COMMUNICATIVEPRINCIPLES AND ACTIVITIES By : Ola Mohammed Ahmed
Goal of Foreign Languageto enable the learners to use the foreign language in workor lifeTherefore, we should teach that part of the language thatwill be used; in the way that is used in the real world.
Gaps between the use of language in real life and the traditionalforeign language teaching pedagogy In real life: Language is used to perform certain communicative functions. The traditional pedagogy: focuses on forms rather than on functions. The consequence: The learners have learned a lot of sentences or patterns, but they are unable to use them appropriately in real social situations.
In real life: We use all skills, including the receptive skills and theproductive skills.The traditional pedagogy tends to focus on one or two languageskills and ignore the others.The consequence: The learners cannot use the language in anintegrated way
In real life: Language is always used in a certain context.The traditional pedagogy tends to isolate language from itscontext. e.g. the passiveThe consequence:The students are puzzled about how to usethe language in a particular context.
Fostering communicative competenceThe goal of CLT is to develop students communicative competence. Communicative Competence vs. Linguistic CompetenceLinguistic Competence = grammatical knowledge or knowledge aboutthe language formCommunicative Competence =Knowledge & ability for: rules of form/grammar + rules of use
According to Hymes (1979), communicativecompetence includes four aspects: • knowing whether or not something is formally possible (grammaticality: grammatically acceptable • knowing whether something is understandable to human beings (feasibility • knowing whether something is in line with social norms (appropriateness in a social context • knowing whether or not something is in fact done (what the language performance entails).
• Communicative Competence includes knowledge/awareness of:1. when to say2. where to say3. to whom to say4. what to say5. how to say
Features of CLTCLT stresses the need to allow students opportunities forauthentic and creative use of the language;CLT focuses on meaning rather than on form;CLT suggests that learning should be relevant to the needsof the students;CLT advocates task-based language teaching (TBLT);CLT emphasizes a functional approach to language learningand culture awareness of the target language.
The implementation of language skills• The translation of communicative competence in language teaching practice is to develop the learners’ skills, namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing.• In traditional pedagogy, listening and speaking were treated as skills different from what takes place in reality.• Therefore, listening and speaking skills need to be redefined in terms of the real communicative use.• Students should have the chance to listen to and produce what is meaningful, authentic, unpredictable, and creative if ever possible.
Functional communicative activitiese.g. Identifying pictures Pictures Pictures for for Student B Student A
language for the activity: • What colour …? • How many …? • Where …?
Social interactional activities e.g. Role-playing through cued dialogues Learner A Learner B You meet B in the street. You meet A in the street.A: Greet B. A:B: B: Greet A.A: Ask B where he is going. A:B: B: Say you are going for a walk.A: Suggest somewhere to go A:together. B: Reject A’s suggestion. Make aB: different suggestion.A: Accept B’s suggestion. A:B: B: Express pleasure.
Reading and writing are also communicative skills which are worth no less attention than listening and speaking Rod Ellis’ (1990) six criteria for communicative activities1. Communicative purpose; (information gap)2. Communicative desire; (real need)3. (Focus on ) Content, not form; (message)4. Variety of language; (not just one language form, free to improvise/create)5. No teacher intervention; (done by Ss; no correcting/evaluating how Ss do it; assessment is based on the ‘product’ or on communicative purpose rather than on the language.)6. No material control.