hosted by KB
• 84 content partners (GLAMs)
Memory of the
Netherlands
7.Memory of the Netherlands
Geheugenvannederland.nl
8.Memory of the Netherlands
Geheugenvanneder...
9. Europeana Collections
europeana.eu
1,477 results for ‘Einstein’
Metadata with low/mid-res
image
 “visual catalogue”
Joint effort
1,000s content providers
(GLAMs) from Europe
http://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/explore/sources.html
9. Europeana
europeana.euEuropean cultural heritage aggregator
• Content/UX: “Visual catalogue”: metadata + low/mid-res
im...
10. Flickr The Commons
flickr.com/commons
Joint effort
10s content providers
worldwide
Random images
Focus on visual,
page doesn’t feel “metadata-y”
Source of image
Web2.0
“Wisdom of the crowd”
Crowd-curation
Folksonomy
10. Flickr The Commons
flickr.com/commons
Web2.0
“Wisdom of the crowd”
Crowd-curation
Folksonomy
Crowd-curated open photo ...
11. Rijksmuseum
rijksmuseum.nl
573,000 rights-free
ultra hi-res images
Focus on hi-res images
Metadata “almost invisible”
573,000 rights free
images re-usable for
everbody, everywhere
Rijksstudio
Pinterest meets RM-
collection
11.a Rijksstudio
rijksmuseum.nl/en/rijksstudio
Dolls houses
Crowd-curation
discovering cross-collection
themes
RM created and user created Rijksstudios
are treated equal
Crowd-curation:
discovering cross-
collection themes
11. Rijksstudio
rijksmuseum.nl/en/rijksstudioFree hi-res artworks pho...
OK, so far for the 11 DL-examples….
I did not choose them randomly…
Let’s use their properties as input
for some plots…
BREAK
1. Content/Presentation/UX
What does the DL look & feel like?
Metadata-oriented
Classic catalogues
No images
Raw metadata in your face
1. Content/Presentation/UX
What does the DL look ...
Metadata-oriented
Classic catalogues
No images
Raw metadata in your face
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visua...
Metadata-oriented
Classic catalogues
No images
Raw metadata in your face
Visually oriented
(hi-res) Images in your face
Me...
KB Catalogue
Metadata-oriented
Classic catalogues
No images
Raw metadata in your face
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metad...
Metadata-oriented
Classic catalogues
No images
Raw metadata in your face
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visua...
Metadata-oriented
Classic catalogues
No images
Raw metadata in your face
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visua...
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visual
“all about
full-texts”
Metadata-oriented
Classic catalogues
No images
R...
Flickr
The Commons
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visual
“all about
full-texts”
Metadata-oriented
Classic cat...
KB Catalogue
Rijksmuseum
/studio
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visual
“all about
full-texts”
Metadata-orient...
KB Catalogue
Rijksmuseum
/studio
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visual
“all about
full-texts”
Metadata-orient...
KB Catalogue
Rijksmuseum
/studio
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visual
“all about
full-texts”
Metadata-orient...
KB Catalogue
Rijksmuseum
/studio
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visual
“all about
full-texts”
Metadata-orient...
KB Catalogue
Rijksmuseum
/studio
“Dressed up
catalogues”
Mix of metadata
and visual
“all about
full-texts”
Metadata-orient...
KB Catalogue Digital Library for
Dutch Literature
LibraryThing
Europeana
Collections
Rijksmuseum
/studio
“Dressed up
catal...
KB Catalogue Digital Library for
Dutch Literature
LibraryThing
Europeana
Collections
Rijksmuseum
/studio
“Dressed up
catal...
KB Catalogue Digital Library for
Dutch Literature
LibraryThing
Europeana
Collections
Rijksmuseum
/studio
“Dressed up
catal...
KB Catalogue Digital Library for
Dutch Literature
LibraryThing
Europeana
Collections
Memory of the
Netherlands
Rijksmuseum...
2. Domain of content
Which CH-domain(s) contribute to the DL?
2. Domain of content
Which CH-domain(s) contribute to the DL?
Archives
documents
Libraries
publications
Museums
artefacts
2. Domain of content
Which CH-domain(s) contribute to the DL?
Archives
documents
Cross-domain
Content from libraries,
muse...
Libraries
publications
Museums
artefacts
Archives
documents
Cross-domain
Content from libraries,
museums and archives
Rijk...
KB Catalogue
LibraryThing
Google books
Digital
Library for
Dutch
Literature
Project
Gutenberg
Libraries
publications
Museu...
KB Catalogue
LibraryThing
Google books
Digital
Library for
Dutch
Literature
Project
Gutenberg
Wikisource
Libraries
publica...
KB Catalogue
LibraryThing
Europeana
Collections
Memory of the
Netherlands
Flickr
The Commons
Google books
Digital
Library ...
3. Geo scope
What’s the geographical scope of the DL content?
InternationalNational
Dutch
3. Geo scope
What’s the geographical scope of the DL content?
Continental
European
Local/regio...
Memory of the
Netherlands
Rijksstudio
Digital Library for
Dutch Literature
InternationalLocal/regional National
Dutch
Cont...
Europeana
Collections
Memory of the
Netherlands
Rijksstudio
Digital Library for
Dutch Literature
InternationalLocal/region...
LibraryThingEuropeana
Collections
Flickr
The Commons
Google books
Project
Gutenberg
Wikisource
InternationalLocal/regional...
4. Collaboration between
content partners
Who provides content & value for our DL?
Institutional content
“We do it ourself, we
show off our own content”
(no partner content,
no user generated content)
4. C...
Institutional content
“We do it ourself, we
show off our own content”
(no partner content,
no user generated content)
4. C...
User content
“We are nothing without
contributions from our users”
Institutional content
“We do it ourself, we
show off ou...
KB Catalogue
Rijksmuseum
/studio
User content
“We are nothing without
contributions from our users”
Institutional content
...
KB Catalogue Europeana
Collections
Memory of the
NetherlandsRijksmuseum
/studio
User content
“We are nothing without
contr...
KB Catalogue
LibraryThing
Europeana
Collections
Memory of the
Netherlands
Wikisource
Rijksmuseum
/studio
User content
“We ...
KB Catalogue
LibraryThing
Europeana
Collections
Memory of the
Netherlands
Wikisource
Flickr
The Commons
Rijksmuseum
/studi...
5. Control
Who decides how the DL develops?
Institution(s)
in control
and (very) nervous about
user contributions
5. Control
Who decides how the DL develops?
User-con...
Users can contribute, we trust them,
but institution/company keeps control
KB Catalogue
Europeana
Collections
Digital Libr...
Users can contribute, we trust them,
but institution/company keeps control
KB Catalogue
Wikisource
Europeana
Collections
D...
Users can contribute, we trust them,
but institution/company keeps control
KB Catalogue
Wikisource
Europeana
Collections
D...
6. Openness
Can users retain, reuse, revise, remix, redistribute the DL content?
Web2.0:
“Some rights reserved”
Closed ©
You can only use our
content for personal use
or non-commercial
research purposes
...
Web2.0:
“Some rights reserved”
Closed ©
You can only use our
content for personal use
or non-commercial
research purposes
...
KB Catalogue
Closed ©
You can only use our
content for personal use
or non-commercial
research purposes
Fully open
You can...
KB Catalogue
Rijksmuseum
/studio
Closed ©
You can only use our
content for personal use
or non-commercial
research purpose...
Flickr
The Commons
Europeana
Collections
(metadata)
Project
Gutenberg
KB Catalogue
Rijksmuseum
/studio
Closed ©
You can on...
Flickr
The Commons
Memory of the
Netherlands
Project
Gutenberg
KB Catalogue
Digital Library for
Dutch Literature
Rijksmuse...
Flickr
The Commons
Memory of the
Netherlands
Wikisource
(CC-BY-SA)
Project
Gutenberg
KB Catalogue
Rijksmuseum
/studio
Clos...
These plots represent some
trends in DL-development
Past  Present
1.0  2.0
“Not”  “Hot”
CONCEPT PAST PRESENT
Content –
Presentation - UX
Metadata in your face
- “Raw” library catalogue
- No / low-res images
Obj...
CONCEPT PAST PRESENT
Content –
Presentation - UX
Metadata in your face
- “Raw” library catalogue
- No / low-res images
Obj...
OK, now we have at least
some understanding of
basic concepts and trends
in DLs…
In terms of
we’ve just looked at…
Let’s now look at
3 less directly visible
ingredients of DLs
strategy
What I’m trying to say here:
Digital libraries don’t just run by themselves.
It takes
organisation, management & strategy
...
Let’s take a look at (only)
two trends
in these fields…
Trend 1. Content & brand distribution
↓ Less “Come to daddy”
↑ More “Dressing up as pandas”
http://communist812.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/come-to-daddy-2.jpg
Many GLAMs still expect people to visit
their little, ...
http://communist812.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/come-to-daddy-2.jpg
Many GLAMs still expect people to visit
their little, ...
http://communist812.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/come-to-daddy-2.jpg
We (ie. GLAMs) expect people to take the
trouble to le...
At the same time, GLAMs know the big,
cool, popular platforms & communities
normal people use in their daily lives
Mass ma...
At the same time, GLAMs know the big,
cool, popular platforms & communities
normal people use in their daily lives
Because...
At the same time, GLAMs know the big,
cool, popular platforms & communities
normal people use in their daily lives
Because...
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1336070/Why-Chinese-
scientists-dressing-Panda-suits-fool-bear-cubs.html
At the sa...
Some dressing up styles of GLAMs
1. Search engine optimisation
(dressing up to be liked by Google)
• Collaboration with Wikipedia
(dressing up to be liked ...
1. Search engine optimisation
(dressing up to be liked by Google)
2. Collaboration with Wikipedia
(dressing up to be liked...
Research on the use of Wikipedia in the
Netherlands 2015
https://nl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Rapportage_Motivaction_Leze...
Research on the use of Wikipedia in the
Netherlands 2015
https://nl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Rapportage_Motivaction_Leze...
Research on the use of Wikipedia in the
Netherlands 2015
https://nl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Rapportage_Motivaction_Leze...
World War 2
Dutch
Parliament
Dutch writers
Onderzoek onder lezers Wikipedia 2015
https://nl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Rapportage_Motivaction_Lezers.pdf
“80% of Dutc...
(Digital) libraries can reach big audiences
by exposing their materials on Wikipedia
 KB manuscripts case study
Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts
manuscripts.kb.nl
This site contains
11.141 images,
including...
…this baker image
Acèh Afrikaans Alemannisch አማርኛ Aragonés Ænglisc ‫العربية‬ ‫ܐܪܡܝܐ‬ ‫مصرى‬ অসমীয
Asturianu Aymar aru Azərbaycanca Башҡортса...
Wikipedia in German
This images is used
on many
Wikipedias
Wikipedia in French
Wikipedia in Bavarian
Wikipedia in Hungarian
Wikipedia in Russian
Wikipedia in Chinese
Wikipedia in Korean
This baker image is not the only image from KB that is used on
Wikipedia.
In total KB offers 11.5K images for Wikipedia
ht...
Using Wikipedia, these images are seen all over the world
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CountryWorldMap_LangaugeV...
Some statistics on the KB manuscripts (*)
As said, this site contains
11.141 images
*http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedi...
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Manuscripts_from_Koninklijke_Bibliotheek
Of these 11.141 images,
(only) 163 ar...
1. Search engine optimisation
(dressing up to be liked by Google)
2. Collaboration with Wikipedia
(dressing up to be liked...
http://www.pinterest.com/britishlibrary
https://www.instagram.com/nypl/
Library of Congress @ Flickr
1. Search engine optimisation
(dressing up to be liked by Google)
2. Collaboration with Wikipedia
(dressing up to be liked...
Screenshot of my Twitter feed dd 02-11-2016
“seamlessly fit into people’s
exisiting workflows”
Mouth-to-mouth gossip
about Delpher.nl
Mouth-to-mouth gossip
about Delpher.nl
Trend 2. Digital library funding
Trend 2. Digital library funding
Less Public
More Private & social
- Public-private partnerships
- Sponsoring
- Crowdfundi...
Trend 2. Digital library funding
Less Public
More Private & social
1. Public-private partnerships
2. Sponsoring
3. Crowdfu...
1. Public-private
partnerships
http://kb.nl/en/news/news-archive-2010/koninklijke-bibliotheek-and-google-
sign-book-digiti...
Astrid Verheusen,The Library - Digitisation, 30 October 2014, slide 26
Beer card: http://assets.catawiki.nl/assets/2012/5/...
Astrid Verheusen,The Library - Digitisation, 30 October 2014, slide 26
Beer card: http://assets.catawiki.nl/assets/2012/5/...
2. (Corporate) Sponsoring
Rijksmuseum
2. (Corporate) Sponsoring
Rijksmuseum Annual Report 2012, p 98
2. (Corporate) Sponsoring
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/about/sponsors.html
http://artdaily.com/index.asp?int_sec=2&int_new=54147#.Uo4SGZyrF8E
2. (Corporate) Sponsoring
3. Crowdfunding
“Cooperation of normal people who pool their money
together to support efforts initiated by others”
https:...
http://blog.flattr.net/2012/04/project-
gutenberg-taps-into-crowdfunding/
https://flattr.com/thing/509045
https://flattr.c...
http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/vatican-library-making-4000-ancient-manuscripts-available-online-free-photos-1470911#
OK, that was about it…
.. but please let me do
update the trends table
for you!
CONCEPT PAST PRESENT
Geo-scope of DL Local
Scope is local (regional, national),
unaware of bigger world
‘Global village’
L...
THANKS!
olaf.janssen@kb.nl
@ookgezellig
slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)
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Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)

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This presentation gives an introduction to digital libraries.

It first explores different defintions of the phrase "Digital Library".

It then looks at 11 real life examples of digital library websites (slides 44-112), including Europeana, Google Books, Flickr the Commons, Delpher, Wikisource, The Memory of the Netherlands and Project Gutenberg. Each of these DLs is assessed against five different criteria (concepts, properties)
- Content/User experience
- Cultural heritage domain (libraries, archives, museums, AV-institutions)
- Controlled / run by
- Content providing parties
- User involvement

Many references are made to Web2.0-concepts from Tim O'Reilly's article http://www.oreilly.com/pub/a/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html

From these 11x5 = 55 datapoints 6 trend plots are drawn (slides 116-166) to show "what is hot" and "what is not" in the current DL-landscape. Key slide summarizing this = no 168

Finally, some strategies for content & brand distribution of DLs are being discussed (SEO, Wikipedia, social & ego networks) , as well as some financial trends in DLs

This presentation was given by Olaf Janssen (National Library of the Netherlands - KB) as a lecture for students of the master's course "The Library" at Leiden University, most recently on 3-11-2016.

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Introduction to digital libraries - definitions, examples, concepts and trends (2016 version)

  1. 1. Lecture for the course “The Library” at Leiden University, 3-11-2016 Olaf Janssen, National Library of the Netherlands olaf.janssen@kb.nl - @ookgezellig - slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL Introduction to digital libraries Definitions, examples, concepts and trends
  2. 2. Lecture for the course “The Library” at Leiden University, 3-11-2016 Olaf Janssen, National Library of the Netherlands olaf.janssen@kb.nl - @ookgezellig - slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL Introduction to digital libraries Definitions, examples, concepts and trends ± 45 min ± 45 min
  3. 3. Hi, I’m Olaf Janssen I’m the Wikipedia (& open data) Coordinator of the KB Wikimedia coordinator??? I initiate and coordinate collaboration between the (staff, collections, data, knowledge, networks of the) KB and Wikimedia projects (such as Wikipedia) olaf.janssen@kb.nl @ookgezellig slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:GLAM/Koninklijke_Bibliotheek_en_Nationaal_Archief
  4. 4. My presentation philosophy
  5. 5. This slidedeck is optimised for slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL
  6. 6. What I hope you’ll get out of this lecture 1. Basic understanding of what a digital library is 2. Understanding of some basic concepts and trends over time in digital libraries 3. Understanding how these trends relate to “2.0”
  7. 7. How does my talk fit in the overall course? In my talk: digital In my talk: front-end/UX of digital libraries In my talk: Online/web At the end of my talk In my talk: Online/web
  8. 8. Alright, let’s go!
  9. 9. I’ll start with a bit of history
  10. 10. http://www.iupui.edu/~g115/assets/mod03/earth_history.jpg
  11. 11. http://www.iupui.edu/~g115/assets/mod03/earth_history.jpg Not all of history, only human history
  12. 12. http://www.mitchellteachers.net/WorldHistory/templates/images/earlyhumans/humanancestorsmainpic.jpg
  13. 13. http://www.mitchellteachers.net/WorldHistory/templates/images/earlyhumans/humanancestorsmainpic.jpg Not all of human history, only internet history
  14. 14. http://joaobordalo.com/files/topInternetHistory.png Not all of internet history, only history of websites
  15. 15. http://joaobordalo.com/files/topInternetHistory.png Not all of internet history, only history of the web
  16. 16. http://www.everyjoe.com/2007/09/05/technology/pc-magazines-top- 100-classic-web-sites/ http://www.everyjoe.com/2007/09/05/technology/pc-magazines-top-100-classic-web-sites/chunk.id=ss1-5-6
  17. 17. Context Historic development of the web : Rise of Web2.0
  18. 18. You read this article in preparation http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html Web2.0 key concepts Tim O’Reilly (2005) What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software
  19. 19. 1. The long tail 2. Data is the next Intel Inside 3. Users add value 4. Network effects by default 5. Some rights reserved 6. The perpetual beta 7. Software above the level of a single device 8. Cooperate, don't control Slide taken from http://www.slideshare.net/edsonm/michael-edson-let-us-go-boldly-into-the-future Tim O’Reilly (2005) What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software
  20. 20. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0
  21. 21. Not history of all the web, only the web in library context  digital libraries (DLs)
  22. 22. First things first What is a digital library
  23. 23. (there is no unique definition..)
  24. 24. but let’s give it a shot…
  25. 25. - aa
  26. 26. - aa “a library in which collections are stored in electronic media formats […] and accessible via computers. The electronic content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_library
  27. 27. “[..] at Stanford University, some discussion was held as to what did we mean by the term "digital library“”. [..] it would be valuable [..] to document a common understanding of the term, but agreed that […] we could not and would not aim for a general consensus. http://www.dlib.org/metrics/public/papers/dig-lib-scope.html
  28. 28. “[..] at Stanford University, some discussion was held as to what did we mean by the term "digital library“”. [..] it would be valuable [..] to document a common understanding of the term, but agreed that […] we could not and would not aim for a general consensus. http://www.dlib.org/metrics/public/papers/dig-lib-scope.html The term "Digital Library" has a variety of potential meanings, ranging from a digitized collection of material that one might find in a traditional library through to the collection of all digital information along with the services that make that information useful to all possible users.
  29. 29. “[..] at Stanford University, some discussion was held as to what did we mean by the term "digital library“”. [..] it would be valuable [..] to document a common understanding of the term, but agreed that […] we could not and would not aim for a general consensus. http://www.dlib.org/metrics/public/papers/dig-lib-scope.html The term "Digital Library" has a variety of potential meanings, ranging from a digitized collection of material that one might find in a traditional library through to the collection of all digital information along with the services that make that information useful to all possible users. [..] the following definition was proposed: The Digital Library is: – The collection of services – And the collection of information objects – That support users in dealing with information objects – And the organization and presentation of those objects – Accessable directly or indirectly via electronic/digital means
  30. 30. The Digital Library Reference Model (2011) (273 pages!)
  31. 31. “…a potentially virtual organisation, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long depth of time rich digital content, and offers to its targeted user communities [..] according to comprehensive codified policies." Source: The Digital Library Reference Model
  32. 32. - aa
  33. 33. - aa
  34. 34. - aa “Digital libraries are organised collections of digital content made available to the public.“ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=URISERV:l24226i
  35. 35. And there are many more definitions…* * Such as https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385d/readings/Borgman-1999-What_Are_Digital_Libraries.pdf
  36. 36. Let’s summarize the red key phrases we’ve just seen...
  37. 37. too textual, vague, abstract Is ? No worries, let’s look at 11 real life examples of digital libraries to improve our understanding
  38. 38. too textual, vague, abstract No worries, let’s look at 11 real life examples of digital libraries to improve our understanding Is ? E-lev-en?!!?? Yes, sorry…. I really need some critical mass here, each example will become a ‘datapoint’ for making some trend plots later on (I will them brief, you can study them in more detail later…)
  39. 39. too textual, vague, abstract No worries, let’s look at 11 real life examples of digital libraries to improve our understanding Is ? E-lev-en?!!?? Yes, sorry…. I really need some critical mass here, each example will become a ‘datapoint’ for making some trend plots later on (I will them brief, you can study them in more detail later…)
  40. 40. too textual, vague, abstract No worries, let’s look at 11 real life examples of digital libraries to improve our understanding Is ? E-lev-en?!!?? Yes, sorry…. I really need some critical mass here, each example will become a ‘datapoint’ for making some trend plots later on (I’ll keep them brief, you can study them in more detail later…)
  41. 41. 4 cultural heritage domains 1. Library: publications Books, magazines, newspapers
  42. 42. 4 cultural heritage domains 2. Archive: primary documents (unique & unpublished) Public records, government docs, legal administrations 4. Audio-visual: recordings Films, audio, TV, radio, speeches, plays 1. Library: publications Books, magazines, newspapers 3. Museum: artefacts Paintings, drawings, sculpture, instruments, flora, fauna
  43. 43. 4 cultural heritage domains 3. Museum: artefacts Paintings, drawings, sculpture, instruments, flora, fauna 2. Archive: primary documents (unique & unpublished) Public records, government docs, legal administrations 4. Audio-visual: recordings Films, audio, TV, radio, speeches, plays 1. Library: publications Books, magazines, newspapersGLAMs Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums = cultural heritage sector
  44. 44. I’m going to score each of the 11 DL-examples on 5 criteria 1.Content/UX: What’s in it? (metadata, full-text, visuals, audio etc.) 2.Content domain: Library, archive, museum, AV ? 3.Run by: Public, private, community-run ? 4.Content partners: Which type of partners are providing content? 5.User involvement: To which extent is the public involved in building the DL?
  45. 45. 1. KB Catalogue opc4.kb.nl
  46. 46. • Focus on raw metadata • No full-texts • No visuals
  47. 47. 1. KB Catalogue opc4.kb.nl Web version of old card catalogue • Content/UX: Raw metadata (no full-texts, no visuals) • Content domain: library (books, newspapers, magazines) • Run by: commercial company (OCLC, USA) • Content partners: Institutional (KB) • User involvement: none; 1-directional institutional broadcasting; “See what KB has” (Web1.0)
  48. 48. 2. LibraryThing Librarything.com
  49. 49. • Focus on metadata, with user ratings & tags • No full-texts • Tiny visuals (book covers from Amazon) Rating & tags
  50. 50. Members add metadata (110M books so far)
  51. 51. Members add book reviews (2.9M so far)
  52. 52. 2. LibraryThing Librarything.comSocial Web2.0 library catalogue • Content/UX: Raw metadata-oriented (no full-texts, poor visuals) • Content domain: library (books) • Run by: commercial company (40% Amazon) • Content partners: user community (Web2.0) • User involvement: very strong: “Contribute & share your metadata, ratings, tags, covers, reviews” (Web2.0)
  53. 53. 2. LibraryThing Librarything.comSocial Web2.0 library catalogue • Content/UX: Raw metadata-oriented (no full-texts, poor visuals) • Content domain: library (books) • Run by: commercial company (40% Amazon) • Content partners: user community (Web2.0) • User involvement: very strong: “Contribute & share your metadata, ratings, tags, covers, reviews” (Web2.0) Further reading • http://carl-acrl.org/ig/carlitn/9.07.2007/LTFL.pdf • http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2534&context=atg • http://www.librarything.com/zeitgeist
  54. 54. 3. Delpher Delpher.nl
  55. 55. Focus on visuals (scans), not metadata
  56. 56. Focus on OCR (and scan), not metadata
  57. 57. Metadata for advanced search
  58. 58. The OCR of a newspaper article Metadata for result filtering
  59. 59. Joint effort Multiple institutional content partners http://www.delpher.nl/nl/platform/pages/helpitems?nid=382
  60. 60. The OCR of a newspaper article Full-text historic Dutch publications • Content/UX: Full-text: scans & OCR, with metadata- based searching & filtering • Content domain: library (publications) • Run by: non-commercial institution (KB) • Content partners: Institutional (libraries, archives, newspaper publishers etc.) • User involvement: none; “See what full-text publications we have” (Web1.0) Further reading (historic newspapers only, precursor of Delpher) • http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january08/klijn/01klijn.html • www.ifla.org/files/assets/newspapers/documents/newsletter-no19.pdf (p7)
  61. 61. 4. Digital Library for Dutch Literature dbnl.org
  62. 62. Focus on full-text…
  63. 63. Downloads • PDF • OCR • Scans • ePub
  64. 64. … with metadata for searching & filtering
  65. 65. 4. Digital Library for Dutch Literature dbnl.orgFull-text Dutch literature database • Content/UX: Full-text: OCR, PDF, scans, ePub with metadata for search • Content domain: library (literature, publications) • Run by: non-commercial institution (KB, since 2015) • Content partners: none (own collection) • User involvement: none; “See what we DBNL have” (Web1.0) Further reading • van Stipriaan, Rene. "Future proofing Dutch literature-Rene van Stipriaan answers questions about the Digital Library for Dutch Literature, how it was started and why users like it." Research Information 41 (2009): 13.
  66. 66. 5. Google Books books.google.com
  67. 67. Focus on full-text
  68. 68. Joint effort 1. Many big libraries (incl. KB) as content partners
  69. 69. Joint effort 2. Partner Program: authors & publishers
  70. 70. 5. Google Books books.google.com ’The world's most comprehensive index of full-text books’ • Content/UX: Full-texts: e-books & e-magazines • Content domain: library (books) • Run by: commercial company (Google) • Content partners: * Many institutional - big libraries worldwide (eg. KB, Oxford, Stanford, Harvard), and publishers * Individual authors • User involvement: weak, users can contribute book reviews (“Web1.1”) Further reading • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Books_Library_Project • http://liber.library.uu.nl/index.php/lq/article/download/URN%3ANBN%3ANL%3AUI%3A10 -1-113624/8371 • http://newsbreaks.infotoday.com/nbreader.asp?ArticleID=16307
  71. 71. 6. Project Gutenberg gutenberg.org Over 53,000 free ebooks
  72. 72. Focus on full-text (ebooks)
  73. 73. self.gutenberg.org
  74. 74. Free public domain e-books • Content/UX: Full-text e-books • Content domain: library (books) • Run by: not-for-profit company (foundation, PGLAF) • Content partners: Institutional (publishers) • User involvement: some; users can contribute own books (self.gutenberg.org) (“Web1.5”) Further reading • http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Gutenberg:About • Marie Lebert, Project Gutenberg (1971-2008) - gutenberg.org/ebooks/27045 • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Gutenberg
  75. 75. 7. Wikisource wikisource.org
  76. 76. Sister project of Wikipedia
  77. 77. Focus on full-text
  78. 78. Content maintained by community of 2.8M people
  79. 79. Access ’90s – websites are T.F.O.’s 7. Wikisource wikisource.orgSocial open full-text library & archive • Content/UX: Rights-free full-texts (novels, non-fiction works, letters, speeches, constitutional and historical documents, laws etc.) • Content domains: library & archive • Run by: User-community, supported by not-for-profit organisation (Wikimedia Foundation) • Content partners: user community (Web2.0) • User involvement: very strong: “Contribute, improve, share & re- use texts” (Web2.0)
  80. 80. Access ’90s – websites are T.F.O.’s 7. Wikisource wikisource.orgSocial open full-text library & archive • Content/UX: Rights-free full-texts (novels, non-fiction works, letters, speeches, constitutional and historical documents, laws etc.) • Content domains: library & archive • Run by: User-community, supported by not-for-profit organisation (Wikimedia Foundation) • Content partners: user community (Web2.0) • User involvement: very strong: “Contribute, improve, share & re- use texts” (Web2.0) Further reading • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Wikisource:Community_portal
  81. 81. 8.Memory of the Netherlands Geheugenvannederland.nl
  82. 82. 22 results for ‘dansles’
  83. 83. Focus on non-hi-res image, but metadata still manifest  “visual catalogue”
  84. 84. Joint effort • Hosted by KB • 84 content partners (GLAMs)
  85. 85. Memory of the Netherlands 7.Memory of the Netherlands Geheugenvannederland.nl 8.Memory of the Netherlands Geheugenvannederland.nl Dutch cultural heritage media database • Content/UX: “Visual catalogue” : low/mid-res images, sounds, videos, with manifest metadata • Content domains: museum, archive, library, AV • Run by: non-commercial institution (KB) • Content partners: Institutional - 84 Dutch GLAMs • User involvement: none; “See what we GLAMs have” (Web1.0) Further reading • http://www.archimuse.com/publishing/ichim03/073C.pdf
  86. 86. 9. Europeana Collections europeana.eu
  87. 87. 1,477 results for ‘Einstein’
  88. 88. Metadata with low/mid-res image  “visual catalogue”
  89. 89. Joint effort 1,000s content providers (GLAMs) from Europe http://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/explore/sources.html
  90. 90. 9. Europeana europeana.euEuropean cultural heritage aggregator • Content/UX: “Visual catalogue”: metadata + low/mid-res images (sounds, videos, texts) • Content domains: museum, archive, library, AV • Run by: non-commercial organisation (Europeana Foundation) • Content partners: Institutional – 1,000s of European GLAMs • User involvement: none; “See what we have” (Web1.0) Further reading • pro.europeana.eu • https://liber.library.uu.nl/index.php/lq/article/download/URN%3ANBN%3ANL%3AUI %3A10-1-113558/8239 (background reading from 2009)
  91. 91. 10. Flickr The Commons flickr.com/commons
  92. 92. Joint effort 10s content providers worldwide
  93. 93. Random images
  94. 94. Focus on visual, page doesn’t feel “metadata-y” Source of image
  95. 95. Web2.0 “Wisdom of the crowd” Crowd-curation Folksonomy
  96. 96. 10. Flickr The Commons flickr.com/commons Web2.0 “Wisdom of the crowd” Crowd-curation Folksonomy Crowd-curated open photo archive • Content/UX: Rights-free rich visuals: mid/hi-res images, metadata secondary • Content domain: library, archive, museum • Run by: commercial company (Yahoo) • Content partners: Institutional - 10s GLAMs worldwide • User involvement: some; users can contribute comments, tags etc., but no photos (“Web1.5”) Further reading • http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/flickr_report_final.pdf • http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/19/technology/internet/19link.html?_r=1&partner=permalink &exprod=permalink • Vaughan, J. (2010). Insights into the Commons on Flickr. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 10(2), 185-214. http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/lib_articles/123 + PDF
  97. 97. 11. Rijksmuseum rijksmuseum.nl 573,000 rights-free ultra hi-res images
  98. 98. Focus on hi-res images Metadata “almost invisible”
  99. 99. 573,000 rights free images re-usable for everbody, everywhere
  100. 100. Rijksstudio Pinterest meets RM- collection 11.a Rijksstudio rijksmuseum.nl/en/rijksstudio
  101. 101. Dolls houses
  102. 102. Crowd-curation discovering cross-collection themes
  103. 103. RM created and user created Rijksstudios are treated equal
  104. 104. Crowd-curation: discovering cross- collection themes 11. Rijksstudio rijksmuseum.nl/en/rijksstudioFree hi-res artworks photo database • Content/UX: Rights-free ultra hi-res images, metadata “under the hood” • Content domain: museum • Run by: non-commercial institution (Rijksmuseum) • Content partners: none, own RM collection • User involvement: some, via Rijksstudio: users can create Pinterest-like boards, incl. user-curation (“Web1.5”) Further reading • http://mw2013.museumsandtheweb.com/paper/rijksstudio-make-your-own- masterpiece/
  105. 105. OK, so far for the 11 DL-examples…. I did not choose them randomly… Let’s use their properties as input for some plots…
  106. 106. BREAK
  107. 107. 1. Content/Presentation/UX What does the DL look & feel like?
  108. 108. Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face 1. Content/Presentation/UX What does the DL look & feel like?
  109. 109. Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual 1. Content/Presentation/UX What does the DL look & feel like?
  110. 110. Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” 1. Content/Presentation/UX What does the DL look & feel like?
  111. 111. KB Catalogue Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood”
  112. 112. Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” KB Catalogue
  113. 113. Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” KB Catalogue Flickr The Commons
  114. 114. “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” KB Catalogue Flickr The Commons
  115. 115. Flickr The Commons “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum/studio
  116. 116. KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum /studio “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” Flickr The Commons
  117. 117. KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum /studio “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” Flickr The Commons Europeana Collections
  118. 118. KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum /studio “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” Flickr The Commons Europeana Collections
  119. 119. KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum /studio “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” Flickr The Commons Europeana Digital Library for Dutch Literature
  120. 120. KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum /studio “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” Flickr The Commons Europeana Collections Digital Library for Dutch Literature
  121. 121. KB Catalogue Digital Library for Dutch Literature LibraryThing Europeana Collections Rijksmuseum /studio “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” Flickr The Commons
  122. 122. KB Catalogue Digital Library for Dutch Literature LibraryThing Europeana Collections Rijksmuseum /studio “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” Flickr The Commons Memory of the Netherlands
  123. 123. KB Catalogue Digital Library for Dutch Literature LibraryThing Europeana Collections Rijksmuseum /studio “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” Flickr The Commons Memory of the Netherlands Delpher
  124. 124. KB Catalogue Digital Library for Dutch Literature LibraryThing Europeana Collections Memory of the Netherlands Rijksmuseum /studio “Dressed up catalogues” Mix of metadata and visual “all about full-texts” Metadata-oriented Classic catalogues No images Raw metadata in your face Google books Project Gutenberg Wikisource Visually oriented (hi-res) Images in your face Metadata “under the hood” Flickr The Commons Delpher
  125. 125. 2. Domain of content Which CH-domain(s) contribute to the DL?
  126. 126. 2. Domain of content Which CH-domain(s) contribute to the DL? Archives documents Libraries publications Museums artefacts
  127. 127. 2. Domain of content Which CH-domain(s) contribute to the DL? Archives documents Cross-domain Content from libraries, museums and archives Libraries publications Museums artefacts
  128. 128. Libraries publications Museums artefacts Archives documents Cross-domain Content from libraries, museums and archives Rijksmuseum /studio
  129. 129. KB Catalogue LibraryThing Google books Digital Library for Dutch Literature Project Gutenberg Libraries publications Museums artefacts Archives documents Cross-domain Content from libraries, museums and archives Rijksmuseum /studio Delpher
  130. 130. KB Catalogue LibraryThing Google books Digital Library for Dutch Literature Project Gutenberg Wikisource Libraries publications Museums artefacts Archives documents Cross-domain Content from libraries, museums and archives Rijksmuseum /studio Delpher
  131. 131. KB Catalogue LibraryThing Europeana Collections Memory of the Netherlands Flickr The Commons Google books Digital Library for Dutch Literature Project Gutenberg Wikisource Libraries publications Museums artefacts Archives documents Cross-domain Content from libraries, museums and archives Rijksmuseum /studio Delpher
  132. 132. 3. Geo scope What’s the geographical scope of the DL content?
  133. 133. InternationalNational Dutch 3. Geo scope What’s the geographical scope of the DL content? Continental European Local/regional
  134. 134. Memory of the Netherlands Rijksstudio Digital Library for Dutch Literature InternationalLocal/regional National Dutch Continental European Delpher
  135. 135. Europeana Collections Memory of the Netherlands Rijksstudio Digital Library for Dutch Literature InternationalLocal/regional National Dutch Continental European Delpher
  136. 136. LibraryThingEuropeana Collections Flickr The Commons Google books Project Gutenberg Wikisource InternationalLocal/regional National Dutch Continental European Memory of the Netherlands Rijksstudio Digital Library for Dutch Literature Delpher
  137. 137. 4. Collaboration between content partners Who provides content & value for our DL?
  138. 138. Institutional content “We do it ourself, we show off our own content” (no partner content, no user generated content) 4. Collaboration between content partners Who provides content & value for our DL?
  139. 139. Institutional content “We do it ourself, we show off our own content” (no partner content, no user generated content) 4. Collaboration between content partners Who provides content & value for our DL? Partner content “We add value by collaboration, we need & show content from our institutional partners”
  140. 140. User content “We are nothing without contributions from our users” Institutional content “We do it ourself, we show off our own content” (no partner content, no user generated content) 4. Collaboration between content partners Who provides content & value for our DL? Partner content “We add value by collaboration, we need & show content from our institutional partners” Web2.0: “Users add value”
  141. 141. KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum /studio User content “We are nothing without contributions from our users” Institutional content “We do it ourself, we show off our own content” (no partner content, no user generated content) Digital Library for Dutch Literature Partner content “We add value by collaboration, we need & show content from our institutional partners”
  142. 142. KB Catalogue Europeana Collections Memory of the NetherlandsRijksmuseum /studio User content “We are nothing without contributions from our users” Institutional content “We do it ourself, we show off our own content” (no partner content, no user generated content) Digital Library for Dutch Literature Partner content “We add value by collaboration, we need & show content from our institutional partners” Delpher
  143. 143. KB Catalogue LibraryThing Europeana Collections Memory of the Netherlands Wikisource Rijksmuseum /studio User content “We are nothing without contributions from our users” Institutional content “We do it ourself, we show off our own content” (no partner content, no user generated content) Digital Library for Dutch Literature Partner content “We add value by collaboration, we need & show content from our institutional partners” Delpher
  144. 144. KB Catalogue LibraryThing Europeana Collections Memory of the Netherlands Wikisource Flickr The Commons Rijksmuseum /studio User content “We are nothing without contributions from our users” Institutional content “We do it ourself, we show off our own content” (no partner content, no user generated content) Project Gutenberg Digital Library for Dutch Literature Google books Partner content “We add value by collaboration, we need & show content from our institutional partners” Delpher
  145. 145. 5. Control Who decides how the DL develops?
  146. 146. Institution(s) in control and (very) nervous about user contributions 5. Control Who decides how the DL develops? User-controlled The community is in control, no need for institutions Web2.0: “Radical trust” Users can contribute, we trust them, but institution/company keeps control
  147. 147. Users can contribute, we trust them, but institution/company keeps control KB Catalogue Europeana Collections Digital Library for Dutch Literature Memory of the Netherlands Delpher User-controlled The community is in control, no need for institutions Institution(s) in control and (very) nervous about user contributions
  148. 148. Users can contribute, we trust them, but institution/company keeps control KB Catalogue Wikisource Europeana Collections Digital Library for Dutch Literature Memory of the Netherlands User-controlled The community is in control, no need for institutions Institution(s) in control and (very) nervous about user contributions Delpher
  149. 149. Users can contribute, we trust them, but institution/company keeps control KB Catalogue Wikisource Europeana Collections Digital Library for Dutch Literature Memory of the Netherlands Flickr The Commons LibraryThing User-controlled The community is in control, no need for institutions Rijksmuseum /studio Institution(s) in control and (very) nervous about user contributions Project Gutenberg Google books Delpher
  150. 150. 6. Openness Can users retain, reuse, revise, remix, redistribute the DL content?
  151. 151. Web2.0: “Some rights reserved” Closed © You can only use our content for personal use or non-commercial research purposes Fully open You can do anything you like with our content, no conditions apply Part closed, part open Part of content is public domain, other part is © Creative Commons You can remix and share under certain conditions 6. Openness Can users retain, reuse, revise, remix, redistribute the DL content?
  152. 152. Web2.0: “Some rights reserved” Closed © You can only use our content for personal use or non-commercial research purposes Fully open You can do anything you like with our content, no conditions apply Part closed, part open Part of content is public domain, other part is © Creative Commons You can remix and share under certain conditions Further reading • “The 5 Rs” - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_content • Creative Commons: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Commons_license • Open culture - http://www.ciac.ca/en/open-culture-definition-en 6. Openness Can users retain, reuse, revise, remix, redistribute the DL content?
  153. 153. KB Catalogue Closed © You can only use our content for personal use or non-commercial research purposes Fully open You can do anything you like with our content, no conditions apply Part closed, part open Part of content is public domain, other part is © Creative Commons You can remix and share under certain conditions
  154. 154. KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum /studio Closed © You can only use our content for personal use or non-commercial research purposes Fully open You can do anything you like with our content, no conditions apply Part closed, part open Part of content is public domain, other part is © Creative Commons You can remix and share under certain conditions
  155. 155. Flickr The Commons Europeana Collections (metadata) Project Gutenberg KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum /studio Closed © You can only use our content for personal use or non-commercial research purposes Fully open You can do anything you like with our content, no conditions apply Part closed, part open Part of content is public domain, other part is © Creative Commons You can remix and share under certain conditions
  156. 156. Flickr The Commons Memory of the Netherlands Project Gutenberg KB Catalogue Digital Library for Dutch Literature Rijksmuseum /studio Closed © You can only use our content for personal use or non-commercial research purposes Fully open You can do anything you like with our content, no conditions apply Google books Part closed, part open Part of content is public domain, other part is © Creative Commons You can remix and share under certain conditions Delpher Europeana Collections (metadata)
  157. 157. Flickr The Commons Memory of the Netherlands Wikisource (CC-BY-SA) Project Gutenberg KB Catalogue Rijksmuseum /studio Closed © You can only use our content for personal use or non-commercial research purposes Fully open You can do anything you like with our content, no conditions apply Part closed, part open Part of content is public domain, other part is © Creative Commons You can remix and share under certain conditions Google books Delpher Digital Library for Dutch Literature Europeana Collections (metadata)
  158. 158. These plots represent some trends in DL-development Past  Present 1.0  2.0 “Not”  “Hot”
  159. 159. CONCEPT PAST PRESENT Content – Presentation - UX Metadata in your face - “Raw” library catalogue - No / low-res images Objects in your face - Full-texts & OCR - Hi-res images - Metadata “under the hood” Collaboration between institutions Single institution Institutions do it themselves, no partners Multiple institutions, networks Institutions realize they stand stronger with partners in networks Collaboration between domains Single domain Institutions collaborate within own domain Single & cross-domain Institutions also collaborate outside own domains, are aware of added value cross- domain approach can bring Geo-scope of DL Local Scope is local (regional, national), unaware of bigger world ‘Global village’ Local initiatives & services are aware of the bigger world, and their roles within it User contribution Institutions add content & value - 1-directional institutional broadcasting - Users are passive consumers Users also add content & value - Users are creators - Harnassing collective intellligence, crowd-curation, folksonomy Control Institution(s) in control The wishes of our users are scary and complex, we know what’s best for them User voice heard Our users are our co-developers, they give us valuable input how we should develop our DL. P2P communication Openness of content (reuse, revise, remix, redistribute) Closed - You can use our content yourself, but you can’t build upon it - © , All rights reserved Open - We propagate sharing & remixing our content, as far as legitimate rightholders are not harmed - Creative Commons 1.01.01.0 2.02.02.0
  160. 160. CONCEPT PAST PRESENT Content – Presentation - UX Metadata in your face - “Raw” library catalogue - No / low-res images Objects in your face - Full-texts & OCR - Hi-res images - Metadata “under the hood” Collaboration between institutions Single institution Institutions do it themselves, no partners Multiple institutions, networks Institutions realize they stand stronger with partners in networks Collaboration between domains Single domain Institutions collaborate within own domain Single & cross-domain Institutions also collaborate outside own domains, are aware of added value cross- domain approach can bring Geo-scope of DL Local Scope is local (regional, national), unaware of bigger world ‘Global village’ Local initiatives & services are aware of the bigger world, and their roles within it User contribution Institutions add content & value - 1-directional institutional broadcasting - Users are passive consumers Users also add content & value - Users are creators - Harnassing collective intellligence, crowd-curation, folksonomy Control Institution(s) in control The wishes of our users are scary and complex, we know what’s best for them User voice heard Our users are our co-developers, they give us valuable input how we should develop our DL. P2P communication Openness of content (reuse, revise, remix, redistribute) Closed - You can use our content yourself, but you can’t build upon it - © , All rights reserved Open - We propagate sharing & remixing our content, as far as legitimate rightholders are not harmed - Creative Commons 1.01.01.0 2.02.02.0
  161. 161. OK, now we have at least some understanding of basic concepts and trends in DLs…
  162. 162. In terms of we’ve just looked at…
  163. 163. Let’s now look at 3 less directly visible ingredients of DLs
  164. 164. strategy
  165. 165. What I’m trying to say here: Digital libraries don’t just run by themselves. It takes organisation, management & strategy to build them, keep ‘m running and make ‘m grow….
  166. 166. Let’s take a look at (only) two trends in these fields…
  167. 167. Trend 1. Content & brand distribution ↓ Less “Come to daddy” ↑ More “Dressing up as pandas”
  168. 168. http://communist812.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/come-to-daddy-2.jpg Many GLAMs still expect people to visit their little, geeky, not-so-sexy DL-sites, to there consume their DL-content, services & brand
  169. 169. http://communist812.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/come-to-daddy-2.jpg Many GLAMs still expect people to visit their little, geeky, not-so-sexy DL-sites, to there consume their DL-content, services & brand They have to make an awful lot of noise (=institutional marketing) to draw people into their little boutiques On the modern web (nearly all) DL-sites are niche market “boutiques” with relatively local or specialized audiences … but honestly, often they’re just too small for that..
  170. 170. http://communist812.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/come-to-daddy-2.jpg We (ie. GLAMs) expect people to take the trouble to leave their trusted online hang-outs to visit our little, geeky, not-so-sexy DL-site, to consume our DL-content & brand We have to make an awful lot of noise (=institutional marketing) to try to make people like our little, geeky, not-so-sexy DL-site & brand http://www.collaboration-incontext.com/2006/12/enterprise_20_t.html Web2.0: “The long tail”
  171. 171. At the same time, GLAMs know the big, cool, popular platforms & communities normal people use in their daily lives Mass markets “Department stores” with global audiences (head of long tail)
  172. 172. At the same time, GLAMs know the big, cool, popular platforms & communities normal people use in their daily lives Because they realize most normal people won’t take the trouble to come to their little, geeky, not-so-sexy DL-site, Most people go to department stores instead of boutiques
  173. 173. At the same time, GLAMs know the big, cool, popular platforms & communities normal people use in their daily lives Because they realize most normal people won’t take the trouble to come to their little, geeky, not-so-sexy DL-site, they have to find a …
  174. 174. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1336070/Why-Chinese- scientists-dressing-Panda-suits-fool-bear-cubs.html At the same time, GLAMs know the big, cool, popular platforms & communities normal people use in their daily lives Because they realize most normal people won’t take the trouble to come to their little, geeky, not-so-sexy DL-site, they have to find a … Cunning trick! They “dress up as pandas” to seamlessly fit into the existing platforms, communities and workflows, so they can more easily distribute their niche DL- content, services & brand to global audiences They set up in-store boutiques!
  175. 175. Some dressing up styles of GLAMs
  176. 176. 1. Search engine optimisation (dressing up to be liked by Google) • Collaboration with Wikipedia (dressing up to be liked by curious people) • Social content sharing (Flickr, Pinterest..) (dressing up to be visually liked) • Ego networks (Facebook, Twitter ..) (dressing up to be seen & gossiped about) • Offering APIs (dressing up to be liked by businesses & developers) Some dressing up styles of GLAMs http://fc01.deviantart.net/fs71/i/2013/118/2/4/google_in_a_dress_by_wingsade-d63g1ce.png Further reading • What is SEO? - http://searchengineland.com/guide/what-is-seo • What’s the problem? - http://jpwilkin.blogspot.nl/2011/01/our-hidden-digital-libraries-july-27.html • SEO and metadata - http://eprints.rclis.org/13518/1/AD_Google.doc.pdf • Best paractices - http://www.libsuccess.org/Search_Engine_Optimization_%28SEO%29
  177. 177. 1. Search engine optimisation (dressing up to be liked by Google) 2. Collaboration with Wikipedia (dressing up to be liked by curious people) • Social content sharing (Flickr, Pinterest..) (dressing up to be visually liked) • Ego networks (Facebook, Twitter ..) (dressing up to be seen & gossiped about) • Offering APIs (dressing up to be liked by businesses & developers) Some dressing up styles of GLAMs http://partnersinexcellenceblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/curious.jpg
  178. 178. Research on the use of Wikipedia in the Netherlands 2015 https://nl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Rapportage_Motivaction_Lezers.pdf
  179. 179. Research on the use of Wikipedia in the Netherlands 2015 https://nl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Rapportage_Motivaction_Lezers.pdf “Which source do you use most for finding factual information?” • 62% Google • 30% Wikipedia • ??% books & libraries
  180. 180. Research on the use of Wikipedia in the Netherlands 2015 https://nl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Rapportage_Motivaction_Lezers.pdf “Which source do you use most for finding factual information?” • 62% Google • 30% Wikipedia • 1% books & libraries
  181. 181. World War 2
  182. 182. Dutch Parliament
  183. 183. Dutch writers
  184. 184. Onderzoek onder lezers Wikipedia 2015 https://nl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Rapportage_Motivaction_Lezers.pdf “80% of Dutch people use Wikipedia”
  185. 185. (Digital) libraries can reach big audiences by exposing their materials on Wikipedia  KB manuscripts case study
  186. 186. Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts manuscripts.kb.nl This site contains 11.141 images, including...
  187. 187. …this baker image
  188. 188. Acèh Afrikaans Alemannisch አማርኛ Aragonés Ænglisc ‫العربية‬ ‫ܐܪܡܝܐ‬ ‫مصرى‬ অসমীয Asturianu Aymar aru Azərbaycanca Башҡортса Boarisch Žemaitėška Беларуска Беларуская (тарашкевіца) Български भोजपुरी Bamanankan ব়াাংল়া བོད་ཡིག Brezhone Bosanski Буряад Català Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄ Cebuano Chamoru ᏣᎳᎩ ‫کوردی‬ Češtin Словѣньскъ Чӑвашла Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch Zazaki ް‫ސ‬ ަ‫ބ‬ި‫ހ‬ެ‫ވ‬ ި‫ދ‬ Ελληνικά Emiliàn rumagnòl English Esperanto Español Eesti Euskara ‫فارسی‬ Suomi Võro Føroyskt França Arpetan Nordfriisk Furlan Frysk Gaeilge 贛語 Gàidhlig Galego ‫گيلکی‬ Avañe'ẽ ગુજરાત Gaelg 客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî ‫עברית‬ हिन्दी Fiji Hindi Hrvatski Kreyòl ayisyen Magyar Հայերե Interlingua Bahasa Indonesia Interlingue Iñupiak Ilokano Ido Íslenska Italiano 日本語 Lojban Basa Jawa ქართული Kongo Қазақша Kalaallisut ភាសាខ្មែរ ಕನ್ನಡ 한국어 Перем Коми Къарачай-малкъар Ripoarisch Kurdî Коми Kernowek Кыргызча Latina Ladin Lëtzebuergesch Лезги Limburgs Lumbaart Lingála ລາວ Lietuvių Latgaļu Latviešu Bas Banyumasan Malagasy Олык марий Baso Minangkabau Македонски മലയാള Монгол मराठी Bahasa Melayu ‫رونی‬ ِ‫ز‬ Nāhuatl Napulitano Plattdüütsch Nederland Nedersaksies नेपाली नेपाल भाषा Norsk nynorsk Norsk bokmål Novial Nouormand Occita ଓଡ଼ିଆ Ирон ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Papiamentu Picard Deitsch Norfuk / Pitkern Polski Piemontèis ‫پنجابی‬ ‫ښتو‬ Português Runa Simi Rumantsch Romani Română Armãneashce Русский Русиньскы संस्कृ तम ् Саха тыла Sardu Sicilianu Scots Sámegiella Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватск සිංහල Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Gagana Samoa Shqip Српски / srpsk Sranantongo Sesotho Seeltersk Basa Sunda Svenska Kiswahili Ślůnski தமிழ் తెలుగుТоҷикӣ ไทย Türkmençe Tagalog Tok Pisin Türkçe Татарча/tatarça Українська ‫ردو‬ Oʻzbekcha Vèneto Vepsän kel’ Tiếng Việt Volapük Walon Winaray Wolof 吴语 IsiXhos Wikipedia covers 292 languages https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia/Versions
  189. 189. Wikipedia in German This images is used on many Wikipedias
  190. 190. Wikipedia in French
  191. 191. Wikipedia in Bavarian
  192. 192. Wikipedia in Hungarian
  193. 193. Wikipedia in Russian
  194. 194. Wikipedia in Chinese
  195. 195. Wikipedia in Korean
  196. 196. This baker image is not the only image from KB that is used on Wikipedia. In total KB offers 11.5K images for Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Koninklijke_Bibliotheek
  197. 197. Using Wikipedia, these images are seen all over the world http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CountryWorldMap_LangaugeVersionsWikipediaContainingKBImages_30092013.png#file This maps shows the countries (red) in which Wikipedia articles containing images related to the National library of the Netherlands (KB) have been consulted (dd 30-9-2013)
  198. 198. Some statistics on the KB manuscripts (*) As said, this site contains 11.141 images *http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:GLAM/Koninklijke_Bibliotheek_en_Nationaal_Archief/Resultaten/KPIs/KPI8/CasestudyKBManuscripten#Impact_Wikipe dia_:_casestudy_KB-manuscripten (in Dutch) On this KB-site, these 11.141 images are requested 11K times per month (1 req per img)
  199. 199. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Manuscripts_from_Koninklijke_Bibliotheek Of these 11.141 images, (only) 163 are used in Wikipedia articles On Wikipedia, these 163 images are requested 779K times per month (4777 req per img) Some statistics on the KB manuscripts (*) x 4777 BANG!!
  200. 200. 1. Search engine optimisation (dressing up to be liked by Google) 2. Collaboration with Wikipedia (dressing up to be liked by curious people) 3. Social content sharing (Instagram, Pinterest, Flickr...) (dressing up to be visually liked) • Ego networks (Facebook, Twitter ..) (dressing up to be seen & gossiped about) • Offering APIs (dressing up to be liked by businesses & developers) Some dressing up styles of GLAMS http://tweakers.net/ext/f/ABh9LXs58VV9cBY3VnMBvbLf/full.jpg
  201. 201. http://www.pinterest.com/britishlibrary
  202. 202. https://www.instagram.com/nypl/
  203. 203. Library of Congress @ Flickr
  204. 204. 1. Search engine optimisation (dressing up to be liked by Google) 2. Collaboration with Wikipedia (dressing up to be liked by curious people) 3. Social content sharing (Flickr, Pinterest..) (dressing up to be visually liked) 4. Ego networks (Facebook, Twitter ..) (dressing up to be seen, gossiped and liked) • Offering APIs (dressing up to be liked by businesses & developers) Some dressing up styles of GLAMS http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fGneNjF84zM/TZTAzh8wd6I/AAAAAAAAGCc/jWh3C5gk6LI/s1600/gossip1.jpg
  205. 205. Screenshot of my Twitter feed dd 02-11-2016 “seamlessly fit into people’s exisiting workflows”
  206. 206. Mouth-to-mouth gossip about Delpher.nl
  207. 207. Mouth-to-mouth gossip about Delpher.nl
  208. 208. Trend 2. Digital library funding
  209. 209. Trend 2. Digital library funding Less Public More Private & social - Public-private partnerships - Sponsoring - Crowdfunding
  210. 210. Trend 2. Digital library funding Less Public More Private & social 1. Public-private partnerships 2. Sponsoring 3. Crowdfunding
  211. 211. 1. Public-private partnerships http://kb.nl/en/news/news-archive-2010/koninklijke-bibliotheek-and-google- sign-book-digitisation-agreement http://kb.nl/en/news/news-archive-2011/digitisation-by-proquest-of-early- printed-books-in-kb-collection
  212. 212. Astrid Verheusen,The Library - Digitisation, 30 October 2014, slide 26 Beer card: http://assets.catawiki.nl/assets/2012/5/11/4/7/d/47d64100-7dc7-012f-8f22-005056960006.jpg 1. Public-private partnerships
  213. 213. Astrid Verheusen,The Library - Digitisation, 30 October 2014, slide 26 Beer card: http://assets.catawiki.nl/assets/2012/5/11/4/7/d/47d64100-7dc7-012f-8f22-005056960006.jpg 1. Public-private partnerships Deals with Google and Proquest are worth 63M€
  214. 214. 2. (Corporate) Sponsoring Rijksmuseum
  215. 215. 2. (Corporate) Sponsoring Rijksmuseum Annual Report 2012, p 98
  216. 216. 2. (Corporate) Sponsoring http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/about/sponsors.html
  217. 217. http://artdaily.com/index.asp?int_sec=2&int_new=54147#.Uo4SGZyrF8E 2. (Corporate) Sponsoring
  218. 218. 3. Crowdfunding “Cooperation of normal people who pool their money together to support efforts initiated by others” https://blog.flattr.net/2012/04/project -gutenberg-taps-into-crowdfunding// https://flattr.com/thing/509045
  219. 219. http://blog.flattr.net/2012/04/project- gutenberg-taps-into-crowdfunding/ https://flattr.com/thing/509045 https://flattr.com/thing/449169/Internet-Archive-Blogs kickstarter.com/projects/1692978335/library-for-all-a-digital-library-for-the-developi
  220. 220. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/vatican-library-making-4000-ancient-manuscripts-available-online-free-photos-1470911#
  221. 221. OK, that was about it… .. but please let me do update the trends table for you!
  222. 222. CONCEPT PAST PRESENT Geo-scope of DL Local Scope is local (regional, national), unaware of bigger world ‘Global village’ Local initiatives & services are aware of the bigger world, and their roles within it User contribution Institutions add content & value - 1-directional institutional broadcasting - Users are passive consumers Users also add content & value - Users are creators - Harnassing collective intellligence, crowd-curation, folksonomy Control Institution(s) in control The wishes of our users are scary and complex, we know what’s best for them User voice heard Our users are our co-developers, they give us valuable input how we should develop our DL. P2P communication Openness of content (reuse, revise, remix, redistribute) Closed - You can use our content yourself, but you can’t build upon it - © , All rights reserved Open - We propagate sharing & remixing our content, as far as legitimate rightholders are not harmed - Creative Commons Content distribution Come to daddy - People need to visit our website - Only niche-markets are reached Dressing up as pandas - DL-content/services/brand embedded in user’s daily workflows - Niche and global audiences are reached Funding of DLs - Public - Mix of public, public-private, (corporate) sponsors, crowdfunding 1.01.01.01.0 2.02.02.02.0
  223. 223. THANKS! olaf.janssen@kb.nl @ookgezellig slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL

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