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  1. 1. An International Conference on Globalism and Urban Change CITY FUTURES 8 – 10 July 2004, Chicago A NEW URBAN PLANNING APPROACH FOR THE REGENERATION OF A HISTORICAL AREA FROM ISTANBUL’S CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT Ayşe Sema Kubat i, Engin Eyüboğluii, Özhan Ertekin iii, Özlem Özeriv Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture Department of City and Regional Planning1. AbstractThis study is based on a research project on the field of urban regeneration of the oldhistorical region in the central business district of Istanbul named Galata, where the GoldenHorn meets the Bosphorus. The district, which is accepted as a part of the world’s culturalheritage, has a history bearing the architectural, cultural and religious traces of Genovese,Byzantine and Ottoman civilizations. In spite of the active pattern in the south and in thenorth, Galata is a blighted area stuck between these regions. Although Galata has to play asignificant role by both its location in Istanbul and its history, the area has been losing itsvalue rapidly. The area is continuously destroyed because of the lack of care and also due touser’s damage. There is a need for new researches and proposals in order to find out thereasons for the physical and social collapse of the region.The study has adopted the basic concepts and methods of Space Syntax to develop aregeneration strategy for Galata by; Objectively analyzing the urban form of Galata and measuring levels of spatial integration within the local and wider urban context, Gathering objective data on people’s activities, especially the patterns of everyday pedestrian movement and space use, Analyzing the relation between urban form and the pattern of movement and space use, Studying the patterns of land use and building use in the historic core of Galata, Generating strategic design proposals, which enhance the physical connections with the surroundings and integrate people with new and existing facilities, Accessing the likely effects of design proposals (in isolation and in combination) on pedestrian activity, and the likely effects of this on the wider process of regeneration.i kubat@itu.edu.trii e.eyuboglu@tnn.netiii ozhan@tnn.netiv ozlem@ozer.name.tr 1
  2. 2. Through an objective assessment of the problems and constraints of the historic core theSpace Syntax study has identified possible physical design solutions, which could enhance thefunctioning of the historic, and decrease its isolation from the rest of the town center. Thefundamental aim in these proposals is to turn what is currently an unpleasant, derelict area to anew active zone without losing its historical character and to create a unified town center,which incorporates the historic core of Galata, the existing retail area, and the seafront areainto a well-connected, vibrant whole. Thus the historic core of Galata would have a betteropportunity of attracting activity, investment and socio-economic gain. In return, the historiccore would provide a key attraction and a focal point of heritage and identity within Galata,which would consequently influence other parts of the town center and benefit the widerIstanbul context.It’s believed that this project, which is supported by the Greater Municipality of Istanbul, withits methodology and interpretation will contribute modern (latest) trends and draw lessons forfuture policy and practice.2. In troductionFerryboats sail to and from the ports around and under the Galata Bridge, connecting thecenter of the city to its maritime suburbs on the Bosphorus and Mediterranean (Figure 1). Astream of pedestrian and vehicular traffic pours across the Galata Bridge and along thehighways that parallels the right and left banks of the Golden Horn.Figure 1: Location of Study Area in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area. 2
  3. 3. However, instead of being a focus for pedestrian activity in the area, the spaces in the Galataarea are largely empty for most of the day, thus creating the area dangerous for pedestrians.As a consequence, business, shopping and entertainment activities facing the streets of thearea have had difficulty in trading which do not seem from their “central” location. Despitethe lively neighborhood, Galata remains disjointed and rigidly separated according to theland-use, and this historical site of Istanbul is in the process of deterioration. It is exactly thisimbalance between the neighboring areas that the “Space Syntax” study has aimed to redress.Figure 2: Arial view of Galata.This study is supported by the Greater Municipality of Istanbul, Settlements & UrbanTransformation Directorate, Urbanism Atelier and Urban & Environmental Planning &Research Center of Istanbul Technical University. As a ‘pilot’ project the project group ofITU and Dr. Kayvan Karimi and Tim Stonor as consultants of Space Syntax Limited andSpace Syntax laboratory of University College London, are commissioned to undertake aSpace Syntax study of urban form and pedestrian activity in the historic core of Galata and todevelop planning and design proposals for the declined zone Galata.3. AimThe fundamental aim of the project that is subject to this paper is rehabilitation andtransformation of the historic Galata which is a part of Istanbul’s CBD, while providing aproper relationship of spatial layout and structural network within the metropolitan city.Following matters are taken into consideration to benefit from a model that explains humansettlements through human behavior: To turn what is currently an unpleasant, derelict area to a new active zone without losing its historical character and making the historical Galata a part of the activity center, as well a “live center”; 3
  4. 4.  Integrating Galata with the spatial structure of the whole city and increasing its relations with the other parts of the city, especially with the larger city centers such as Besiktas, Taksim, Sisli and so on;Figure 3: Land Use Pattern and Transportation Network of Galata To increase vitality and to create an economically productive historic core without harming the traditional character of the city; To turn out the north-south link to a well-used route between the Beyoglu – Pera and Karakoy waterfront area; To recreate and strengthen a continuance of Istiklal Street between Galata Square and Galata Bridge; To give new functions to the main street lined with historical facades, namely “Hendek Street” which is opening to a piazza where Galata tower, is located; To create a pedestrian link between the underground station and the Galata Tower, which is one of the landmarks of Istanbul To prepare a renewal project for creating attractiveness in the site by using the historical features of Galata. 4
  5. 5. 4. The Study AreaGalata is the area where the Golden Horn meets the Bosphorus (Figure 1, 2). Throughouthistory, Galata bridges have always connected the two shores of the Golden Horn. Galata is1300m from Taksim Square, which is accepted as the center of Beyoglu and Pera, and alsothe hub of the modern town. Thus Galata Bridge plays an important role by connecting oldIstanbul (Eminonu District) to the new (Karakoy and Beyoglu districts). Karakoy Port isconnected to the Tunel Square by an underground rail system, which is one of the oldest inthe world. At one end of the Galata Bridge there is Eminonu, which is the focal point ofIstanbul’s colorful daily life and at the other end Karakoy, which is popular because ofcommercial and banking facilities. The main street lined with historical facades, namely“Hendek Street” is opening to a piazza where Galata Tower is located. The Galata Tower isone of the landmarks that were built by the Genoese in 1348 and the apex of the Genovesefortifications of medieval Galata.5. MethodologyThe movement patterns of the historical Galata region of Istanbul, which has been shapedunder various cultures, and which is still the commercial core of Istanbul, will be definedthrough the method of "space syntax", which analyses the global forms of the settlements bymathematical interpretations.Space Syntax, which was developed by Prof. Hillier and Hanson at the Unit of Architecturalstudies, University College, London, is a technique that can be used for morphologicalanalyses of buildings, architectural plans, urban areas and urban plans. Space syntax is alsoone of the few theories which allow us to understand how culture and society are embedded inthe specific relational patterns constituting architecture, urban design and urban planning.The Space Syntax study of Galata’s historic core has generated a multi-level, electronicdatabase of urban form and function, containing: levels of spatial integration in the currentand historic street networks; levels of pedestrian movement; land use and building usepatterns; and key design ideas for improving spatial connections. The database provides anobjective tool for ‘joined up’ decision making in Galata, and a resource for the regenerationprocess.The Space Syntax study has developed a spatial regeneration vision for the historic core. Ithas identified strategic axes for development and change in the historic core as well as keysites for refurbishment, upgrading and renewal. Specific design solutions have been proposedfor regenerating the historic core, and these proposals have been evaluated using the SpaceSyntax model to test likely impact on pedestrian activity.Space Syntax specializes in the analysis and design of urban environments and, in particular,the design of pedestrian linkages and public spaces. It makes direct observations of pedestrianand vehicular activity and uses purpose-designed computer programs to forecast the effects ofnew developments on such patterns.The “axial map ” is the basis of settlement layout analysis. This represents how far observerscan have an uninterrupted impression of visibility and permeability as they move about thetown and look from a distance towards various directions. An axial map consists of the fewestand longest straight lines that cover the entire surface of a town, taking account of how farone can see and walk. As a way of seeing and experiencing a town, an axial map offers the 5
  6. 6. most globalizing perspective, since an axial line will extend as long as at least one point isvisible and directly accessible from it. The size of a settlement system is measured in terms ofthe number of lines. The resulting pattern of intersecting lines is then digitized into thecomputer and all the inter-relationships amongst the lines analyzed using a bespoke softwarepackage. Through this process an understanding of the essentially spatial structure andfeatures of an area or building is built up.The central concept of Space Syntax is “integration ”. The integration of space is a functionof the mean number of lines and changes of direction that need to be taken to go from thatspace to all other spaces in the settlement system. Integration is therefore about syntactic notmetric accessibility and the word depth rather than distance is used to describe how farspace lies. Every line in a settlement layout has a certain depth from every other line. Theintegration value of a line is a mathematical way of expressing the depth of that line from allother lines in the system. These values will differ significantly from one line to the next, but itis one of the most significant properties of architectural and urban spatial configurations.The most important measure for estimating the potential movement along a line is called“spatial integration”. Integration is calculated from the axial map by first selecting a line,then calculating how many other lines must be used wholly or in part to reach every other linein the whole axial map. When this calculation is made for each line in the map it turns out thatsome lines require fewer changes of direction than others in order to cover the rest of the axialmap. We call these lines ‘more integrated’ because they are more accessible within the axialmap. In every processed axial map each line has an ‘integration value’ assigned to it. Thisvalue reflects the complexity of routes from that line to all the others within the system. Thiscomplexity affects movement in two ways. First, an integrated line is more easily accessiblethan a ‘segregated’ one because it can be reached by simpler routes from other lines. Second,a more integrated line is more likely to be selected as part of a route between other pairs oflines, that is, it will attract more through movement. It is the combination of their role in ‘to’and ‘through’ movement that gives ‘integration values’ their power in helping to estimatemovement potentials. It is supposed that the distribution of integration across an urban areacorrelates with the movement pattern of an area. Urban areas can be distinguished by andcompared in terms of, different levels of integration that is also used as a measure of qualityfor urban areas. Integration / segregation is the best index of the relative business or quietnessof streets as they are actually used.‘Integration values’ are, of course, numbers, but they can be automatically converted bycomputer into a colored graphical representation called the “spatial integration map ”. Themost integrated lines are automatically colored red, then orange, yellow and green, through toblue and deep blue for the least integrated. The importance of graphical representation is thatboth the movement potentials in the layout - and, even more important, how they will beaffected by changes - can be seen at a glance.Extensive research has shown that the distribution of integration values in the axial mapprovides a robust forecast of the actual, as well as potential, rates of movement along eachline. The proportion of movement determined by these values, and thus attributable to theeffects of the spatial layout itself, as opposed to the various attractors located in the layout, iscalled the “natural movement ” in the layout.In most studied cases, research has shown that not only movement rates along the variouslines making up an axial map are well correlated to the degree to which each line is integratedinto the rest of the system, but also that this correlation tends to be enhanced, because in a 6
  7. 7. well-functioning urban center the lines that will attract more ‘natural movement ’ will alsobecome the lines on which commercial and other public facilities tend to develop, especiallyretail. The layout of space first generates movement, then movement-seeking land usesmigrate to movement-rich lines, producing multiplier effects on movement which then attractmore retail and other uses, and this leads to adaptation of the local grid to accommodate thegreater density and mix of uses. This dynamic process is called the “movement economy ”. Itis this dynamic relationship between the pattern of spatial integration, the consequent patternof movement and appropriate distribution of land uses that imparts to towns and cities muchof their traditional vitality. Once the relationship between the spatial structure and movementis right, then different types of uses act as multipliers for each other, and the urban vitalityassociated with mixed uses and intermingling of people arriving for different purposes isachieved. When this happens, spatial layout and the attraction of facilities are in harmony,with each supporting the other.The global “predictability” is the correlation between the integration value of a space and itsobserved density of use and movement of people. By taking the average correlation for allspaces, we have a figure that characterizes the overall predictability of an area of a town. Thisconfirms that some spaces are quiet and others busy because of their position in the overallpattern and this should be expected to match up with the position of different facilities. Theaverage global predictability of the sample of urban systems is 0.75; in other words, a highcorrelation between integration and movement which has been confirmed by the observationsof working urban environments.6. Analyses6.1. Creating Spatia l MapsBesides historical documents, the surveys such as; the listed buildings, the land use maps, theownership, building stores and visual surveys of the area, are prepared. These surveys havebeen complemented by preparing “a spatial model” of Galata explaining the existing structure(Figures 6A-13A). These syntactic maps can give some idea on the accessibility of pedestrianlinkages through the area. This work on syntactic analyses has shown that; Voyvoda and Kemeralti streets are the most spatially integrated lines in historical Galata, and Hendek Street is the next most integrated street. When Taksim square is included in the analyses; Istiklal Street, which is the busiest street, is defined as the most spatially integrated lines. The effects of pedestrian movements in Persembe Pazari, on Bankalar Street and on the Karakoy port are not defined as integrated spaces on this map. The streets and spaces, which are close to the Karakoy, Eminonu ports and the Galata Bridge, are explained as the focus of the activity areas, which define the actual situation of the site. The spine of Beyoglu-Pera district, Istiklal Street, which is a pedestrian strip, is defined as the next most integrated lines.6.2. Pedestrian Movement AnalysesThe first stage of the study is concentrated on the observations of how people and vehicles areflowing through the Galata area at present. This has been done by counting flow rates atnumerous locations in and around Galata; ‘tracking’ pedestrian routes across the area andrecording local land use patterns. A survey of pedestrian activity has been carried out both in 7
  8. 8. weekday and weekends for five different categories of people (adult men, adult women,elderly, teenagers, and children)Some significant findings are: The study area is a man-dominant area (about ½ of the overall movement is generated by men). This becomes more evident on weekday. There are more than max. 300.000 people in any time during the day. The number decreases to max. 250.000 on weekend. There are more than 1.500.000 people in the area during the day (weekday). The number is about 1.100.000 on weekend. The max. movement is in the afternoon both on weekday and weekend (parabolic movement). While the male, female and elderly movement patterns define a parabolic movement; the sinusoidal movement pattern defined by teenagers and children can be explained by the existence of schools in the area.Pedestrian movement levels were recorded at 263 locations on eight different regions due tothe functions. The observations were carried out on 29 May 2003 and on 31 May 2003. Eachlocation was observed from 08:00 to 20:00.Movement levels have been evaluated in specified ranges. In this evaluation, when women,elderly, teenagers and children are considered in the range that is specified for all categories,they are defined in the lowest ranges. Therefore, these four categories have also beenevaluated in a different range, which has lower values.Figure 4: Pedestrian Movement Rates (Weekday) 8
  9. 9. 6.3. Pedestrian Activity SchemasIn order to have an opinion of the most commonly used routes, pedestrians have beenfollowed and their routes have been recorded. The pedestrians are recorded in two categories:inhabitants and tourists.The pattern that is generated by the inhabitants is very similar with the pattern of the spatialintegration analyses. The intense movement pattern on Istiklal Street, Karakoy Port, BankalarStreet, hardware stores region, Kemeralti Street and Sishane Square clearly designates thissimilarity. But there are also differences such as the movement on Yolcuzade Iskender Streetbetween Sishane Square and Beyoglu Municipality Building and on Mesrutiyet Street.The movement pattern of the tourists is different as it is independent from the functions. Thebeginning and ending points of their routes are the places, which are more attractive for thetourists, such as Istiklal Street, Eminonu region or Galata Tower. Even though there is anorth-south movement in the area, the movement generally stems from Istiklal Street. Thereare two common routes; 1. Taksim – Galata Tower and its surroundings – Taksim; 2.Eminonu – Galata Tower and its surroundings – Eminonu.6.4. Relations between Pedestrian Movement and the Spatial ConfigurationIn this study, the area was examined in 7 different regions, which were determined accordingto their functions.Even though the study area is stinted with Galata Tower, its surroundings and Hendek Street;in order to analyze the effects of the movement patterns on the area, spatial integrationanalyses of 1. Whole Galata, 2. Taksim+Tarlabasi+Galata, 3. Taksim+Tarlabasi+Galata+Eminonu and 4. Taksim+Tarlabasi+Galata+Historical Peninsula, have been made.But, only the data of the analysis that comprehends Galata area and Taksim+Tarlabasi+Galataarea have been used to study the relation between the spatial integration values and the currentmovement levels. The data of 165 street segments have been used. In calculating thiscorrelation, when the correlation number was lower than desired, its reasons have beenanalyzed with the results of the regression analyses, then a statistical method that depends onignoring the values that are out of the min. and max. limits (standard deviation), has beencarried out.6.5. Results of the AnalysesAs a result of the analyses these basic remarks can be pointed out: In historical periods there were strong connections between Galata Square and the ports, which can also be seen in historical maps. Currently, these links have been disappeared. The center of activity has shifted from the historical core of Galata, towards Istiklal Street in the north and Karakoy Port in the south. 9
  10. 10.  Bankalar, Kemeralti and Voyvoda streets, where mostly commercial and finance functions are located, are defined to have the highest spatial integration values in the area. This shows us that, in this area the movement pattern is focused on these streets. Hendek Street, which has offices and service function on the ground floors and mostly residential use on upper floors, is secondary when it is evaluated with the movement it attracts. The movement pattern of Galata is so weak that it nearly separates the Karakoy and Istiklal Street regions. So, there appear three regions having different levels of movement. These are; Istiklal Street as a ‘live linear axis’ with mostly retail and catering functions; Galata Bridge and Karakoy seashore and port; and historical Galata region. A global spatial integration analysis with extended boundaries including Galata, Taksim, Tarlabasi and Historical Peninsula, has been prepared. This analysis shows that the movement focuses on Karakoy and Eminonu ports, Galata Bridge and on areas that have connections with Galata Bridge, which reflects the actual situation. In Galata region, especially on and around Hendek Street the levels of movement are very low. Although Galata is near the areas that have banking, office, service, retail functions and the seashore, it is very segregated from those areas, in means of both visual and physical contact. According to the pedestrian observations that have been made, the movement levels in Galata region is noticeably higher on weekday than it is on weekend. This manifests that the movement in Galata region mostly depends on daily trips in the areas where retail and finance functions are located. On weekday there is a noticeably high pedestrian movement that stems from expertise, (e.g., lighting accessories stores). Although the movement rates that have been recorded decrease on weekend, the values of correlation between movement rates and integration values increase. This shows that, especially the lighting accessories stores on the Tarlabasi side of Hendek Street generate movement, and that the spatial model has more relation with the weekend movement levels. In spite of the decreasing movement levels on weekends, their relations with the integration values don’t change, which shows that the pedestrian movement is formed according to the function areas, independent from its environment. Significant design decisions should be made in order to attract movement towards Galata region (from Istiklal and Galip Dede streets). Although the movement rates that have been generated by the Karakoy Port are very high, the spatial model of the port area seems to be weak to carry that much movement. So, it can be said that the location of the Karakoy Port is wrong and a new port area needs to be designed with sufficient capacity to collect and distribute the pedestrian movement. Moving the existing port to the sea bus port, which generates less movement, and transforming the area in front of the sea bus port – which is now being used as a car park – into a pedestrian area, can be suggested. Although the Karakoy Pedestrian Subway has not been determined as a problem area, the high pedestrian movement rates in and around Karakoy Square and the physical 10
  11. 11. inadequacy of the streets that lead to the square make it necessary to take new arrangement alternatives about the subway and the square, into consideration. Geometrical arrangements about existing vehicle+pedestrian axes that lead to Karakoy Square should be made, in favor of pedestrians. According to the observations, Galip Dede and Yuksek Kaldirim streets, which connect Istiklal Street and Karakoy Square, have high movement levels both on weekday and on weekend. This shows that, these streets have great importance as being a spine in the area. This feature, which hadn’t been determined in the spatial integration analyses, is a sufficient reason to make significant design decisions to link Istiklal Street and Karakoy Square efficiently.7. Design Approaches towards a Spatial Regeneration Process and Evaluation7.1. The Application of Space Syntax on the Design ProposalAnalysis of the pedestrian route system through the Galata larger area highlighted animbalance between the northern and southern parts of Galata. The different aspects of theSpace Syntax analyses of the existing structure have shown that the historical Galata is notworking together with Karakoy and Beyoglu districts. The following strategic and spatialproblems have been identified with regard to the historical core: The historical Galata is metrically close to the current live center of Istanbul, but it is isolated in terms of spatial configuration. None of the major streams of movement penetrate into the historical core, The historical core is visible but not accessible from the active parts of the town, The visual and physical linkages between the Galata historic area and the neighboring areas, especially the entrance on the Karakoy ports, are very poor, There is no major attraction to the northern end of the historical Galata to provide destination for people from either the retail-led live strip (Istiklal Street) or the Karakoy ports and the parks at the seaside. In the vehicular roads around the historical Galata, pedestrian crossings have been poorly located and designed, There is a high rate of vacancy inside the historical core. In addition, the retail activity (or other activity) is not active inside the Historical Galata.7.2. Assessment of Design Pro posalsOne of the key merits of “Space Syntax” analyses is its ability to analyze design proposalsand objectively assess them by measuring the likely effects of spatial changes on social,economic and environmental activity.A strategic design framework (Figure 5) has been developed for the historic Galata, old coreof Istanbul, which includes ideas for each of the two pedestrian axes of development butfocuses principally on the key problematic points listed above.In this section some of the Space Syntax design proposals (Figure 5) are analyzed andcompared with the existing situation in Galata. Space Syntax measures of “spatial integration”are used to measure the degree of change that our proposal creates in different scales 11
  12. 12. (Figures 6-13). The changes have been described in terms of percentage gains when comparedto existing measures of spatial integration. These percentages signify gains in “pedestrianmovement potentials”.Figure 5: Main Design Decisions 12
  13. 13. Four design ideas have been chosen for this study; 1) creation of a new link between Galataand Karakoy ports, 2) transformation of the Hendek street and connecting it to the westernborder of the area, namely to the Kasimpasa district, 3) opening up the eastern end of theHendek street and linking it to the Yuksek Kaldirim street which also enables the connectionto the Karakoy, and 4) creation of a new link on the northern side and between SishaneSquare and Istiklal Street through Tunel Square.The results of the syntactic analyses suggest that, four of these design ideas complement eachother and need to be implemented in tandem.A. Figure 6 and 7 compare levels of pedestrian movement potentials and global-local spatialintegration levels in the existing historical core of Galata with the same levels afterimplementation of the design proposals shown in Figure 5.In the existing situation; the Voyvoda, the Bankalar and the Kemeralti streets wherecommercial and banking activities take place are defined much more integrated than theHendek and Galip Dede street which creates a connection to the Istiklal street.After the implementation of the design proposals, the Hendek streets (both Buyuk Hendekand Kucuk Hendek) are defined much more powerful than the existing situation, as the resultof the linkage between Hendek and Kemeralti streets. The map also shows that the proposedlink creates a more continuous urban grid. The measures also show a significant increase inpotentials of the pedestrian movement in Hendek, Kemeralti, and Galip Dede Streets wherethe linkage to Beyoglu and Karakoy ports are created.In the existing situation the local integration core has shifted in the western side of the area,and the linkage between the Karakoy ports to the Tunel Square has lost its importance. Afterimplementing the design proposal, it was possible to create the attractive urban pattern forpedestrians towards Hendek and Yuksek Kaldirim streets. Thus the accessibility from ports tothe inner historical Galata was created.Changing the nature of the Hendek street from a wide vehicular road into a pedestrian friendlystreet, which minimizes the car movement and maximizes the link with the inner parts of thehistorical Galata, is a major change that can significantly affect the pattern of spatialintegration.B. Figure 8 and 9 compare the levels of pedestrian movement potentials and global-localspatial integration levels in the existing Galata-Taksim-Tarlabasi area with the same levelsafter implementation of the design proposals shown in Figure 5. 13
  14. 14. Figure 6: Spatial Integration Analyses of Galata (local) 14
  15. 15. Figure 7: Spatial Integration Analyses of Galata (global) 15
  16. 16. Figure 8: Spatial Integration Analyses of Galata – Taksim (local) 16
  17. 17. Figure 9: Spatial Integration Analyses of Galata – Taksim (global) 17
  18. 18. Figure 10: Spatial Integration Analyses of Galata – Taksim – Eminonu (local) 18
  19. 19. Figure 11: Spatial Integration Analyses of Galata – Taksim – Eminonu (global) 19
  20. 20. Figure 12: Spatial Integration Analyses of Galata – Taksim – Eminonu – Fatih (local) 20
  21. 21. Figure 13: Spatial Integration Analyses of Galata – Taksim – Eminonu – Fatih (global) 21
  22. 22. The strategic location, the length of the Istiklal Street and the relations of it with the otherstreets make it more accessible than the others. So, Istiklal Street and the connected streets aredefined with the highest integration values. Although the extensions of this street aredominant in Taksim area, the integration values are weak in Tunel Square and even weaker onthe way down to the Karakoy ports. One of the aims of this project is to create the mostattractive and accessible space on Hendek Street, which is also defined with lower integrationvalues, in the existing situation.The Istiklal Street in Figure 9 which had been modeled before by weak connections to theKarakoy ports, to reflect the current mode of pedestrian usage, now is modeled by a singleline which maximizes the east-west connectivity to the south. This dramatically increasespedestrian movement potentials in Hendek Street and also north-south links from IstiklalStreet to the ports. This enhancement also guarantees a stronger relationship between thehistorical Galata and the waterfront activities such as entertainment, retail, cultural and social.C. Figure 10 and 11 compares levels of pedestrian movement potentials and global-localspatial integration levels in the existing Galata-Taksim-Historical Peninsula area with thesame levels after implementation of the design proposals shown in Figure 5.The maps defining the existing situation show, despite the lively neighborhood, the historicGalata remains disjointed and rigidly separated which are the signals of the process ofdeterioration. Significant design solutions are proposed in order to attract movement towardsGalata from Istiklal and Galip Dede Streets. For this purpose the axial link from the ports tothe Yuksek Kaldirim and to the Hendek Street is strengthened and the attractiveness of theGalata Square is increased. The connection from the Galata Square to the Tunel Square -which gives an easy access to the Istiklal Street-, is also enhanced according to the proposaland these results of the study are all proved syntactically through the model.D. Figure 12 and 13 compares levels of pedestrian movement potentials and global-localspatial integration levels in the existing larger Galata-Taksim-Historical Peninsula area withthe same levels after implementation of the design proposals shown in Figure 5.The integration core which has shifted towards the Fatih area in Figure 10 and which hadbeen modeled before by weak connections to the Karakoy ports, to reflect the current mode ofpedestrian usage, now is modeled by a single and dominant line on Hendek Street axis whichmaximizes the east-west connectivity to the south. The design proposal dramatically increasespedestrian movement potentials in Hendek and also in Yuksek Kaldirim streets, which give astrong access to the Karakoy Ports. This enhancement also guarantees a stronger relationshipbetween the historical Galata and the waterfront. This not only facilitates multidirectionalmovement between underground station, Galata square, Tunel Square and the Karakoy portsbut also integrates the revitalized historical core into the fabric of the town as a whole.8. Conclusion: Final Decisions on the Regenerat ion, Transformation and DesignFramework for Galata DistrictSpace syntax has evolved a spatial redevelopment plan for Galata’s historical core which aimsto create a larger and unified live center by improving physical connections between the twoimportant parts of Istanbul’s town center. It uses the spatial potentials of each area topositively influence the rest of the town center. This strategic plan is based on the followingprinciples under these headings; 22
  23. 23. TransportationLand-use and transformationSignificant design solutionsCreating gatesHistorical patternBy achieving these principles a larger “live center” is created for Galata, which incorporatesall major zones of activity. The historic core becomes an integrated part of this new livecenter, with a better chance of being used, enhanced and regenerated. A well-used, safe andpleasant historic core would not only create an essential attraction for the whole of the citycenter, but also enhances the social and economic status of the town as a whole.8.1. TransportationTransport connections within the Galata area have been analyzed in terms of the likely effectthey will have on pedestrian activity patterns. Thus the two pedestrian axes are created; oneconnecting Galata tower to the underground station and to the Kasimpasa mix-uses zone(Hendek Street); the other connecting Istiklal Street – the commercial strip to the Karakoysquare and to the ports (Galip Dede and Yuksek Kaldirim Streets). Yuksek Kaldirim Street isproposed to be pedestrian, which is preserved with its traditional character. The Galata Squarewith its tower is in the intersection point of these two pedestrian main axes. The extension ofthe Hendek pedestrian street creates a link between Galata tower and the Kasimpasa zone ofmixed activities. This link to Kasimpasa is created by an underground pedestrian passagethrough the main traffic artery (Mesrutiyet Street).To ensure the sufficient number of pedestrians for the ‘live’ historical core, the transportationfacilities below are created; The area can easily be accessed by all means of transport (in that Galata has a great advantage by being close to the motor traffic network, and having Metro, bus stations and port) The various public transport nodes are well connected to each other and to the Galata area as a whole. The transport roads and the car parks are located around Galata in a balanced manner.8.2. Land -use and transformationThe spatial configuration and land uses of the proposed scheme work hand in hand to create alocally distinctive but globally integrated and accessible development, with consequent socialand economic benefits. The distribution of land-uses within the site addresses the anticipatedactivity patterns derived from the model, so that pedestrian-sensitive, ‘live’ uses (such asretail, catering and local services) line the most accessible routes. The Hendek Street with ahigher potential to attract pedestrian movement is lined with “live” uses for the most parts,which works well with its spatial role. This land-use distribution is beneficial for thoseoccupying the ground floor units and for pedestrians passing through and using the area (byproviding ‘natural surveillance’ of routes and easily accessible and conveniently locatedservices and shops). On the other hand residential uses are located in the upper levels of thebuildings or in the areas with lower integration values and, therefore, lower potentials toattract through movement. Following this same strategy, the proposed “special development 23
  24. 24. project zones” and the mix land-use zones are located in the close neighboring of the Galatacore, to support and utilize the anticipated high levels of activity there.The waterfront area is transformed into a pedestrian-friendly, well used urban space enrichedwith green areas, cultural activities, and linked with the Galata Port Project on the east andPersembe Pazari project on the east of the seaside zone. It is also proposed to create visualand physical pedestrian links in between the seaside and the core of the Galata. Enhancing thenorth-south links between the Galata core and the seaside development area as well asenhancing the existing link from Galata to the commercial strip namely Istiklal Street will beessential as this enhancement and will also encourage people using the ports to enter andnavigate the historical core.The “red-light zone” which is not suitable for the attractiveness of the site, is transformed intocultural, social, tourism, and leisure activity zone, which will also create an attraction “pole”at this location.Figure 14: Functional Change Proposal for Beyoglu Municipality and Pedestrian Connections8.3. Significant design solutions:8.3.1. A bridge from Tunel to SishaneThe existing bridge connection from Tunel Square to historical Municipality building can beused as an entrance to the Sishane Square. This can be created by converting and redesigningthe old Municipality building to socio-cultural activity (Figure 14). This can be anotheralternative for the high pedestrian flows of Istiklal Street to reach the Hendek Street.8.3.2. A proposal for the link between Galata Square and Yuksek Kaldirim Street, opening awindow from Galata to KarakoyAn important new link from Hendek Street to the Yuksek Kaldirim Street is created despite oftheir height differences. This new link aims to construct an internal spine for the Galata corearea and reintegrate it to the existing center of activity. The alignment of the new link with theGalata Square enables it to benefit from the existing high levels of pedestrian movementsthere. The development of this new link however, has to be accompanied by the developmentof a new cultural, social, tourism, and leisure activity zone especially developed in the “red-light zone”, in order to create an attraction “pole” at this location. The pedestrianised YuksekKaldirim street and the Karakoy port in its extension is a potential which will provide themain pedestrian flow of such a destination. 24
  25. 25. Figure 15: A Passage from Galata to KarakoyThe central element of the design proposals is the extension of the Hendek Street, both to thenorth and south, to create a new pedestrian route between Kasimpasa zone to the YuksekKaldirim Street. The creation of this link involves a number of careful physicaltransformations, which require further analysis. These changes, however, are close to“conservative surgery” of the historical core than radical transformation of the urban fabric.The idea here is to gain maximum benefit from a minimal change.The optimal alignment of Hendek Street has been established and tested using the findings ofSpace Syntax study. This alignment creates a direct line of sight and access from HendekStreet to the Yuksek Kaldirim Street (Figure 16). The Kasimpasa zone, the undergroundstation, Yuksek Kaldirim and the ports are all connected by this alignment.Figure 16: Connection between B. Hendek Street – Galata Square and Yuksek Kaldirim Street 25
  26. 26. A considerable design approach is proposed by opening up the ground floor of the building/sor the urban fabric and transforming it to a public passageway. This design appears inprincipal to resolve the problem of access without damaging the structure or the facade of thelisted buildings. Further architectural work is required for this link as there is a considerableheight differences between the Galata Square and the Yuksek Kaldirim Street. An elevator orramps on the intersection of these two streets (namely Hendek and Yuksek Kaldirim) can beproposed.8.3.3. Design of the Galata Square as a major public square,The main public space of Galata; with its tower which is the apex of the Genoese fortificationof medieval Galata, is located at one end of the Hendek street, responds to the previouslydiscussed issue of pedestrian orientation and navigation by integrating this space within thenetwork of key public spaces.It is known that, the quality of the public spaces and squares reflect the success of the urbancenters. The degree, to which spaces are both well used and pleasant, is largely influenced bytheir location within the pedestrian movement network.In doing so, Galata square has been designed to be safe and well used by; Locating it at the focus of multiple lines of movement through the site, This focus being at the heart of the site, The square itself and the Hendek street connection are proposed to be lined with outward- facing activities The space having strong, multidirectional visual links from the public space into the surrounding areas and street networks, (for creating this criteria the unsuitable, over-sized building in the piazza which belongs to the Municipality is demolished and a new enclosed space is proposed), The location of the pedestrian sensitive “live” uses around the public space, to take the advantages of the anticipated high levels of movement and the social commercial potential they bring, and to provide “presence” on and “surveillance” of the public space.8.3.4. Gates for GalataAttractive gates are proposed to create the accessibility for the site as shown in Figure 17.Gate1, is named as “Sishane Kapisi”, is for the pedestrians entering historical Galata fromMetro stations and Sishane Square. This gate is located on the entrance of Hendek Street andmakes it possible to get the magnificent visual effect of the Galata tower, which is standing onthe axis of Hendek Street. This entrance of the Hendek Street with is beautifully renovatedbuilding facades will make Gate1 more attractive.Gate 2, namely “Tunel Kapisi” is the entrance from Tunel Square. Tunel Square is one end ofIstiklal Street, which is a dominant retail and entertainment strip of the area.Gate 3, namely “Karakoy Kapisi” is especially for the pedestrians coming from the ports tothe Yuksek Kaldirim Street, which is renovated to its original character. The visitors aregreeted with uninviting view of this entrance since a wall blocks this gate of the old core. This 26
  27. 27. gate should provide an appeal for visitors to deviate from the waterfront area and to penetrateinto the inner Galata through the stepped historical pedestrian street (Yuksek Kaldirim Street).Gate 4, the entrance of the site from the Golden Horn is named “Halic Kapisi” and the visitorswill get the visual perception of the gate when approaching towards it from the sea. Thishistorical gate accepts visitors who observed the silhouette and the first glimpses of thehistorical heart along the waterfront.Figure 17: Gates for Galata9. Concluding RemarksGalata is at a very important stage in its historic development. Besides the historicallandscape, which should be preserved, various number and scale of development projectssuch as ‘Galata Dock Project’ and ‘urban design projects for the waterfront area’ or otherlarge-scale ‘development projects’ shown in Figure 5, should be encouraged for its successfulsocial and economic performance.The critical economic mass of leisure and retailing must be brought together in a way as togenerate parallel social gains, thus Galata as a part of Istanbul’s city center and is not justretail and touristy market, but also a place of social and civic importance. Galata requires acarefully planned framework of public spaces and pedestrian connections, together formingthe public realm of the historical center of Istanbul. If this essential infrastructure is notprovided new developments it will risk turning their backs on each other and acting as stand-alone facilities. To handle the strategy properly, the synergy between individual projects iscreated, and people are allowed to flow easily between them. In other words, to handle publicrealm properly, rich pedestrian connections are created in Galata, more inter-accessibility isallowed and thus the risk of social stagnation is removed.In conclusion, we are convinced from our analyses that Galata has much significant potentialto be sensitively developed as a place that is people-focused, connected, inclusive &integrated, and that can radically enhance the social, economic and environmental quality ofthe wider Istanbul metropolitan area. This can be achieved through a coordinatedimplementation of an agreed planning policy, based on an integrated spatial master plan, thebasis of which outlined in this project report. 27
  28. 28. REFERANCES Hillier, B., Hanson J., (1984), The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hillier, B., et. al., (1992), The King’s Cross Project, London: University College London. Hillier, B., Penn, A., Dalton, N., (1992), Milton Keynes: Look Back to London, The Architects’ Journal, 195(15), 42-46. Hillier, B., Hanson, J., Penn, A., Grajewski, T., Ku, J., (1993), Natural Movement: or configuration and attraction in urban pedestrian movement, Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design , 20, 29-66. Hillier, B., (1996), Space is the Machine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kubat, A. S., Yasushi, A., Istek, C., (2001), Characterisation of the street networks in the traditional Turkish urban form, Environment and Planning B: Planning & Design, 28(5), 777-795. Kubat, A. S., Eyüboğlu, E., Ertekin, Ö., (2003) An urban redevelopment proposal for Istanbul’s Galata district, 4th International Space Syntax Symposium vol 2 (p. , 99-100), London: University College London. Kubat, A. S., Eyüboğlu, E., Ertekin, Ö., Özer, Ö., (2003), Application of Space Syntax in regeneration an d transformation of Galata and Buyuk Hendek Street, report prepared for Greater Municipality of Istanbul, İstanbul: Settlements & Urban Transformation Directorate – Urbanism Atelier, Urban & Environmental Planning & Research Center of Istanbul Technical University. Space Syntax Limited (2002), Kings Cross Urban Movement Strategy – stage 1: summary report on previous Space Syntax studies, London: report prepared for John McAslan & Partners and Railtrack. Space Syntax Limited (2002), Royal Infirmity Edinburgh – Pedestrian Movement and Space Design Study, London: report prepared for Southside Capital Ltd. Space Syntax Limited (2002), West Bromwic Town Centre – Pedestrian Activity and h Strategic Design (an evaluation of current development proposals and recommendations for redesign strategy), London: report prepared for Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council. Space Syntax Laboratory (1999), Margate Historic Core – Report on the Space Syntax Study, report prepared for North Kent Architecture Centre, The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, London: University College London. Proceedings of the Space Syntax Second International Symposium, (1996), Brasilia: Universidade de Brasilia. Proceedings of the Space Syntax Third International Symposium, (2001), Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology. Proceedings of the Space Syntax Fourth International Symposium, (2003), London: University College London. Space Syntax Limited web site: http://www.spacesyntax.com 28